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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4734 matches for " Anders Norman "
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Sequencing of IncX-Plasmids Suggests Ubiquity of Mobile Forms of a Biofilm-Promoting Gene Cassette Recruited from Klebsiella pneumoniae
Mette Burm?lle, Anders Norman, S?ren J. S?rensen, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041259
Abstract: Plasmids are a highly effective means with which genetic traits that influence human health, such as virulence and antibiotic resistance, are disseminated through bacterial populations. The IncX-family is a hitherto sparsely populated group of plasmids that are able to thrive within Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a replicon-centric screening method was used to locate strains from wastewater sludge containing plasmids belonging to the IncX-family. A transposon aided plasmid capture method was then employed to transport IncX-plasmids from their original hosts (and co-hosted plasmids) into a laboratory strain (Escherichia coli Genehogs?) for further study. The nucleotide sequences of the three newly isolated IncX-plasmids (pLN126_33, pMO17_54, pMO440_54) and the hitherto un-sequenced type-plasmid R485 revealed a remarkable occurrence of whole or partial gene cassettes that promote biofilm-formation in Klebsiella pneumonia or E. coli, in all four instances. Two of the plasmids (R485 and pLN126_33) were shown to directly induce biofilm formation in a crystal violet retention assay in E. coli. Sequence comparison revealed that all plasmid-borne forms of the type 3 fimbriae encoding gene cassette mrkABCDF were variations of a composite transposon Tn6011 first described in the E. coli IncX plasmid pOLA52. In conclusion, IncX-plasmids isolated from Enterobacteriaceae over almost 40 years and on three different continents have all been shown to carry a type 3 fimbriae gene cassette mrkABCDF stemming from pathogenic K. pneumoniae. Apart from contributing general knowledge about IncX-plasmids, this study also suggests an apparent ubiquity of a mobile form of an important virulence factor and is an illuminating example of the recruitment, evolution and dissemination of genetic traits through plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer.
What can Software Engineers Learn from Manufacturing to Improve Software Process and Product?  [PDF]
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2009.12015
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide the software engineer with tools from the field of manufacturing as an aid to improving software process and product quality. Process involves classical manufacturing methods, such as statistical quality control applied to product testing, which is designed to monitor and correct the process when the process yields product quality that fails to meet specifications. Product quality is measured by metrics, such as failure count occurring on software during testing. When the process and product quality are out of control, we show what remedial action to take to bring both the process and product under control. NASA Space Shuttle failure data are used to illustrate the process methods.
Blind Trust in the Care-Giver: Is Paternalism Essential to the Health-Seeking Behavior of Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa?  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.52008
Abstract: In the past, patients put their lives in the care of doctors in blind trust that the doctors would care for them. This kind of trust is no longer common particularly in the western industrialized nations but the same cannot be said about patients in Ghana and Sub-Sahara Africa. The first concern was whether paternalism was essential in medical practice in Ghana. The second was whether paternalism as an ethical standard should be considered from the ethical lens of the western industrialized nations, rather than from the African cultural context. This entailed a review and examination of the literature on paternalism. We searched databases such as PubMed, Medline and others for reports, editorials and published papers in the English Language. A search on Goggle Scholar on “paternalism in medical practice in Africa” yielded over 380,000 entries and “paternalism in medical practice in Ghana” yielded 2.1 million but more than 99% were not relevant in each instant. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports, conference proceedings and workshops were also assessed. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were given additional review but those with poor methodology were excluded but discussed in this review. I assigned an overall score and identified the position taken in the publication or report in relation to the objectives and rated them objectively. The papers that received scores above 2.5 out of 4 in the evaluation were further analyzed. I summarized the findings into their respective units, and interpreted them based upon my skills, knowledge and specialization in medico-legal ethics, public health and law. The result shows that not enough research has been done on whether or not paternalism should be encouraged as a regular feature of medical practice in Ghana due to the lack of education. It also shows that paternalism enhances the health seeking behavior of patients despite developments on patient autonomy and capacity. Where the average patient is illiterate in general and in medical matters, the paternalism of the physician may be inevitable. Ethical standards such as Informed Consent, Autonomy, Due Process, Benevolence and No malfeasance should be defined and operationalized in clinical practice within the cultural context of Sub-Sahara Africa. A systematic indigenization of medico-legal ethical concerns in medical practice is needed in Ghana.
