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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462206 matches for " Anatole A. Klyosov "
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Ancient History of the Arbins, Bearers of Haplogroup R1b, from Central Asia to Europe, 16,000 to 1500 Years before Present  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.22010
Abstract: This article aims at reconstructing the history of R1b ancient migrations between 16,000 and 1500 years before present (ybp). Four thousand four hundred eight (4408) haplotypes of haplogroup R1b (with subclades) were considered in terms of base (ancestral) haplotypes of R1b populations and the calculated time to their common ancestors. The regions considered are from South Siberia/Central Asia in the east (where R1b haplogroup arose ~16,000 ybp) via the North Kazakhstan, South Ural to the Russian Plain and further west to Europe (the northern route entering Europe around 4500 ybp); from the Russian Plain south to the Caucasus (6000 ybp), Asia Minor (6000 ybp) and the Middle East (6000 - 5500 ybp) to the Balkans in Europe (the southern route, entering Europe around 4500 ybp); along North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea (5500 - 5000 ybp) via Egypt to the Atlantic, north to Iberia (the North African route with arrival to the Pyrenees 4800 ybp). The Arbins (bearers of R1b haplogroup) along their migration route to the Middle East and South Mesopotamia apparently have established the Sumer culture (and the state), moving westward to Europe (5000 - 4500 ybp) carrying mainly the R-M269 subclade and its downstream L23 subclade. This last subclade was nearly absent along the North African route, and/or did not survive the migration to Iberia or evidenced later. At the arrival to Iberia (4800 ybp) the M269 subclade split off M51 and soon thereafter the L11 downstream subclades. These populations became known as the Bell Beakers and moved north, along with the newly arisen subclades of P312 and L21 (which split off within a few centuries after P312). Those subclades and their downstream clades have effectively, without major interruptions, populated Europe (the smooth haplotype trees demonstrate the near non-stop proliferation of R1b haplotypes in Europe). They are evidenced from the Atlantic eastward to the Balkans, Carpathian Mountains, present day Poland to the western border of the Russian Plain and up to the Baltic Sea. The Isles had a different history of R1b migrations. The bearers of L11, P312 and L21 moved to the Isles by land and sea concurrently with those Arbins who were populating Europe between 4000 and 2500 ybp and formed the respective “local” subclades of P314, M222, L226, which largely populated the Isles. As a result, a significant part of the Isles is populated almost exclusively by the Arbins, whose frequency reaches 85% - 95% among the current population. In general, the frequency of Arbins in Western and Central Europe, reaches—albeit not
Reconsideration of the “Out of Africa” Concept as Not Having Enough Proof  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.41004
Abstract:

This is an overview of the “Out of Africa” (OOA) concept and the concept is based upon experimental data. The article shows that said concept is based on data which are—as a rule—interpreted by the OOA proponents in a one-sided manner, that is to “prove” the OOA concept. The Y-chromosomal haplogroup tree in its most ancient part includes a number of nodes-haplogroups, which in the current classification are named A0-T, A1, and A1b. Bearers of those haplogroups are not identified in Africa or elsewhere. However, those three haplogroups are assigned by the proponents of the OOA “by default” to be the “African” haplogroups, which “automatically” makes all non-Africans “African descendants”. In fact, each of the three haplogroups represents a split into African and non-African haplogroups. As a result, the evolution (Y-chromosomal) tree produced at least five waves of migrants to Africa (haplogroups A00, A0, A1a, A1b1, and B), while the rest of the tree consists of four non-African (by origin) haplogroups, that is A0-T, A1, A1b, and BT, along with the downstream subclades of the latter. The tree is confirmed by the analysis employing STR (Short Tandem Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) mutations of the Y-chromosome. Indeed, according to many data, the tree shows a deep split between African and non-African (by origin) lineages. The last split, from haplogroup A1b (into African A1b1 and non-African—by origin—B) occurred 160,000 ± 12,000 years before present. Haplogroup B is by origin a non-African haplogroup, which is very distant—time-wise—from haplogroups A, by at least 250 - 300 thousand years, and could not possibly have descended from haplogroups A1a or A1b1, or their subclades. A similar pattern is observed with the mtDNA haplogroup tree, which shows a deep split between African L0 and non-African (by origin) haplogroups L1-L6. The article shows how recent OOA studies (as well as earlier ones) employ biased interpretations to artificially “prove” the OOA concept. The article shows that the same data can be—and more justifiably—interpreted as incompatible with the OOA concept, and giving support for a “into Africa” concept. It seems that from times of Neanderthals (seemingly having pale skin and fair hair, based on the identified Neanderthal MCR1 melanocortin receptor), our ancestors, of both Africans and non-Africans current populations, lived outside of Africa, apparently in Eurasia or maybe in Europe.

