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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 636655 matches for " Andrés Castillo M "
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Avances en el tratamiento del paro cardiorrespiratorio en el ni o
Ricardo Ronco M.,Andrés Castillo M.
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2001,
Abstract:
Conocimientos adquiridos por padres en un programa educativo de reanimación cardiopulmonar básica pediátrica
Pino A,Paola; Castillo M,Andrés;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062012000300003
Abstract: background: most pediatric cardiac arrest episodes are the result from extra cardiac events. they occur at home, while children are under the supervision of their parents or caregivers. therefore pediatric health care providers should promote the education of basic pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cpr) to parents. objective: to describe the outcome of an educational program of basic pediatric cpr to parents of admitted children. patients and method: 108 parents of 89 patients admitted to the pediatric service of the clinical center universidad catolica were provided with cpr training. acquired knowledge was assessed through a phone survey, consistent in 6 questions with a maximum score of 14 points, applied 1 month after the training session. results: median score obtained was 12 points. five participants achieved a score of 14 points. least retained knowledge related to: steps of cpr (31.5%), number of cycles before activating an emergency system (55.6%), and steps followed when removing foreign body airway obstruction in conscious children (14.8%). conclusions: in this study, only a few participants were able to answer all six questions without mistakes. however, hard-to-remember concepts were identified, for emphasis in future educational programs.
Conocimientos adquiridos por padres en un programa educativo de reanimación cardiopulmonar básica pediátrica Outcome of a parent education program on basic pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitacion
Paola Pino A,Andrés Castillo M
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2012,
Abstract: Antecedentes: En pediatría, la mayoría de los paros cardiorrespiratorios son de origen extra cardíaco y se producen en el hogar, donde los ni os se encuentran bajo la supervisión de sus padres o cuidadores. Por lo anterior, los profesionales de la salud infantil deberían promover la capacitación a los padres en reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) básica pediátrica. objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos adquiridos por los padres de ni os hospitalizados luego de un programa educativo de RCP básica pediátrica. Pacientes y Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para identificar los conocimientos adquiridos por 108 padres de 89 pacientes hospitalizados, en un programa educativo implementado en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Clínico UC. El instrumento utilizado fue una encuesta de 6 preguntas con un puntaje máximo de 14 puntos, aplicada telefónicamente un mes después del taller. Resultados: El puntaje obtenido presentó una mediana de 12 puntos. Cinco participantes obtuvieron el puntaje total. Las preguntas con menos porcentaje de cumplimiento fueron las referentes a los pasos para realizar RCP (31,5%), al número de ciclos antes de activar el sistema de emergencias (55,6%) y a los pasos para aliviar la asfixia por cuerpo extra o en ni os conscientes (14,8%). Conclusión: En este estudio, un bajo porcentaje de los participantes estudiados fue capaz de responder las 6 preguntas sin errores. Por otro lado, se logró identificar los conceptos que fueron más difíciles de recordar para los participantes; los cuales deben ser abordados con más énfasis en futuros programas educativos. Background: Most pediatric cardiac arrest episodes are the result from extra cardiac events. They occur at home, while children are under the supervision of their parents or caregivers. Therefore pediatric health care providers should promote the education of basic pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to parents. objective: To describe the outcome of an educational program of basic pediatric CPR to parents of admitted children. Patients and Method: 108 parents of 89 patients admitted to the pediatric Service of the Clinical Center Universidad Catolica were provided with CPR training. Acquired knowledge was assessed through a phone survey, consistent in 6 questions with a maximum score of 14 points, applied 1 month after the training session. Results: Median score obtained was 12 points. Five participants achieved a score of 14 points. Least retained knowledge related to: steps of CPR (31.5%), number of cycles before activating an emergency system (55.6%), and steps followed w
Uso de catéter venoso central de inserción periférica en pediatría Central venous catether for peripheral insertion in pediatrics
Paula Fajuri M,Paola Pino A,Andrés Castillo M
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2012,
