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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 226004 matches for " Andre R Verani "
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Nursing and midwifery regulation and HIV scale-up: establishing a baseline in east, central and southern Africa
Carey F McCarthy,Joachim Voss,Andre R Verani,Peggy Vidot
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2013, DOI: 10.7448/ias.16.1.18051
Abstract: Introduction: Shifting HIV treatment tasks from physicians to nurses and midwives is essential to scaling-up HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa. Updating nursing and midwifery regulations to include task shifting and pre-service education reform can help facilitate reaching new HIV targets. Donor-supported initiatives to update nursing and midwifery regulations are increasing. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of current practice and education regulations and a lack of information to target and implement regulation strengthening efforts. We conducted a survey of national nursing and midwifery councils to describe current nursing and midwifery regulations in 13 African countries. Methods: A 30-item survey was administered to a convenience sample of 13 national nursing and midwifery regulatory body leaders in attendance at the PEPFAR-supported African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative meeting in Nairobi, Kenya on 28 February, 2011. The survey contained questions on task shifting and regulations such as registration, licensure, scope of practice, pre-service education accreditation, continuing professional development and use of international guidelines. Survey data were analyzed to present country-level, comparative and regional findings. Results: Task shifting to nurses and midwives was reported in 11 of the 13 countries. Eight countries updated their scope of practice within the last five years; only one reported their regulations to reflect task shifting. Countries vary with regard to licensure, pre-service accreditation and continuing professional development regulations in place. There was no consistency in terms of what standards were used to design national practice and education regulations. Discussion: Many opportunities exist to assist countries to modernise regulations to incorporate important advancements from task shifting and pre-service reform. Appropriate, revised regulations can help sustain successful health workforce strategies and contribute to further scale-up HIV services and other global health priorities. Conclusions: This study provides fundamental information from which to articulate goals and to measure the impact of regulation strengthening efforts.
Estimate of an Hypoelliptic Heat-Kernel outside the Cut-Locus in Semi-Group Theory  [PDF]
Rémi Léandre
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312A285
Abstract:

We give a proof in semi-group theory based on the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type in semi-group theory and Wentzel-Freidlin estimates in semi-group of our result giving an expansion of an hypoelliptic heat-kernel outside the cut-locus where Bismut’s non-degeneray condition plays a preominent role.

Análise quali-quantitativa da ictiofauna acompanhante na pesca do camar?o sete-barbas, na Arma??o do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina
Branco, Joaquim O.;Verani, José R.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000200011
Abstract: the ichthyofauna bycatch in sea-bob-shrimp's fishery was monthly studied from august 1996 to july 2003, in the artisanal fishing grounds at arma??o do itapocoroy, penha. it had been used two net-of-drag with doors, mesh of 3.0 cm in the sleeve and body and of 2.0 cm in the sacker, pushed for whaleboat with average speed of 2.0 km/h. mean values of bottom water temperature and salinity remained uniform in a seasonal fluctuation, showing no significant differences among the studied years. a total of 60 species were collected, in which 22 were considered common species along the sampled period. sciaenidae, carangidae and clupeidae families presented the highest number of specimens, accounting to 92% of catches, being stellifer spp., paralonchurus brasiliensis and isopisthus parvipinnis, the dominant species, occurring regularly along the years. seasonal fluctuations were observed in the abundance and diversity of ichthyofauna, with significant differences observed among the sampled years and biomass, as well as numerical abundance. the monitoring of trawling fishery targeting sea-bob-shrimp may contribute in a way to maintain the exploited stocks and guarantee the subsistence of traditional communities along santa catarina's coast.
Biologia reprodutiva e reprodu??o induzida de duas espécies de Characidae (Osteichthyes, Characiformes) da bacia do S?o Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil
Sato, Yoshimi;Sampaio, Edson V.;Fenerich-Verani, Nelsy;Verani, José R.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000100021
Abstract: astyanax bimaculatus (linnaeus, 1758) and tetragonopterus chalceus spix & agassiz, 1829 are two important foraging species occurring at the s?o francisco river basin. specimens from both species were submitted to spawning induction through hypophysation, to study some reproductive features and to obtain subsidiary information for the definition of the artificial reproduction protocol. males and females were treated with a single dose of crude carp pituitary extract (6 mg/kg). in water at 26oc, the extrusion of the oocytes was made 12,8 and 11 hours after the hypophisis injection, for a. bimaculatus and t. chalceus respectively. more than 70% of the females of both species showed a positive response to the treatment and mean egg fertilization rates were above 70%. the eggs of a. bimaculatus and t. chalceus are yellow or medium brown, spherical, opaque, demersal, and slightly adhesive. the ova contained 4774 and 2563 eggs (mean values per gram) respectively. the embryonic development in both species was fast, lasting less than a day when water temperature was between 24 and 25oc.