Book Review. “Frontier Encounters. Knowledge and Practice at the Russian, Chinese and Mongolian Border” (Ed. Frank Billé, Grégory Delaplace, and Caroline Humphrey). Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK, 2012, 280 p in English  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.43014
Abstract:

China and Russia are raising economic and political powers that share thousands of miles of border. Despite their proximity, their local interactions with each other—and with their third neighbour Mongolia—are rarely discussed. Although the three countries share a boundary, their traditions, languages and worldviews are remarkably different.

Frontier Encounters presents a wide range of views on how the borders between these unique countries are enacted, produced, and crossed. It sheds light on global uncertainties: China’s search for energy resources and the employment of its huge population, Russia’s fear of Chinese migration, and the precarious economic independence of Mongolia as its neighbours negotiate to extract its plentiful resources.

Bringing together anthropologists, sociologists and economists, this timely collection of essays offers new perspectives on an area that is currently of enormous economic, strategic and geo-political relevance.

A Comment on the Paper: Were the First Europeans Pale or Dark Skinned? (by C. Winters, Advances in Anthropology, 2014, 4, 124-132)  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.44024
Abstract: This comment considers a paper by C. Winters recently published in Advances in Anthropology, as well as some of his related papers, concerning the “origin of haplogroup R1 in Africa”, “Neanderthals originated in Africa”, “Neanderthals spread from Morocco to East Africa”, “the Cro-Magnon people were probably Bushman/Khoisan”, and other inventions which do not belong to this Journal.
Excavated DNA from Two Khazar Burials  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov, Tatiana Faleeva
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.71002
Abstract: To understand a biological tribal affiliation (in terms of Y-chromosomal haplogroups, subclades, and haplotypes) of two excavated Khazar bone remains in the lower Don region in the south of Russia, we have extracted and analyzed their DNA and showed that both belonged to haplogroup R1a and its subclade Z93. The pattern could be considered typically “Turkic”, and not a Jewish DNA lineage. Their haplotypes were also identified and reported here. The haplotypes indicate that both Khazars were unrelated to each other in a sense that their common ancestor lived as long as 1500 - 2500 years earlier than them, in the middle of the II millennium BC—beginning of the I millennium BC, during typically Scythian times or somewhat earlier. Their haplotypes are unrelated to well-known Jewish haplotypes of haplogroup R1a.
A DNA Genealogy Solution to the Puzzle of Ancient Look-Alike Ceramics across the World  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov, Elena A. Mironova
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2013.33022
Abstract:

A puzzling similarity has been observed in some of the ceramics and figurines in several cultures in Eastern Europe (the Trypillia-Cucuteni culture, 6500 - 5500 years before present [ybp]), Thailand (the Ban-Chiang culture, between 7400 and 3800 ybp), China (the Yangshao culture, between 8000 and 4000 ybp), North America (the Anasazi-Mogollon culture, between 7500 ybp and present time). It is remarkable that the ceramics of these four cultures match each other in 17 (45%) of the 38 indicators used to distinguish archeological ceramic piece in the comparative research. Remarkably, all four cultures with look-alike ceramics also use the swastika as a common symbol. We advance the hypothesis that all four cultures are connected by the Aryan (bearers of R1a) migrations between 5500 and 3000 ybp. While the Aryan migrations in Eurasia are well verified by DNA data, those in theAmericasare not known as yet. Consideration of R1ahaplotypes among Native Americans do not conflict with the hypothesis.

