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Importance of Digitals Models of Soil Surface in the Flooding Hydraulic Simulation Importancia de los modelos digitales del terreno en la simulación hidráulica de inundaciones
Anders Pérez Brugal,Juan F. Weber,Yaismil R. Castellanos
Revista Cubana de Ingeniería , 2010, DOI: 10.1234/rci.v1i3.29
Abstract: Investigation analysed the influences of MDT′s precision in the results of the hydraulic simulation of floodings. Four digitals models of soil surface were created from different sources: three starting from vectorial cartography by contour lines of few scales and one getting from GPS devices and total station measuring. The comparison to the estimated measured error due to the utilization of simple vectorial cartography paper for the representation of riverbed and flood valleys, with the last model utilized, may assume it influence in flood simulation results. One conclusion was probed; height differences in the representation of soil surface to the same point were very wide [2,88 to 18,82 m], then the estimated water level as well the simulation of flooding area depend of the obtained cartography method, due that were found errors from 1,6 to 2,6 m and from 0,039 to 0,283 km2, that demonstrates he precision of the MDT with that the plot of land is modeled determines the results of the simulation to a large extent. En la investigación se analizó la influencia de la precisión de los modelos gigitales del terreno [MDT] en los resultados de la simulación hidráulica de inundaciones. Se crearon cuatro MDT derivados de fuentes diferentes: tres, a partir de cartografía vectorial de curvas de nivel a varias escalas y uno, producto de un levantamiento con GPS en conjunto con una estación total. Este último se estableció como punto de comparación para determinar los errores que impone el uso de dichos planos en la representación del cauce y las llanuras de inundación y revelar su influencia en los resultados de la simulación. Finalmente, en dependencia del plano utilizado, se obtuvieron divergencias de 2,88 hasta 18,82 m de altura al representar un mismo punto en el terreno, lo que influyó de manera significativa en el cálculo de altura de la lámina de agua y en la estimación del área inundada, ya que se encontraron errores de 1,6 hasta 2,6 m y de 0,039 hasta 0,283 km2 respectivamente, lo que demuestra que la precisión del MDT con que se modela el terreno determina en gran medida los resultados de la simulación.
Validación de la causa básica de defunción en las muertes que requieren intervención medicolegal
Gotsens,Mercè; Marí-Dell′Olmo,Marc; Rodríguez-Sanz,Maica; Martos,Dolores; Espelt,Albert; Pérez,Glòria; Pérez,Katherine; Teresa Brugal,M.; Barbería Marcalain,Eneko; Borrell,Carme;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272011000200005
Abstract: background: deaths due to external causes require additional medical tests in order to determine the cause of death. if these results are not incorporated into the death register these causes may be misclassified. the objective of this study is to validate the underlying cause of death of the mortality register with information obtained from forensic sources in barcelona between 2004 and 2006. methods: cross-sectional design. the study population consisted of deceased residents in barcelona with a medicolegal intervention between 2004 and 2006. the sources of information are the mortality registry and the forensic pathology file filled in by institute of legal medicine of catalonia (ilmc) (gold standard). the study variables are the cause of death, sex and age. sensitivity and percentage of confirmation (pc) with 95% confidence intervals (95% ci) are calculated. results: the sensitivity of external causes is 59.7% (95% ci:56.5-62.9) and pc is 96.7% (95% ci:94.8-98.0). traffic injuries, poisonings and suicides are under-reported in the mortality register with a sensitivity lower than 45% and a pc higher than 80%. symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions are over-reported with a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% ci:83.4-93.4) and a pc of 28.0% (95% ci:24.2-32.1). there are no differences by sex and age. conclusions: the validity of the external causes in the mortality register is low due to under-reporting and the high proportion of symptoms signs and ill-defined causes. according to the results, incorporating information from forensic sources to the mortality register increases the quality of mortality statistics.
