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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14059 matches for " Andrea Scharnhorst "
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Walking through a library remotely - Why we need maps for collections and how KnoweScape can help us to make them?
Andrea Scharnhorst
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: There is no escape from the expansion of information, so that structuring and locating meaningful knowledge becomes ever more difficult. The question of how to order our knowledge is as old as the systematic acquisition, circulation, and storage of knowledge. Classification systems have been known since ancient times. On the Internet, one finds both classifications and taxonomies designed by information professionals and folksonomies based on social tagging. Nevertheless, a user navigating through large information spaces is still confronted with a text based search interface and a list of hits as outcome. There is still an obvious gap between a physical encounter with, for example, a librarys collection and browsing its content through an on-line catalogue. This paper starts from the need of digital scholarship for effective knowledge inquiry, revisits traditional ways to support knowledge ordering and information retrieval, and introduces into a newly funded research network where five different communities from all corners of the scientific landscape join forces in a quest for knowledge maps. It can be read as a manifesto for a newly funded specific research network KnoweScape. At the same time it is a general reflection about what one has to take into account when representing structure and evolution of data, information and knowledge and designing instruments to help scholars and others to navigate across the lands and oceans of knowledge.
Remembering Manfred Bonitz (7.3.1931 -- 14.8.2012) on the first anniversary of his death
Michael Bonitz,Andrea Scharnhorst
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s11192-013-1056-y
Abstract: Biographical essay at the occasion of the first death anniversary of Manfred Bonitz
Evolutionary search agents in complex landscapes - a new model for the role of competence and meta-competence (EVOLINO and other simulation tools)
Andrea Scharnhorst,Werner Ebeling
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The acquisition of competence is a key element in the ability to assert oneself in the complex and rapidly changing modern worlds of work. This paper examines the evolution of competence, i.e. the role of competences in an evolutionary problem-solving process, and the role of flexibility as a meta-competence from the perspective of the general concept of Geometrically-Oriented Evolution THEory (G_O_E_THE). We use evolutionary search agents as abstract models of real individuals and groups. In a first approach the agents search for better competence profiles. In a second approach they use competences to solve problems. A search agent operates in an abstract value landscape, a fitness landscape. The crucial difference between the evolutionary search agents and other agent models is the fact that interaction patterns of the new agents incorporate evolutionary search strategies. A special simulation tool called EVOLINO allows to simulate the hill-climbing process of search agents in complex landscapes.
Bibliometric Networks
Frank Havemann,Andrea Scharnhorst
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This text is based on a translation of a chapter in a handbook about network analysis (published in German) where we tried to make beginners familiar with some basic notions and recent developments of network analysis applied to bibliometric issues (Havemann and Scharnhorst 2010). We have added some recent references.
Visual Conceptualizations and Models of Science
Katy Boerner,Andrea Scharnhorst
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: This Journal of Informetrics special issue aims to improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of science by reviewing and advancing existing conceptualizations and models of scholarly activity. Several of these conceptualizations and models have visual manifestations supporting the combination and comparison of theories and approaches developed in different disciplines of science. Subsequently, we discuss challenges towards a theoretically grounded and practically useful science of science and provide a brief chronological review of relevant work. Then, we exemplarily present three conceptualizations of science that attempt to provide frameworks for the comparison and combination of existing approaches, theories, laws, and measurements. Finally, we discuss the contributions of and interlinkages among the eight papers included in this issue. Each paper makes a unique contribution towards conceptualizations and models of science and roots this contribution in a review and comparison with existing work.
Tracing scientific influence
Andrea Scharnhorst,Eugene Garfield
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Scientometrics is the field of quantitative studies of scholarly activity. It has been used for systematic studies of the fundamentals of scholarly practice as well as for evaluation purposes. Although advocated from the very beginning the use of scientometrics as an additional method for science history is still under explored. In this paper we show how a scientometric analysis can be used to shed light on the reception history of certain outstanding scholars. As a case, we look into citation patterns of a specific paper by the American sociologist Robert K. Merton.
Measuring the Knowledge Base: A Program of Innovation Studies
Loet Leydesdorff,Andrea Scharnhorst
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Organized knowledge production can then be considered as the codification of communication. Communications leave traces that can be studied as indicators. Institutions can be considered as retention mechanisms functional for the reproduction of ever more complex, that is, scientific and knowledge-based, communications. The focus on communication enables us to operationalize the research questions in terms of indicators by using the mathematical theory of communication. The combination of two theories with a very different status--i.e., a combination of theory and methods--enables us to update and inform empirical hypotheses about how the knowledge base transforms the institutional relations of an increasingly knowledge-based society. Policy implications are specified.
Scientometrics and Information Retrieval - weak-links revitalized
Philipp Mayr,Andrea Scharnhorst
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This special issue brings together eight papers from experts of communities which often have been perceived as different once: bibliometrics, scientometrics and informetrics on the one side and information retrieval on the other. The idea of this special issue started at the workshop "Combining Bibliometrics and Information Retrieval" held at the 14th International Conference of Scientometrics and Informetrics, Vienna, July 14-19, 2013. Our motivation as guest editors started from the observation that main discourses in both fields are different, that communities are only partly overlapping and from the belief that a knowledge transfer would be profitable for both sides.
Modellierungskonzepte der Synergetik und der Theorie der Selbstorganisation
Werner Ebeling,Andrea Scharnhorst
Quantitative Finance , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-01164-2
Abstract: Mnay models situated in the current research landscape of modelling and simulating social processes have roots in physics. This is visible in the name of specialties as Econophysics or Sociophysics. This chapter describes the history of knowledge transfer from physics, in particular physics of self-organization and evolution, to the social sciences. We discuss why physicists felt called to describe social processes. Across models and simulations the question how to explain the emergence of something new is the most intriguing one. We present one model approach to this problem and introduce a game -- Evolino -- inviting a larger audience to get acquainted with abstract evolution-theory approaches to describe the quest for new ideas.
Learning in a Landscape: Simulation-building as Reflexive Intervention
Anne Beaulieu,Matt Ratto,Andrea Scharnhorst
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: This article makes a dual contribution to scholarship in science and technology studies (STS) on simulation-building. It both documents a specific simulation-building project, and demonstrates a concrete contribution to interdisciplinary work of STS insights. The article analyses the struggles that arise in the course of determining what counts as theory, as model and even as a simulation. Such debates are especially decisive when working across disciplinary boundaries, and their resolution is an important part of the work involved in building simulations. In particular, we show how ontological arguments about the value of simulations tend to determine the direction of simulation-building. This dynamic makes it difficult to maintain an interest in the heterogeneity of simulations and a view of simulations as unfolding scientific objects. As an outcome of our analysis of the process and reflections about interdisciplinary work around simulations, we propose a chart, as a tool to facilitate discussions about simulations. This chart can be a means to create common ground among actors in a simulation-building project, and a support for discussions that address other features of simulations besides their ontological status. Rather than foregrounding the chart's classificatory potential, we stress its (past and potential) role in discussing and reflecting on simulation-building as interdisciplinary endeavor. This chart is a concrete instance of the kinds of contributions that STS can make to better, more reflexive practice of simulation-building.
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