Mutation Rate Constants in DNA Genealogy (Y Chromosome)  [PDF]
Igor L. Rozhanskii, Anatole A. Klyosov
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2011.12005
Abstract: The basic principles of DNA genealogy and the mutation rate constants for haplotypes of Y chromosome are considered. They are exemplified with 3160 haplotypes, 2489 of those in the 67 marker format, with 55 DNA lineages, 11 of them having documented confirmed common ancestors. In total, they cover 8 haplogroups and the time range from 225 to ca. 8000 years before present. A series (including 67 marker, 37 marker, 25 marker, 16 marker mostly of the Y filer haplotype panel, 12 marker, as well as the “slowest” 22 marker and its subset of 6 marker haplotypes) were calibrated using documented genealogies (with a number of lineages which allegedly descended from some legendary and/or mythical historical figures that were examined and verified employing the calibration plots). The study principally confirms a number of previously made or assumed theoretical foundations of DNA genealogy, such as a postulated stochastic character of mutations in non-recombining parts of DNA, the first-order kinetics of mutations in the DNA, the same values of the mutation rate constants for different haplogroups and lineages, and the principles of calculating timespans to the most recent common ancestors taking into account corrections for back (reverse) mutations.
Haplogroup R1a as the Proto Indo-Europeans and the Legendary Aryans as Witnessed by the DNA of Their Current Descendants  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.21001
Abstract: This article aims at reconstructing history of R1a1 ancient migrations between 20,000 and 3500 years before present (ybp). Four thousand four hundred sixty (4460) haplotypes of haplogroup R1a1 were considered in terms of base (ancestral) haplotypes of R1a1 populations and timespans to their common ancestors in the regions from South Siberia and northern/northwestern China in the east to the Hindustan and further west across Iranian Plateau, Anatolia, Asia Minor and to the Balkans in Europe, including on this way Central Asia, South India, Nepal, Oman, the Middle East, Comoros Islands, Egypt, etc. This study provides a support to the theory that haplogroup R1a arose in Central Asia, apparently in South Siberia and/or neighboring regions, around 20,000 ybp. Not later than 12,000 ybp bearers of R1a1 already were in the Hindustan, then went across Anatolia and the rest of Asia Minor apparently between 10,000 and 9000 ybp, and around 9000 - 8000 ybp they arrived to the Balkans and spread over Europe east to the British Isles. On this migration way or before it bearers of R1a1 (or the parent, upstream haplogroups) have developed Proto Indo-European language, and carried it along during their journey to Europe. The earliest signs of the language on passing of bearers of R1a1 through Anatolia were picked by the linguists, and dated by 9400 - 9600 - 10,100 ybp, which fairly coincides with the data of DNA genealogy, described in this work. At the same time as bearers of the brother haplogroup R1b1a2 began to populate Europe after 4800 ybp, haplogroup R1a1 moved to the Russian Plain around 4800 - 4600 ybp. From there R1a1 migrated (or moved as military expeditions) to the south (Anatolia, Mitanni and the Arabian Peninsula), east (South Ural and then North India), and south-east (the Iranian Plateau) as the historic legendary Aryans. Haplotypes of their direct descendants are strikingly similar up to 67 markers with contemporary ethnic Russians of haplogroup R1a1. Dates of those Aryan movements from the Russian Plain in said directions are also strikingly similar, between 4200 and 3600 ybp.
Re-Examining the "Out of Africa" Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy  [PDF]
Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.22009
Abstract: Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and timespans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named β-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and β-haplogroup, coined the α-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups α- and β-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from β-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups.
Haplogroup R1a, Its Subclades and Branches in Europe During the Last 9,000 Years  [PDF]
Igor L. Rozhanskii, Anatole A. Klyosov
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.23017
Abstract: This study identifies and describes 38 branches of the haplogroup R1a STR haplotypes which currently exist in Europe or which migrated from Europe to areas in the east, south, and southeast between 6000 and 4500 years before the present (ybp). The study is based on 2471 haplotypes which have been tested for either 67- or 111-markers; it essentially creates a unified robust system, which assembles dozens of R1a-SNPs and thousands of STRs and assigned haplotypes to branches, some of which do not have SNP assignments as yet. The assembled system consists of base (deduced ancestral) haplotypes, one for each STR branch and for each SNP-assigned subclade, each with its characteristic (ancestral) set of alleles, arranged in the chronological space from ~ 9000 ybp to 1300 ybp. We found that the most ancient R1a subclades (R1a1-M198- and R1a1a-M198+/M417-) bearers of which currently live in Europe (the present day haplotypes are scattered between England and the Balkans) appeared in Europe at least 7300 ybp, and possibly 9000 ybp. R1a’s three principal downstream subclades, L664 (North-Western branch), Z93 (South-Eastern branch), and Z283 (Eurasian branch), split from their common European ancestor at about the same time, around 7000 - 6000 ybp. L664 apparently stayed in North-Western Europe; its lineage recovered and began expanding ~ 4575 ybp. The Z93 subclade began to expand during the Aryan migrations, on the Aryan's journey to India and the Middle East in the 3rd-2nd millennia BC. The Z283 subclade split ~ 5500 ybp into three branches. One of them, Z280 (the Central Eurasian branch) moved east to the Russian Plain in 4800 - 4600 ybp, and formed at least 16 sub-branches there and in the course of the later westward repopulation of Europe in the 1st millennium BC – 1st millennium CE. Some of the older branches, like the Russian Plain branch, largely stayed in the present Russia-Ukraine-Belarus-Poland- Baltic countries region, and were described by early historians as the Scythians, Antes, Veneti, and a multitude of different proto-Slavic tribes (though many of them belonged to haplogroups other than R1a, primarily I1 and I2). Those R1a branches which are “older” than 3000 years, such as the Russian Plain branch (4600 ybp), the Western Eurasian (4300 ybp), and the Balto-Carpathian (4300 ybp), did not move en mass to Europe but stayed behind at the Russian Plain. In the middle of 1st millennium CE, the time of the collapse of the Roman Empire, multiple migrations of R1a were taking place eastward and westward; these migrations gradually formed the current
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