Ultrasonography and color Doppler of proximal gluteal enthesitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a descriptive study
Louise Laurell, Michel Court-Payen, Susan Nielsen, Marek Zak, Carsten Thomsen, Maribel Miguel-Pérez, Anders Fasth
Pediatric Rheumatology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1546-0096-9-22
Abstract: Seventy-six proximal gluteus medius insertions were studied clinically (tenderness to palpation of the posterior iliac crest) and by US and CD (echogenicity, thickness, hyperemia) in 38 patients with JIA and in 38 healthy controls, respectively (median age 13 years, range 7-18 years). In addition, an additional MRI examination of the sacroiliac joints and iliac crests was performed in all patients.In patients with focal, palpable tenderness, US detected decreased echogenicity of the entheses in 53% of the iliac crests (bilateral in 37% and unilateral in 32%). US also revealed significantly thicker entheses in JIA patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.003 left side, p < 0.001 right side). There was no significant difference in thickness between the left and right sides in individual subjects. Hyperemia was detected by CD in 37% (28/76) of the iliac crests and by contrast-enhanced MRI in 12% (6/50).According to US, the gluteus medius insertion was thicker in JIA patients than in controls, and it was hypoechoic (enthesitis) in about half of the patients. These findings may represent chronic, inactive disease in some of the patients, because there was only limited Doppler flow and MRI contrast enhancement. The present study indicates that US can be useful as an adjunct to clinical examination for improved assessment of enthesitis in JIA. This may influence disease classification, ambition to treat, and choice of treatment regimen.Enthesopathies include affections of the sites where tendons, ligaments, capsules, or fascia are attached to bone (i.e., the entheses), and they are either of mechanical origin (overuse or trauma) or occur secondary to inflammatory disease. The pathogenesis of enthesitis is not fully understood, although an interaction of microtrauma at disease sites and infectious agents in genetically susceptible individuals has been proposed [1]. The most commonly affected sites are the calcaneal insertions of the Achilles tendon and the plantar fasci
El papel de la Sanidad Penitenciaria en la prevención y tratamiento del consumo de drogas ilegales The role of Prison Health Care in preventing and treating the consumption of illegal drugs
M. Teresa Brugal
Revista Espa?ola de Sanidad Penitenciaria , 2012,
Abstract:
Etudiantes américaines, militantisme et guerre du Vietnam : guerre, paix et genre dans les années 1960
Alexandra Boudet-Brugal
Amnis , 2008, DOI: 10.4000/amnis.653
Abstract: L’opposition à la guerre du Viêtnam (1964 – 1973) fut sans précédent aux Etats-Unis, avec les universités comme épicentre du mouvement . Sous-groupe constitutif de cet ensemble, les étudiantes méritent une attention particulière, car l’articulation entre sexualité et guerre est une notion fondamentale de l’Histoire et de toute histoire de guerre. En outre, leur nombre croissant depuis le milieu des années 1950 suggère qu’elles constituèrent une force militante nouvelle et imprévue de l’opposition à la guerre. Il s’agira donc de déterminer ce qui caractérise le militantisme au féminin . On s’interrogera sur la perception de leur r le, qui oscille entre tradition et changement. Ces regards engagent la notion de la légitimité de l’engagement et du degré de visibilité de ces femmes que nous examinerons. En dernier lieu, nous soulèverons la question des conséquences du décalage et des incohérences entre la rhétorique du Mouvement et la réalité des r les de chacun. Ainsi, nous nous attacherons à déterminer si cette incursion dans la sphère publique et politique du militantisme a généré un nouveau discours. La oposición a la guerra de Vietnam (1964-1973) no tuvo precedentes en la historia de Estados Unidos y las universidades ocuparon el centro del escenario de esta oposición. Como subgrupo las alumnas merecen una atención especial por varias razones: en primer lugar la interacción entre sexualidad/género y la guerra es parte de la historia y parte de la historia bélica y en segundo lugar el incremento continuo de éstas desde mediados de los 50 en adelante sugiere que se convirtieron en una “fuerza” inesperada que se a adió a la oposición contra la guerra. De este modo, este ensayo explora lo que motivó la experiencia activista femenina. Después se destaca la percepción de sus roles que oscilaban entre la tradición y el cambio. Esto implica llevar a cabo un examen de las nociones de legitimidad y visibilidad del activismo femenino. Por último, se considerarán las consecuencias de las inconsistencias entre los ideales y la retórica del Movimiento y la realidad en lo concerniente a roles de género. En última instancia este ensayo evaluará brevemente si los roles y voces femeninas como activistas en la esfera pública y política han generado un nuevo discurso. The opposition to the Vietnam War (1964 – 1973) was unprecedented in American history; and the universities took the center stage. As a sub-group, the female students deserve a particular attention. First because the interaction between sexuality/gender and war is part of History and any war story
