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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5178 matches for " Anderson; "
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Multivariate Geostatistical Model for Groundwater Constituents in Texas  [PDF]
Faye Anderson
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.513132
Abstract: Although many studies have explored the quality of Texas groundwater, very few have investigated the concurrent distributions of more than one pollutant, which provides insight on the temporal and spatial behavior of constituents within and between aquifers. The purpose of this research is to study the multivariate spatial patterns of seven health-related Texas groundwater constituents, which are calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), sulfate (SO4), and potassium (K). Data is extracted from Texas Water Development Board’s database including nine years: 2000 through 2008. A multivariate geostatistical model was developed to examine the interactions between the constituents. The model had seven dependent variables—one for each of the constituents, and five independent variables: altitude, latitude, longitude, major aquifer and water level. Exploratory analyses show that the data has no temporal patterns, but hold spatial patterns as well as intrinsic correlation. The intrinsic correlation allowed for the use of a Kronecker form for the covariance matrix. The model was validated with a split-sample. Estimates of iteratively re-weighted generalized least squares converged after four iterations. Matern covariance function estimates are zero nugget, practical range is 44 miles, 0.8340 variance and kappa was fixed at 2. To show that our assumptions are reasonable and the choice of the model is appropriate, we perform residual validation and universal kriging. Moreover, prediction maps for the seven constituents are estimated from new locations data. The results point to an alarmingly increasing levels of these constituents’ concentrations, which calls for more intensive monitoring and groundwater management.
The Development of Rural Sustainability Using Participatory Action Research: A Case Study from Guatemala  [PDF]
Faye Anderson
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2015.31004
Abstract: Rural sustainability, although ambiguous at times, is an evolving science on the right way to higher shared value. Despite the rising demand for sustainability, its parameterization is still underdevelopment and differs spatiotemporally. This is a case study of developing rural sustainability using participatory action research (PAR) in small farms in the southern tropical Pacific coast of the Departments of Retalhuleu and Suchitepequez in Guatemala. This study covers five years (2010-2014) of communities’ involvement in open dialogue, field research and project leadership. The data were collected through multi-dimensional approach including hands-on training, surveys with farmers and their families, and public conferences. Exploratory statistical analyses showed that the differences in the responses collected were statistically significant. In addition, the responses on average reflect gratification from the local communities. This validates the positive change of these intervention programs that are both relevant and science-based. The application of PAR in these communities has proved to successfully allow for a two-way learning process between locals and field experts, improve the livelihood and thus sustainability of their lives, and empower them to take initiative with problem-solving actions.
Assessing the Association between Heart Attack, High Blood Pressure, and Heart Disease Mortality Rates and Particulate Matter and Socioeconomic Status Using Multivariate Geostatistical Model  [PDF]
Faye Anderson
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2016.41002
Abstract: This study addresses the public concerns of potential adverse health effects from ambient fine particulate matter as well as socioeconomic factors. Heart attack, high blood pressure, and heart disease mortality rates were investigated against fine particulate matter and socioeconomic status, for all counties in the United States in 2013. Multivariate multiple regressions as well as multivariate geostatistical predictions show that these are significant factors towards assessing the causal inferences between exposure to air pollution and socioeconomic status and the three mortality rates.
Application of Multivariate Geostatistics in Environmental Epidemiology: Case Study from Houston, Texas  [PDF]
Faye Anderson
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.44014
Abstract: This study represents an example of investigating the associations between the joint exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter of sizes less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) emergency room (ER) visits and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ER visits using multivariate geostatistics in Houston, Texas, from 2004 to 2009. Analyses showed lack of strong pair-wise association among the predictors of O3, PM2.5, wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature. Whereas CVD and COPD ER visits exhibited a strong positive correlation. Both outcomes drastically increased from 2006 possibly due to immigration from neighboring locations. Parametric testing showed that the data differed significantly between the years. Multivariate multiple regression results on the 2009 data showed that PM2.5, relative humidity, and temperature were significant to both CVD and COPD ER visits. Codispersion coefficients were constant which justified the assumption of intrinsic correlation. That is, our predictors had strong influence on the spatial variability of CVD and COPD ER visits. This multivariate geostatistics approach predicted an increase of 34% in CVD ER visits and 24% increase in COPD ER visits, which calls for more attention from policy makers. The use of multivariate geostatistics analyses enabled us to successfully detect the effects of risk factors on both outcomes.