Ovarian development in the Amazonian red discus, Symphysodon discus Heckel (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)
Chellappa, S.;Camara, M. R.;Verani, J. R.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842005000400007
Abstract: the neotropical red discus fish, symphysodon discus, originates from the amazonian basin and has a discoid body. although this species is popularly used in aquaria and is exported as an ornamental fish, it has not been intensively studied. the purpose of this work was to study the morphological and histological aspects of the ovarian development in the red discus. forty females of s. discus of varying body sizes and different stages of gonadal development were used in this study. the ovaries were weighed and examined macroscopically in order to observe the maturation stages. histological staining of hematoxilin-eosin was used for microscopic observations of the ovaries. macroscopic observations showed immature, maturing, mature and partially spent stages of ovarian development. microscopic examination of the ovaries revealed five stages and five phases of ovarian development. the ovaries of the mature females showed all the different phases of oocyte development, indicating the multiple spawning habit of this species.
Aspects of the biology of the Atlantic Midshipman, Porichthys porosissimus (Teleostei, Batrachoididae): an important by-catch species of shrimp trawling off southern Brazil
Vianna, Marcelo;Tomas, Acácio R. G.;Verani, José R.;
Brazilian Journal of Oceanography , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-87592000000200004
Abstract: trawl fishing for pink shrimp (farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and f. paulensis) catches large quantities of by-catch fish, discarded due to their having no commercial va)ue. as these species have rarely been studied, the impact of fisheries on these populations is not known. this contribution studies the biology of a species of no commercial value, the atlantic midshipman porichthys porosissimus. the last haul /tom a commercial trawler, operating on the northern coast of s?o paulo state and the southern coast of rio de janeiro state, was preserved (/tom being discarded) and identified at the species levei. it was observed that this fishery affects the juvenile population which is intluenced by the seasonal variation of the water masses. growth parameters were estimated: l∞ = 37.0 cm, k = 0.285 year-1. instantaneous mortality coefficients were estimated: 2=2.14, m=0.63, f= 1.51, s= 11.8 and e=0.71. considering the intensive activity of the shrimp trawl tleet operating in this area, the deleterious action of trawling is considered as of high impact. the stock management measures applied for pink shrimp are without effect regarding p. porosissimus. which has its spawning period before the closed season and its recruitment peak after it. the results show overfishing and the need to apply measures to reduce trawling action, such as adequate policies, introduction of selectivity devices and the creation of exclusion zones for trawl fishing.
Reproductive biology of a characidiinae (osteichthyes, characidae) from the Ubatiba river, Maricá -- RJ
MAZZONI, R.;CARAMASCHI, E. P.;FENERICH-VERANI, N.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842002000300013
Abstract: the ubatiba river is a coastal stream subject to stochastic spates all over the year and, characidium sp.n. is among the twenty-two species that compose its ichthyofauna. in this study we analyse some traits of its reproductive biology and discuss whether the adopted strategy has causal relationship with the environmental variables. specimens were collected in the upper ubatiba river. samplings, were carried out monthly by electrofishing, between oct./94 and sep./95. some differences between male and female strategies were observed. females were significantly (p < 0.05) bigger than males; length ? weight relationship was different (p < 0.05) between sexes with the onset of sexual maturity occuring at smaller sizes among males. reproductive investment is high for both males and females but higher for males, maximum gonadosomatic index for females and males were 40.97% and 44.90%, respectively. reproductive specimens were registered all over the year, suggesting continuous reproduction. high values of fecundity were also registered varying from 1342 to 5535 eggs for ripe females of 4.4 and 7.0 cm, respectively and an amount of 1105 oocytes per grams of fish. we suggest that differences in the reproductive strategy, between sexes, determine the observed patterns in the size structure; the absence of males in the higher sl classes could be a consequence of high mortality rates and/or reduction in the growth rates as a precocity consequence in the onset of reproduction and/or high reproductive investment. relationship between continuous reproduction and environmental condition could be explained as an adaptation to maximise supervivency of the young fishes that is: guarantee the species maintenance in a stochastic environment.