Abstract: Introducción: El catéter venoso central de inserción periférica (PICC) puede permanecer desde días hasta meses instalado sin necesidad de recambio; permitiendo la administración de soluciones con pH y osmolari-dad extremas, medicamentos irritantes y/o vesicantes, nutrición parenteral u otros medicamentos por tiempo prolongado en pacientes con accesos venosos periféricos difíciles. Objetivo: Describir la experiencia del uso de PICCs en pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados. Pacientes y Método: Estudio observacional y descriptivo, donde se hizo un seguimiento a 337 pacientes con PICCs instalados por enfermeras capacitadas, en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre los a os 2001 y 2011, que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: La edad de los pacientes presentó una mediana de 36 meses. La principal indicación para la instalación del PICC fue la terapia antibiótica prolongada en el 67,1%. El acceso venoso más utilizado fue la extremidad superior en un 52,2%. El promedio de días de permanencia del catéter presentó una mediana de 9 días con un rango entre 1 y 90 días. El principal motivo para el retiro del PICC fue la finalización del tratamiento en el 75,3%. Las complicaciones presentadas fueron: oclusión e infección asociada al catéter con un 8,9% y 2,9%, respectivamente. Conclusión: El PICC es una excelente alternativa para la terapia endovenosa por períodos prolongados; sin embargo, es muy importante mantener un equipo de enfermería capacitado, tanto en la inserción como en la mantención del PICC durante su permanencia. Introduction: Central venous catheter of peripheral insertion (PICC) can stay installed from several days up to months without removal. It allows the administration of extreme pH and osmolarity solutions, irritating and/or vesicant drugs, parenteral nutrition and other medications for prolonged periods in patients with complicated peripheral venous access. Objective: To describe the experience with PICCs in hospitalized pediatric. Patients and Methods: Observational and descriptive study on 337 patients hospitalized in the Pediatrics Service of the Clinical Hospital of Catholic University of Chile between 2001 and 2011, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had a PICCs installed by trained nurses. Results: The patients' average age was of 36 months. Main indication for installing PICC was prolonged antibiotic therapy, in 67.1% of cases. The most widely used venous route was the upper limb, in 52.2%. The mean average time in which the PICC remained in the body wa
ESTUDIO DE LAS CONDICIONES DE EXTRACCIóN POR ARRASTRE CON VAPOR DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAUREL DE CERA (Morella pubescens)
ARANGO,OSCAR; HURTADO,ANDRéS; CASTILLO,PATRICIA; SANTACRUZ,MóNICA;
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2009,
Abstract: because of its characteristics, the "laurel de cera" tree (morella pubescens) proves to be very appropriate for the erosion control. its fruits are employed as a means to obtain wax that is used in the process of making panela by rural communities settled in the southern region of colombia. the extraction process of essential oil from "laurel de cera" tree leaves through steam distillation and its effects over the composition of volatile secondary metabolites present were considered for the research. particle size and extraction time were the studied factors. the chromatogram total area (counts) taken as the oil concentration indicator parameter and the relative percentage were the considered response variables. according to the previous information, it was possible to determine that the time as well as the interaction time - particle size have significant effects (p-value <0,05) over the essential oil's concentration. it was also possible to observe a meaningful increment in the chromatogram's area for the majority component when the extraction time was increased. the identification of the volatile secondary metabolites present in the essential oil was carried out through a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc-ms). such procedure gave as results trans caryophyllene (23,3%), α-selinene (10,7%), β-selinene (10,0%) caryophyllene oxide (4,8%), seline-3,7(11)-diene (3,3%) and β-elemene (2,6%) as majority components. these compounds' biological activities allow thinking that the essential oil from the "laurel de cera" tree leaves could be of great interest for the pharmabusiness and the cosmetic industries.
ESTUDIO DE LAS CONDICIONES DE EXTRACCIóN POR ARRASTRE CON VAPOR DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAUREL DE CERA (Morella pubescens) STUDY OF EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF "LAUREL DE CERA" (Morella pubescens) ESSENTIAL OIL BY MEANS OF STEAM DISTILLATION
OSCAR ARANGO,ANDRéS HURTADO,PATRICIA CASTILLO,MóNICA SANTACRUZ
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2009,
Abstract: El laurel de cera (Morella pubescens) es un árbol que por sus características resulta muy apropiado para el control de la erosión, y cuyos frutos son utilizados por comunidades campesinas del sur de Colombia para la obtención de una cera que se emplea en el proceso de elaboración de la panela. En esta investigación se estudió el proceso de extracción del aceite esencial de las hojas del laurel de cera mediante la técnica de arrastre con vapor, y su efecto sobre la composición de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles presentes en dicho aceite. Los factores estudiados en el proceso de extracción fueron el tama o de partícula y el tiempo de extracción, y las variables de respuesta consideradas fueron el área total del cromatograma (cuentas) como parámetro indicador de la concentración del aceite y el porcentaje relativo del componente mayoritario. Se determinó que tanto el tiempo como la interacción tiempo - tama o de partícula tienen efectos significativos (valor de P< 0,05) sobre la concentración del aceite esencial, y al incrementar el tiempo de extracción se observó un aumento significativo en el área del cromatograma para el componente mayoritario. Se realizó la identificación de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles presentes en el aceite esencial mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS), encontrando como componentes mayoritarios trans-cariofileno (21,3%), α-selineno (10,7%), β-selineno (10,0%), óxido de cariofileno (4,8%), selino-3,7(11)-dieno (3,3%) y β-elemenona (2,6%). Las actividades biológicas de estos compuestos permiten pensar que el aceite esencial del laurel de cera podría ser de interés para