Editorial: Soft  [PDF]
Anderson Ho Cheung SHUM
Soft (Soft) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/soft.2013.22002
Abstract: Editorial: Soft
Integration of the Classical Action for the Quartic Oscillator in 1 + 1 Dimensions  [PDF]
Robert L. Anderson
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A3014

In this paper, we derive an explicit form in terms of end-point data in space-time for the classical action, i.e. integration of the Lagrangian along an extremal, for the nonlinear quartic oscillator evaluated on extremals.

Back to Basics: Is Civic Agriculture the Solution to Food Deserts in Texas?  [PDF]
Faye Anderson, Keith Burau
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.35012
Abstract: Fair access to fresh fruits and vegetable is an important aspect of a healthy civil society. This study investigates the potential of farmers markets to transform food deserts of Texas into oases. Data for age, sex, race, income, grocery store access, and farmers markets in Texas were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas and the US Census Bureau, in order to investigate the association between civic agriculture in the form of farmers markets and food insecurity in Texas. Data were statistically analyzed and spatially investigated. Spatial analysis of the distance to nearest farmers market suggests a strong inverse correlation between the distribution of civic agriculture activities and food deserts. These results encourage non-farmers transition to farming careers and help local farmers in Texas improve their competitiveness, preserve their farming traditions, and contribute to their societal and economic development.
Green’s Function for the Quartic Oscillator  [PDF]
Robert L. Anderson
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.714135
Abstract: In this paper, a quantum mechanical Green’s function \"\"?for the quartic oscillator is presented. This result is built upon two previous papers: first [1], detailing the linearization of the quartic oscillator (qo) to the harmonic oscillator (ho); second [2], the integration of the classical action function for the quartic oscillator. Here an equivalent form for the quartic oscillator action function \"\"?in terms of harmonic oscillator variables is derived in order to facilitate the derivation of the quartic oscillator Green’s Function, namely in fixing its amplitude.
A Direct Droplet Digital PCR Method for E. coli Host Residual DNA Quantification  [PDF]
Jeremy Anderson, Musaddeq Hussain
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2018.94009
Abstract: Injectable drugs manufactured in E. coli must be tested for host residual DNA (hr DNA) impurity in ensuring drug purity and safety. Because of low allowable hr DNA as impurity, highly sensitive methods are needed. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a new method where the reaction is partitioned into about 20,000 nanoliter-sized droplets and each droplet acts as individual PCR reaction. After completion of end-point PCR, droplets are analyzed for fluorescence and categorized as positive or negative and DNA quantified using Poisson statistics. Here we describe development of a direct E. coli hr DNA dd PCR method where the drug is directly added to the ddPCR reaction. We show that the ddPCR method has acceptable precision and high accuracy, works with different biologic drugs, and compared to qPCR shows higher tolerance of drug matrices. The method does not require DNA extraction or standard curves for quantification of hr DNA in unknown samples.
What Are the Characteristics of Arabinoxylan Gels?  [PDF]
Cassie Anderson, Senay Simsek
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.97061
Abstract: Arabinoxylan gels are commonly characterized to determine the feasibility of utilizing them in numerous applications such as drug delivery systems. The general characteristics of numerous types of arabinoxylan gels as well as their susceptibility to degradation are discussed in this manuscript. There are two main types of arabinoxylan: water-extractable and alkali-extractable. The physicochemical characteristics of the arabinoxylan determine its extractability and gelling characteristics. Gels can be created from numerous types of arabinoxylan including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). These gels can also be developed with the addition of protein and/or β-glucan, which results in modified mechanical properties of the gels. To create a sound gel, arabinoxylan must be cross-linked, which is often done through ferulic acid. When this takes place, the gel developed is thermo-irreversible, unsusceptible to pH and electrolyte interactions, and does not undergo syneresis during storage. Despite these strengths, arabinoxylan gels can be broken down by the enzymes produced by Bifidobacterium, which is present in the human large intestine. After further development and research on these gels, they could be utilized for many purposes.
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