Propagandes, films et guerre du Vietnam : histoires d’hommes et de femmes ou propagande du genre de The Deer Hunter (1978) à Path to War (2002) Vietnam War and Films: Men and Women’s Stories or Gender Propaganda? From The DeerHunter (1978) to Path to War (2002)
Alexandra Boudet-Brugal
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.516
Abstract: Drawing from a selection of movies (and a documentary), I propose to study some images of men and women in the context of the Vietnam War, taking a closer look at women’s. To some extent, they contribute to revealing how the “field of battle” has become a “field of gender” and what is at stake. The film as a medium is involved in what we may call “war propaganda”: in the movies, there are elements that are part and parcel of what makes the traditional image of men and women in wartime. It is mostly about defining men as visible acting characters on stage and women as secondary characters (Path to War), playing the part of the apolitical and maternal Other (Heaven and Earth). Indeed, their historical identity mainly defines them as “those who do not make war” (The Deer Hunter). Sometimes, the female image is ambivalent. But the portraits of those who betray their gender, the women warriors (Full Metal Jacket) and the unfaithful (Coming Home), though proposing new facets, do integrate into gender war propaganda. Occasionally the images showed also reveal new voices and paths (Regret to Inform, In Country, Heaven and Earth). It is true that overall we encounter no heroines but “super-hero soldiers” who rescue women (Heaven and Earth, Coming Home); however the representations offer a new space, emancipated from historical and social expectations. But do these stories suggest that women’s stories may be war stories and be part of history?
Les femmes américaines et la guerre du Vietnam : mise en place et utilisation d’un processus de mimétisme American Women, the Vietnam War and Mimetism: Constructing and Developing an Unconscious Imitation of the Soldier
Alexandra Boudet-Brugal
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.2089
Abstract: By and large, women have been maintained at a “reasonable” distance from the war. Their historic identity has mainly been that of mother, and therefore that of those who do not make war. They are not to belong to this sphere; it is to remain masculine, a men’s world. The Vietnam War (1964-1973) is no exception to the rule. This characteristic may be even more visible in the context of Vietnam given the power granted to authenticity: “having been there” has been essential. However, it seems that, just as Vietnam was a confused war, the border between genders has been sometimes blurred as well. We have thus found that some women have constructed and developed a strange process, a(n) (unconscious) strategy, in order to enter the world of war while not “having been there” really, while not knowing physically what war is and was. If “Vietnam is the land of [their] imagination”, as Barbara Sonneborn put it (Regret to inform, 1999), mimetism has allowed them to fill out the blanks, to uncover and discover their man’s reality, to “see what it was he saw […] to be in the field with him”, says Gail Gilberg (Snake’s Daugher, 1997). I will therefore expose and study this phenomenon that appears in various women’s stories, written or told, by themselves or others, through their own narrative styles and speeches. In doing so, I intend to examine whether the use of this mechanism reinforces the traditional representations of men and women in war: Does it allow a re-writing of these excluded female voices, while putting forward the specificities of women’s experiences in war? Does it grant women a voice and a visible presence? Considering that “societies are, in some sense, the sum total of the war stories” (Jean B. Elshtain), it seems interesting to examine to what extent this strategy allows the American women to find their place in the story of the Vietnam war, in a very specific way.