las industrias farmacéutica y cosmética. Because of its characteristics, the "Laurel de Cera" tree (Morella pubescens) proves to be very appropriate for the erosion control. Its fruits are employed as a means to obtain wax that is used in the process of making Panela by rural communities settled in the southern region of Colombia. The extraction process of essential oil from "Laurel de Cera" tree leaves through steam distillation and its effects over the composition of volatile secondary metabolites present were considered for the research. Particle size and extraction time were the studied factors. The chromatogram total area (counts) taken as the oil concentration indicator parameter and the relative percentage were the considered response variables. According to the previous information, it was possible to determine that the time as well as the interaction time - particle size have significant effects (P-value <0,05
Origin and SEM analysis of aerosols in the high mountain of Tenerife (Canary Islands)  [PDF]
Juan D. Delgado, Omaira E. García, Ana M. Díaz, Juan P. Díaz, Francisco J. Expósito, Emilio Cuevas, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Sonia Castillo
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.210139
Abstract: Focusing on aerosolized matter of relevance to respiratory health, a major public health issue worldwide, we studied mineral and biological aerosol (bioaerosol) composition (TSP and PM2.5) and geographical origins during dust intrusions in the Canary Islands. Seven days’ back- ward trajectories were assessed daily during March 2004 with the ends of back trajectories being the sampling station of Iza?a (high moun- tain, 2360 m a.s.l. at the Ca?adas del Teide National Park, Tenerife island), a free troposphere site allowing characterization of dust with low influence of other pollutant sources. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to survey major types of airborne particles in the dust plumes. Control, non-intrusion conditions correspond to Atlantic oceanic middle troposphere (OMT) air masses. Of the 14 samples taken, 1 corresponded to a control (clear atmosphere conditions), and the remaining 13 to dust intrusions, with the following sources: African Dust; EAM: mixture of Europe, Africa and Oceanic; MaA: maritime aerosols. Of the air masses, 79% were directly transported to the islands from Africa, and an increase of African dust events was detected when comparing with a 52-year previous data sequence. Quartz microcristals and aggregates of quartz and platy clay were the dominant minerals identified, with marine salt and gypsum also present. Freshwater diatom tests (from two Aulacoseira species) represented the most important biogenic aerosols, although fungi and pollen were also detected. The diverse and complex mixture of respirable particles in large quantities in airborne dust, especially from nearby Sahara and from the Sahelian region, is of maximum interest for air- way pathology in the Canaries, including the highly visited highlands in Tenerife.
Ventilación no invasiva en insuficiencia respiratoria aguda Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure
JUAN SEPúLVEDA S,JUAN ANDRéS CARRASCO O,ANDRéS CASTILLO M,GUILIANA CóRDOVA L
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2008,
Abstract: Introducción: La ventilación no invasiva (VNI) se ha convertido en una herramienta terapéutica en insuficiencia respiratoria aguda en pediatría. Objetivo: Describir la experiencia con VNI en una unidad de paciente crítico pediátrico, e identificar factores asociados con fracaso de la modalidad. Pacientes y Método: Cohorte de pacientes que recibieron VNI en contexto de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda durante el período 2005-2007. Registro de variables clínicas y gasométricas previo y posterior a la conexión a VNI. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y análisis de regresión logística. Resultados: Analizamos 51 eventos de VNI, 55%o en postoperatorio de cardiopatías congénitas. La principal indicación de VNI fue dificultad respiratoria post extubación (31,4%). Quince pacientes (29,4%) fracasaron, requiriendo VMC. Al realizar regresión logística univariada se encontró asociación independiente entre la Fi0(2) pre conexión y Fi0(2) posterior a la conexión a VNI, con la necesidad de VMC. Nueve porciento presentaron complicaciones. No se observó mortalidad asociada a la modalidad ventilatoria. Conclusiones: La VNI es útil en pacientes pediátricos insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y tiene un bajo riesgo de complicaciones. Las variables asociadas con fracaso de VNI son de fácil obtención e interpretación. Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has become a therapeutic tool for acute respiratory failure in pediatric patients. Objective: To describe NIV experience at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, identifying factors associated to modality failure. Methods: Patients cohort who received NIV in acute respiratory failure during 2005-2007. Recolection of clinical and gasometrical variables previous and subsequent to connection to NIV. Descriptive statistic and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: 51 events of NIV, where 55%) cases were congenital cardiopathies. NIV main indication was respiratory distress post-extubation (31.4%). 15 patients (29.4%) required CMV. In univariate logistic regression for variables, an independent association was found between Fi02 pre-connection and Fi02 subsequent to NIV connection, with necessity of CMV. 9%> presented complications and mortality was not related to ventilatory modality. Conclusions: NIV is useful in pediatric patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, with low risk of complications. The variables associated with failure are easy to obtain and interprétate.
