Abstract:
Following Davies, Elekes and Keleti, we study measured sets, i.e. Borel sets $B$ in $\mathbb{R}$ (or in a Polish group) for which there is a translation invariant Borel measure assigning positive and \sigma-finite measure to $B$. We investigate which sets can be written as a (disjoint) union of measured sets. We show that every Borel nullset $B\subset \mathbb{R}$ of the second category is larger than any nullset $A\subset \mathbb{R}$ in the sense that there are partitions $B=B_1\cup B_2$, $A=A_1\cup A_2$ and gauge functions $g_1, g_2$ such that the Hausdorff measures satisfy $H^{g_i}(B_i)=1$ and $H^{g_i}(A_i)=0$ ($i=1,2$). This implies that every Borel set of the second category is a union of two measured sets. We also present Borel and compact sets in $\mathbb{R}$ which are not a union of countably many measured sets. This is done in two steps. First we show that non-locally compact Polish groups are not a union of countably many measured sets. Then, to certain Banach spaces we associate a Borel and/or \sigma-compact additive subgroup of $\mathbb{R}$ which is not a union of countably many measured sets. It is also shown that there are measured sets which are null or non-\sigma-finite for every Hausdorff measure of arbitrary gauge function.

Abstract:
The main result of this paper is the following. Given countably many multivariate polynomials with rational coefficients and maximum degree $d$, we construct a compact set $E\subset \R^n$ of Hausdorff dimension $n/d$ which does not contain finite point configurations corresponding to the zero sets of the given polynomials. Given a set $E\subset \R^n$, we study the angles determined by three points of $E$. The main result implies the existence of a compact set in $\R^n$ of Hausdorff dimension $n/2$ which does not contain the angle $\pi/2$. (This is known to be sharp if $n$ is even.) We show that there is a compact set of Hausdorff dimension $n/8$ which does not contain an angle in any given countable set. We also construct a compact set $E\subset \R^n$ of Hausdorff dimension $n/6$ for which the set of angles determined by $E$ is Lebesgue null. In the other direction, we present a result that every set of sufficiently large dimension contains an angle $\epsilon$ close to any given angle.

Abstract:
A \emph{hull} of $A \subset [0,1]$ is a set $H$ containing $A$ such that $\lambda^*(H)=\lambda^*(A)$. We investigate all four versions of the following problem. Does there exist a monotone (wrt. inclusion) map that assigns a Borel/$G_\delta$ hull to every negligible/measurable subset of $[0,1]$? Three versions turn out to be independent of ZFC (the usual Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms with the Axiom of Choice), while in the fourth case we only prove that the nonexistence of a monotone $G_\delta$ hull operation for all measurable sets is consistent. It remains open whether existence here is also consistent. We also answer a question of Z. Gyenes and D. P\'alv\"olgyi which asks if monotone hulls can be defined for every chain (wrt. inclusion) of measurable sets. We also comment on the problem of hulls of all subsets of $[0,1]$.

Abstract:
Let $X$ be a Polish space. We prove that the generic compact set $K\subseteq X$ (in the sense of Baire category) is either finite or there is a continuous gauge function $h$ such that $0<\mathcal{H}^{h}(K)<\infty$, where $\mathcal{H}^h$ denotes the $h$-Hausdorff measure. This answers a question of C. Cabrelli, U. B. Darji, and U. M. Molter. Moreover, for every weak contraction $f\colon K\to X$ we have $\mathcal{H}^{h} (K\cap f(K))=0$. This is a measure theoretic analogue of a result of M. Elekes.

Abstract:
Let K be a self-similar or self-affine set in R^d, let \mu be a self-similar or self-affine measure on it, and let G be the group of affine maps, similitudes, isometries or translations of R^d. Under various assumptions (such as separation conditions or we assume that the transformations are small perturbations or that K is a so called Sierpinski sponge) we prove theorems of the following types, which are closely related to each other; Non-stability: There exists a constant c<1 such that for every g\in G we have either \mu(K\cap g(K)) 0 \iff int_K (K\cap g(K)) is nonempty (where int_K is interior relative to K). Extension: The measure \mu has a G-invariant extension to R^d. Moreover, in many situations we characterize those g's for which \mu(K\cap g(K) > 0, and we also get results about those $g$'s for which $g(K)\su K$ or $g(K)\supset K$ holds.