Increased Visual Acuity Will Not Necessarily Equal an Increased Reading Ability in Patients with Subfoveal Neovascular Macular Degeneration  [PDF]
Fredrik P. K?llmark, Anders Kvanta, Gustaf ?qvist, Rune Brautaset
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24068
Abstract: Reading ability in the elderly means independence, and quality of life. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main deficit is the loss of reading ability. The neovascular form is the leading cause of vision loss in the developed world among people over 50 years of age. With ranibizumab (Lucentis) a drug treatment has become available, but, despite good outcome of visual acuity, patients often report that their reading ability has been affected. We aimed therefor to study reading performance with Tobii Eye Tracker in patients, treated with intravitrial Lucentis. Twenty patients, 15 female and 5 male (range 74 - 98 year), were recruited from St. Erik Eye Hospital. All had, before and after treatment, their reading speed, comprehension, fixations, saccadic eye movements measured while reading two texts with an equal readability rating. For all eye movement parameters, except the number of regressions per word, there was no statistically significant difference when comparing the results from before and after treatment. However, a statistically significant increase in the number of regressions per word after treatment as well as increased visual acuity and comprehension, were found. Reading is fundamental in our society and should be tested in order to fully understand a patient’s complaints; however, an increased VA will not necessarily equal an increased reading ability. The results also show that the Tobii system is suitable for evaluation of reading performance in a clinical setting, and can together with other tests, give valuable information about the patients complains and the outcome of a treatment.
New Evidence on Rotational Dynamics  [PDF]
Luis Alberto Pérez
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2013.33016
Abstract:


In this paper, the author confirmed a new theory to explain the mechanical behavior of macroscopic bodies. The confirmed hypothesis is the Theory of Dynamics Interaction by the Professor Gabriel Barceló. Barceló explained his theory in an article called “Analysis of Dynamics Fields in Noninertial Systems”, World Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2012, pp. 175-180. This hypothesis holds that the mechanical behavior of macroscopic bodies in a non-inertial environment opens new assumptions on inertial fields and rotational dynamics. An associated experiment was presented to support the discussion in the paper. The author first became aware of the proposals of Professor Gabriel Barceló’s Theory of Dynamics Interaction through his 2006 article on Saturn planet rings, which suggested unsolved phenomena in rotational dynamics and the inception of a novel theory [1]. Intuitively, the author realized himself about the fact that the cosmos is mechanical from its smallest to its widest comprehensible appreciation. If material behavior is mechanical everywhere and every time, from a subatomic particle, wave or string, to a cluster of galaxies, then our understandable solutions must comply with the Laws of Motion, it could be believed.


Variations in Integrated Galactic Initial Mass Functions due to Sampling Method and Cluster Mass Function
M. R. Haas,P. Anders
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912967
Abstract: [abridged] Stars are thought to be formed predominantly in clusters. The clusters are formed following a cluster initial mass function (CMF) similar to the stellar initial mass function (IMF). Both the IMF and the CMF favour low-mass objects. The numerous low-mass clusters will lack high mass stars. If the integrated galactic initial mass function originates from stars formed in clusters, the IGIMF could be steeper than the IMF. We investigate how well constrained this steepening is and how it depends on the choice of sampling method and CMF. We compare analytic sampling to several implementations of random sampling of the IMF, and different CMFs. We implement different IGIMFs into GALEV to obtain colours and metallicities for galaxies. Choosing different ways of sampling the IMF results in different IGIMFs. Depending on the lower cluster mass limit and the slope of the cluster mass function, the steepening varies between very strong and negligible. We find the size of the effect is continuous as a function of the power-law slope of the CMF, if the CMF extends to masses smaller than the maximum stellarmass. The number of O-stars detected by GAIA might help in judging on the importance of the IGIMF effect. The impact of different IGIMFs on integrated galaxy photometry is small, within the intrinsic scatter of observed galaxies. Observations of gas fractions and metallicities could rule out at least the most extreme sampling methods. As we still do not understand the details of star formation, one sampling method cannot be favoured over another. Also, the CMF at very low cluster masses is not well constrained observationally. These uncertainties need to be taken into account when using an IGIMF, with severe implications for galaxy evolution models and interpretations of galaxy observations.
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