Electrofishing as a sampling technique for coastal stream fish populations and communities in the Southeast of Brazil
MAZZONI, R.;FENERICH-VERANI, N.;CARAMASCHI, E. P.;
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71082000000200003
Abstract: electrofishing adequacy was tested as a technique to obtain quantitative data of coastal stream fish populations and communities in the southeast of brazil. seven field trips, between july/94 and july/95, were done in 5 localities of the ubatiba fluvial system (maricá, rj). seventeen species, among the 22 collected, had their numbers estimated through the zipping method, the model used to test the sampling methodology. at each field trip, three removals with electrofishing were done in each locality and, according to the number of obtained species at each locality/field trip, we analysed 315 cases. nineteen cases, among 315, showed failure condition. estimates were significant (p < 0.01) in 96% of the studied cases. non-significant cases were obtained for rare species due to over and randomly efficient electrofishing in 63.3% and 36.4% of the cases, respectively. no correlation was found between catchability and the estimated number of individuals and/or environmental characteristics. high values for sampling efficiency (> 85%) were found for all estimates. an experimental analyses were done for one locality and, the comparison between the estimates for 3 and 6 successive removals showed a mean error and a standard deviation of 5.5% and 2.1% respectively. therefore, it can be concluded that electrofishing was an efficient method for quantitative data analysis of fish populations and communities in the ubatiba fluvial system.
Electrofishing as a sampling technique for coastal stream fish populations and communities in the Southeast of Brazil
MAZZONI R.,FENERICH-VERANI N.,CARAMASCHI E. P.
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 2000,
Abstract: Electrofishing adequacy was tested as a technique to obtain quantitative data of coastal stream fish populations and communities in the Southeast of Brazil. Seven field trips, between July/94 and July/95, were done in 5 localities of the Ubatiba fluvial system (Maricá, RJ). Seventeen species, among the 22 collected, had their numbers estimated through the Zipping method, the model used to test the sampling methodology. At each field trip, three removals with electrofishing were done in each locality and, according to the number of obtained species at each locality/field trip, we analysed 315 cases. Nineteen cases, among 315, showed failure condition. Estimates were significant (p < 0.01) in 96% of the studied cases. Non-significant cases were obtained for rare species due to over and randomly efficient electrofishing in 63.3% and 36.4% of the cases, respectively. No correlation was found between catchability and the estimated number of individuals and/or environmental characteristics. High values for sampling efficiency (> 85%) were found for all estimates. An experimental analyses were done for one locality and, the comparison between the estimates for 3 and 6 successive removals showed a mean error and a standard deviation of 5.5% and 2.1% respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that electrofishing was an efficient method for quantitative data analysis of fish populations and communities in the Ubatiba fluvial system.
Reproductive biology of a characidiinae (osteichthyes, characidae) from the Ubatiba river, Maricá RJ
MAZZONI R.,CARAMASCHI E. P.,FENERICH-VERANI N.
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2002,
Abstract: The Ubatiba river is a coastal stream subject to stochastic spates all over the year and, Characidium sp.n. is among the twenty-two species that compose its ichthyofauna. In this study we analyse some traits of its reproductive biology and discuss whether the adopted strategy has causal relationship with the environmental variables. Specimens were collected in the upper Ubatiba river. Samplings, were carried out monthly by electrofishing, between Oct./94 and Sep./95. Some differences between male and female strategies were observed. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) bigger than males; length -- weight relationship was different (p < 0.05) between sexes with the onset of sexual maturity occuring at smaller sizes among males. Reproductive investment is high for both males and females but higher for males, maximum Gonadosomatic Index for females and males were 40.97% and 44.90%, respectively. Reproductive specimens were registered all over the year, suggesting continuous reproduction. High values of fecundity were also registered varying from 1342 to 5535 eggs for ripe females of 4.4 and 7.0 cm, respectively and an amount of 1105 oocytes per grams of fish. We suggest that differences in the reproductive strategy, between sexes, determine the observed patterns in the size structure; the absence of males in the higher SL classes could be a consequence of high mortality rates and/or reduction in the growth rates as a precocity consequence in the onset of reproduction and/or high reproductive investment. Relationship between continuous reproduction and environmental condition could be explained as an adaptation to maximise supervivency of the young fishes that is: guarantee the species maintenance in a stochastic environment.
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