Abstract:
Let us say that an element of a given family $\A$ of subsets of $\R^d$ can be reconstructed using $n$ test sets if there exist $T_1,...,T_n \subset \R^d$ such that whenever $A,B\in \A$ and the Lebesgue measures of $A \cap T_i$ and $B \cap T_i$ agree for each $i=1,...,n$ then $A=B$. Our goal will be to find the least such $n$. We prove that if $\A$ consists of the translates of a fixed reasonably nice subset of $\R^d$ then this minimum is $n=d$. In order to obtain this result we reconstruct a translate of a fixed function using $d$ test sets as well, and also prove that under rather mild conditions the measure function $f_{K,\theta} (r) = \la^{d-1} (K \cap \{x \in \RR^d : = r\})$ of the sections of $K$ is absolutely continuous for almost every direction $\theta$. These proofs are based on techniques of harmonic analysis. We also show that if $\A$ consists of the magnified copies $rE+t$ $(r\ge 1, t\in\R^d)$ of a fixed reasonably nice set $E\subset \R^d$, where $d\ge 2$, then $d+1$ test sets reconstruct an element of $\A$. This fails in $\R$: we prove that an interval, and even an interval of length at least 1 cannot be reconstructed using 2 test sets. Finally, using randomly constructed test sets, we prove that an element of a reasonably nice $k$-dimensional family of geometric objects can be reconstructed using $2k+1$ test sets. A example from algebraic topology shows that $2k+1$ is sharp in general.

Abstract:
We prove that a compact metric space (or more generally an analytic subset of a complete separable metric space) of Hausdorff dimension bigger than $k$ can be always mapped onto a $k$-dimensional cube by a Lipschitz map. We also show that this does not hold for arbitrary separable metric spaces. As an application we essentially answer a question of Urba\'nski by showing that the transfinite Hausdorff dimension (introduced by him) of an analytic subset $A$ of a complete separable metric space is the integer part of $\dim_H A$ if $\dim_H A$ is finite but not an integer, $\dim_H A$ or $\dim_H A-1$ if $\dim_H A$ is an integer and at least $\omega_0$ if $\dim_H A=\infty$.

Abstract:
More than 80 years ago Kolmogorov asked the following question. Let $E\subseteq \mathbb{R}^{2}$ be a measurable set with $\lambda^{2}(E)<\infty$, where $\lambda^2$ denotes the two-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Does there exist for every $\varepsilon>0$ a contraction $f\colon E\to \mathbb{R}^{2}$ such that $\lambda^{2}(f(E))\geq \lambda^{2}(E)-\varepsilon$ and $f(E)$ is a polygon? We answer this question in the negative by constructing a bounded, simply connected open counterexample. Our construction can easily be modified to yield the analogous result in higher dimensions.

Abstract:
It is known that if the underlying iterated function system satisfies the open set condition, then the upper box dimension of an inhomogeneous self-similar set is the maximum of the upper box dimensions of the homogeneous counterpart and the condensation set. First, we prove that this `expected formula' does not hold in general if there are overlaps in the construction. We demonstrate this via two different types of counterexample: the first is a family of overlapping inhomogeneous self-similar sets based upon Bernoulli convolutions; and the second applies in higher dimensions and makes use of a spectral gap property that holds for certain subgroups of $SO(d)$ for $d\geq 3$. We also obtain new upper bounds for the upper box dimension of an inhomogeneous self-similar set which hold in general. Moreover, our counterexamples demonstrate that these bounds are optimal. In the final section we show that if the \emph{weak separation property} is satisfied, ie. the overlaps are controllable, then the `expected formula' does hold.

Abstract:
The theory of dense graph limits comes with a natural sampling process which yields an inhomogeneous variant of the Erd\H{o}s-R\'{e}nyi random graph. Here we study the clique number of these random graphs. For a large class of graphons, we establish a formula which gives the almost sure clique number of these random graphs. In the process of doing so, we make an observation that might be of independent interest: Every graphon avoiding a fixed graph is countably-partite.