Define “Social Exclusion”, Articulate Realistic Benchmarks and Evaluation Modalities for the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty Program, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.71002
Abstract: The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty, a “flagship” program of Ghana, has been praised as a Sub-Saharan Africa’s “miracle cure” for poverty alleviation because it gives US$4.00 - 6.00 a month to a single beneficiary household. In any other regions of the world, the paltry sum would not be praiseworthy. This paper reviewed the literature on the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty program to identify the reported gains by beneficiaries. Using government’s own publication on LEAP, the author sought to determine evidence of exclusion of the extreme poor, and to find if the alleged gains under LEAP have improved the social inclusion and functionings of the beneficiary households by reducing the alleged social exclusion, chronic poverty and deprivation or by improving social solidarity and equal opportunities for the beneficiaries. Internet search of pertinent literature was conducted, with hand searching of grey literature produced by the Ghana Ministry of Women and Children Affairs and others on the matter. The pertinent papers that addressed the research questions were read and briefed for analyses. The published literature reveals that the program has not significantly improved the capabilities, functionings and being of beneficiaries, though there is a plethora of anecdotal reportage about improvements in their lives. In rural Ghana poverty is not the basis for social exclusion, though disability is. The loose eligibility criteria reward undeserving recipients of LEAP. The government of Ghana and its development partners need to conduct monitoring and evaluation exercise of the program to assess the contributions, if any. They also need to have a working definition of social exclusion, social isolation and solidarity in order to identify the types of exclusions that should inform policy and intervention. There is an urgent need to redesign the program, rearticulate the eligibility criteria and to set clear pathways for capacity building of the beneficiary household leaders towards productive activities.
The Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.810040
Abstract: The 1992 Constitution provides explicit instructions to the citizens of Ghana to defend it. That is to say, the citizens are inured with the correlative constitutional right to acquire arms, to keep and to bear them in anticipation of national defense. Despite this charge, the legislative framework has, for a considerable length of time, placed administrative restrictions on gun ownership that undermine the constitutional grant to citizens to even acquire arms. The National Commission on Small Arms and regional conventions such as Ecowas Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, have confusing nomenclature and idiosyncratic definition for legal and illicit gun ownership that complicate the right to bear arms. This investigation attempts to show to what extent the constitutional mandate had been overlooked and encroached upon, and how the encroachment can be clawed back to enhance Article 3 rights of the citizens under the 1992 Constitution of Ghana.
Cycling as Innovation in Norway and Sweden—A Narrative Study of the Acceptance of a Technical Novelty  [PDF]
Anders Gustavsson
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.21009
Abstract: This paper deals with the acceptance of a technical novelty, in this case cycling, during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Experiences and feelings are the focus. The analytical perspectives are: social status, economy, age, gender, work/leisure, safety/danger. The innovation process of cycling conducted by a contrast between two neighbouring countries of Norway and Sweden respectively. The oral source material is found in Norwegian and Swedish folklore archives. The earliest design of bicycle was called velocipede. The bicycles began to appear around 1900. The first owners of bicycles were mostly well-to-do people in both rural and urban areas. As long as there was a shortage of bicycles, a certain collegiality existed, which implied that several people could use the same
Swedish Belief Narratives on Afterlife Earlier and Today  [PDF]
Anders Gustavsson
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.211026
Abstract: My aim is to examine afterlife beliefs in Sweden, partly from the late 1800s and the early 1900s, partly from the 2000s. It will be a contrastive study of two different periods and not a diachronic study of developments across a continuous stretch of time. Since this is a study of popular beliefs, ordinary people are in the center. My research questions are: What types of popular beliefs can be traced in the pre-industrial society? What types of beliefs are characteristic of the present-day society? Which differences and similarities can be found in belief narratives of these periods? How can scholars get information about belief in afterlife in older times and nowadays? In the 1800s this is documented through narratives in folklore archives and inscriptions on grave memorials, nowadays—by means of memorial websites on the Internet.
Design and Synthesis of a Quintessential Self-Transmissible IncX1 Plasmid, pX1.0
Lars H. Hansen,Mikkel Bentzon-Tilia,Sara Bentzon-Tilia,Anders Norman,Louise Rafty,S?ren J. S?rensen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019912
Abstract: DNA exchange in bacteria via conjugative plasmids is believed to be among the most important contributing factors to the rapid evolution- and diversification rates observed in bacterial species. The IncX1 plasmids are particularly interesting in relation to enteric bacteria, and typically carry genetic loads like antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. So far, however, a “pure” version of these molecular parasites, without genetic loads, has yet to be isolated from the environment. Here we report the construction of pX1.0, a fully synthesized IncX1 plasmid capable of horizontal transfer between different enteric bacteria. The designed pX1.0 sequence was derived from the consensus gene content of five IncX1 plasmids and three other, more divergent, members of the same phylogenetic group. The pX1.0 plasmid was shown to replicate stably in E. coli with a plasmid DNA per total DNA ratio corresponding to approximately 3–9 plasmids per chromosome depending on the growth phase of the host. Through conjugation, pX1.0 was able to self-transfer horizontally into an isogenic strain of E. coli as well as into two additional species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Our results demonstrate the immediate applicability of recent advances made within the field of synthetic biology for designing and constructing DNA systems, previously existing only in silica.