Traqueobroncomalacia en pacientes pediátricos: experiencia clínica Tracheobronchomalacia. Report of 32 cases
Andrés Castillo M,Jeany Smith S,Valeria Figueroa V,Pablo Bertrand N
Revista médica de Chile , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Tracheobronchomalacia is characterized by a deficiency in the cartilaginous support of the trachea and bronchi and hypotony in the myoelastic elements, that lead to different levels of airway obstruction. Aim: To report our experience in the treatment of traqueobronchomalacia. Material and methods: Retrospective review of 24 patients with tracheomalacia of different levels (3 tracheobronchomalacia, 3 laryngotracheomalacia) and 8 patients with bronchomalacia. Results: The age at diagnosis ranged from 9 days to 9 years. Clinical presentation was recurrent wheezing in 19 patients, stridor in 6 and atelectasis in 4. The associated factors were neurological impairment in 8, congenital heart disease in 10 and prolonged mechanical ventilation in 4. The diagnosis was done by flexible bronchoscopy in all patients, using sedation and allowing spontaneous breathing. At the moment of diagnosis, treatment consisted in oxygen supply in 14 patients, physiotherapy in 21, beta2 adrenergic agonists in 27, racemic epinephrine in 8, mechanical ventilation in 12, ipratropium bromide in 5 and inhaled steroids in 13. After diagnosis, 24 patients received bronchodilator therapy with ipratropium bromide, 15 received racemic epinephrine and 22 received inhaled steroids. In 21, beta2 adrenergic agonists were discontinued. Thirteen patients required ventilation support and home oxygen. Twenty two patients showed a satisfactory clinical evolution and 6 patients died. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of tracheobronchomalacia is varied and diagnosis is done by flexible bronchoscopy. Treatment will depend on the severity of the disease, but beta2 adrenergic agonists should be excluded (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 1014-20).
Ventilación oscilatoria de alta frecuencia en ni os con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria "del adulto" High frequency oscillatory ventilation in pediatric patients with "adult" type respiratory distress syndrome
José Rodríguez C,Ricardo Ronco M,Andrés Castillo M,Gustavo Guzmán R
Revista chilena de pediatría , 1998,
Abstract: Objetivos: evaluar la utilidad de la ventilación de alta frecuencia oscilatoria en el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda pediátrico. Pacientes y método: once ni os de 3 días a 8 a os (media 22,1 meses) con da o pulmonar difuso, en tratamiento con ventilación mecánica convencional e índice de oxigenación mayor a 20 (42 ± 1 2,2) fueron sometidos en forma prospectiva no controlada a ventilación de alta frecuencia oscilatoria con volumen pulmonar elevado. Resultado. el índice de oxigenación disminuyo significativamente a 22 ± 9,6 en las primeras 4 h con ventilación de alta frecuencia. Posteriormente la disminución fue sostenida aunque no significativa. Ocho pacientes sobrevivieron y fueron entubados desde ventilación mecánica convencional. De los tres Tallecidos, dos mostraron buena respuesta a la ventilación de alta frecuencia, y ninguna de las muertes se relacion6 directamente con la folia Respiratoria. La letalidad de estos pacientes, estimada originalmente en más de dos tercios, se redujo a menos de un tercio, como en otras series pediátricas de ventilación con alta frecuencia oscilatoria. No se registraron complicaciones atribuibles el procedimiento. Conclusiones: la ventilación oscilatoria de alta frecuencia parece una opción eficaz y segura en ni os con da o pulmonar agudo de diferentes causas. Objectivez: to asses usefulness of high frequency oscillatory ventilation in children with "adult type" acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients and methods: eleven infants and children aged 3 days to 8 years (mean 22.1 month) with diffuse lung injury and oxygenation index over 20 [42 ± 1 2.2), were non randomly ventilated with high frequency oscilatory ventilation and a high pulmonary volume. Results: a significant decrease in oxygenation index to 22 ± 9.6 was recorded in the first four hours under high frequency ventilation and this reduction was sustained. Eight out of 1 1 patients survived, all of them were able to be returned to conventional mechanical ventilation and were eventually extubated. Three patienis died, no deaths were due to respiratory failure. Predicted mortality among these patients was 70%, however 72.7% survival was recorded. There were no side effects attributable to nigh frequency oscilatory ventilation. Conclusion: in pediatric patients with severe adult type respiratory distress syndrome of different causes, high frequency oscilatory ventilation may be a safe and effective tool.
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