Virus-Host and CRISPR Dynamics in Archaea-Dominated Hypersaline Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, Australia
Joanne B. Emerson,Karen Andrade,Brian C. Thomas,Anders Norman,Eric E. Allen,Karla B. Heidelberg,Jillian F. Banfield
Archaea , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/370871
Abstract: The study of natural archaeal assemblages requires community context, namely, a concurrent assessment of the dynamics of archaeal, bacterial, and viral populations. Here, we use filter size-resolved metagenomic analyses to report the dynamics of 101 archaeal and bacterial OTUs and 140 viral populations across 17 samples collected over different timescales from 2007–2010 from Australian hypersaline Lake Tyrrell (LT). All samples were dominated by Archaea (75–95%). Archaeal, bacterial, and viral populations were found to be dynamic on timescales of months to years, and different viral assemblages were present in planktonic, relative to host-associated (active and provirus) size fractions. Analyses of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions indicate that both rare and abundant viruses were targeted, primarily by lower abundance hosts. Although very few spacers had hits to the NCBI nr database or to the 140 LT viral populations, 21% had hits to unassembled LT viral concentrate reads. This suggests local adaptation to LT-specific viruses and/or undersampling of haloviral assemblages in public databases, along with successful CRISPR-mediated maintenance of viral populations at abundances low enough to preclude genomic assembly. This is the first metagenomic report evaluating widespread archaeal dynamics at the population level on short timescales in a hypersaline system. 1. Introduction As the most abundant and ubiquitous biological entities, viruses influence host mortality and community structure, food web dynamics, and geochemical cycles [1, 2]. In order to better characterize the potential influence that viruses have on archaeal evolution and ecology, it is important to understand the coupled dynamics of viruses and their archaeal hosts in natural systems. Although previous studies have demonstrated dynamics in virus-host populations, most of these studies have focused on bacterial hosts, often restricted to targeted groups of virus-host pairs, and little is known about archaeal virus-host dynamics in natural systems. Community-scale virus-host analyses have often been based on low-resolution measurements of the whole community, relying on techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and microscopic counts (e.g., [3–5]). One exception is a study that examined viral and microbial dynamics through single read-based metagenomic analyses in four aquatic environments, including an archaea-dominated hypersaline crystallizer pond [6]. In that work, it was proposed
Juxtaposition of Hohfeldian Rights, Principle-Based Ethics, Functionings, and the Health-Seeking Behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman, Blandina M. Awiah Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.610026
Abstract: Principle-based ethics appears to be recent addition to Sub-Saharan Africa’s rights profile, although universal principles of morality have been part of the region from time immemorial. In this regard, periodic review of how principle-based ethics is being integrated into the health-seeking behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa is essential to the capabilities and functionings of the people. Whether the Hohfeldian incidents should be applied to Sub-Saharan Africa in measuring the degree of autonomy, capacity and informed consent, given the limited actual and medical education. Whether ethical concepts of “responsibility” and “paternalism” should be more promoted and if so, what happens to their “functionings” and “being”? The author examined the literature on ethics, searched databases for reports and published papers in the English language. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports and conference proceedings were also accessed and briefed for further analyses. This shows that Hohfeldian rights are a natural part of African ethics. Principle-based ethics does not incorporate African ethics per se, although physicians’, and decision experts’ paternalism enhances the health-seeking behavior of Africa’s people, it interferes with their “rights”, “claims”, “power” and “privilege”, as well as their capabilities and functionings. Hohfeldian rights relate to Sub-Sahara Africa as universal man and amalgamate with African ethics and morality through the paternalism of doctors, community leaders and other “decision experts” in society in general. The application of the principle-based ethics in the healthcare delivery system and in other endeavors of Sub-Saharan Africa is achieved through the paternalism of superior powers. This compromises the functionings and being of the people.
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