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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34 matches for " Anastas Pashov "
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Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi,Anastas Pashov,Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Vaccines , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/vaccines1020174
Abstract: Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. However, for TACAs, T-cells take a back seat to antibodies and natural killer cells as first-line innate defense mechanisms. Here, we briefly highlight the rationale associated with the relative importance of the immune surveillance machinery that might be applicable for developing therapeutics.
The promise of the anti-idiotype concept
Thomas Kieber-Emmons,Anastas Pashov,Somdutta Saha,Ramachandran Murali
Frontiers in Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2012.00196
Abstract: A basic tenet of antibody-based immunity is their specificity to antigenic determinates from foreign pathogen products to abnormal cellular components such as in cancer. However, an antibody has the potential to bind to more than one determinate, be it an antigen or another antibody. These observations led to the idiotype network theory (INT) to explain immune regulation, which has wax and waned in enthusiasm over the years. A truer measure of the impact of the INT is in terms of the ideas that now form the mainstay of immunological research and whose roots are spawned from the promise of the anti-idiotype concept. Among the applications of the INT is understanding the structural implications of the antibody-mediated network that has the potential for innovation in terms of rational design of reagents with biological, chemical, and pharmaceutical applications that underlies concepts of reverse immunology which is highlighted herein.
Bridging Innate and Adaptive Antitumor Immunity Targeting Glycans
Anastas Pashov,Bejatolah Monzavi-Karbassi,Gajendra P. S. Raghava,Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/354068
Abstract: Effective immunotherapy for cancer depends on cellular responses to tumor antigens. The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in T-cell recognition and T-cell receptor repertoire selection has become a central tenet in immunology. Structurally, this does not contradict earlier findings that T-cells can differentiate between small hapten structures like simple glycans. Understanding T-cell recognition of antigens as defined genetically by MHC and combinatorially by T cell receptors led to the “altered self” hypothesis. This notion reflects a more fundamental principle underlying immune surveillance and integrating evolutionarily and mechanistically diverse elements of the immune system. Danger associated molecular patterns, including those generated by glycan remodeling, represent an instance of altered self. A prominent example is the modification of the tumor-associated antigen MUC1. Similar examples emphasize glycan reactivity patterns of antigen receptors as a phenomenon bridging innate and adaptive but also humoral and cellular immunity and providing templates for immunotherapies.
Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology
Leah Hennings,Cecile Artaud,Fariba Jousheghany,Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi,Anastas Pashov,Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3044151
Abstract: Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.
GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM
Anastas LAKOSKI
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 1997,
Abstract: In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.
THE MEANING OF GENOMIC IMPRINTING IN HUMAN GENETIC AND DEFECTOLOGY
Anastas LAKOSKI
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2000,
Abstract: Several genetic phenomena do not appear to conform the Mendel's low in the sense that they are not inherited in simple way through the generations. Such exceptions to Mendel's laws include new mutations, changes in chromosomes, expanded triplet sequences, and genomic imprinting. Many genetic diseases involve spontaneous mutations that are not inherited from generation to generation. Changes in chromosomes include nondisjunction, which is the most important cause of mental retardation, the trisomy of Dowen syndrome. Expanded triplet repeats are responsible for the next important cause of mental retardation, fragile X, and for Huntington's disease. Genomic imprinting occurs when the expression of a gene depends on whether it is inherited from the mother or from the father. In this paper the phenomenon of genomic imprinting is explained on the occurrence of Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. It's essential for the counselor to be able during the genetic counseling to recognize this phenomenon and to make a proper decision.
Change Management and Version Control of Scientific Applications
Bojana Koteska,Anastas Misev
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.5121/ijcsit.2014.6211
Abstract: The development process of scientific applications is largely dependent on scientific progress and the experimental research results. Thus, dealing with frequent changes is one of the main problems faced by the developers of scientific software. Taking into account the results of the survey conducted among scientists in the HP-SEE project, the implementation of change management and version control software processes is inevitable. In this paper, we propose software engineering principles that should be included in the development process to improve the version control and change management. Moreover, we give some specific recommendations for their implementation, thereby making a slight modification of already generally accepted templates and methods. The development steps practiced by scientists should not be replaced completely, but they need to be supplemented with appropriate practices, documents and formal methods. We also emphasize the reasons for the inclusion of these two processes and the consequences that may arise as a result of their non-application.
Isolated Cobalt Nanoparticles Prepared on HOPG in Ultrahigh Vacuum Using Thermal Annealing  [PDF]
Denis Lebedev, Niyaz Nurgazizov, Anton Chuklanov, Anastas Bukharaev
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.23033
Abstract:

Cobalt nanoparticles on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite have been studied by atomic force microscopy. Thermal annealing in ultrahigh vacuum was used to change the size of cobalt nanoparticles and their surface distribution. The effect of two key parameters, annealing time and temperature, on the size and the surface distribution of nanoparticles has been studied. The dependence of the particle size on these parameters has been obtained. It has been shown that the main mechanism of the nanoparticle growth is Ostwald ripening.

 

Exotic states of diatomic molecules and methods of their description
Pawel KOWALCZYK,Wlodzimierz JASTRZEBSKI,Asen PASHOV
Optica Applicata , 2006,
Abstract: Various methods for representation of electronic states in diatomic molecules basing on experimental spectroscopic data are critically compared. The technique of pointwise inverted perturbation approach (IPA) is indicated as the most suitable in case of states characterized by potential energy curves substantially different from the Morse potential. Recent developments of this technique are presented.
The X$^1Σ^+$ and a$^3Σ^+$ states of LiCs studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy
Peter Staanum,Asen Pashov,Horst Knoeckel,Eberhard Tiemann
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.042513
Abstract: We present the first high-resolution spectroscopic study of LiCs. LiCs is formed in a heat pipe oven and studied via laser-induced fluorescence Fourier-transform spectroscopy. By exciting molecules through the X$^1\Sigma^+$-B$^1\Pi$ and X$^1\Sigma^+$-D$^1\Pi$ transitions vibrational levels of the X$^1\Sigma^+$ ground state have been observed up to 3cm^{-1} below the dissociation limit enabling an accurate construction of the potential. Furthermore, rovibrational levels in the a$^3\Sigma^+$ triplet ground state have been observed because the excited states obtain sufficient triplet character at the corresponding excited atomic asymptote. With the help of coupled channels calculations accurate singlet and triplet ground state potentials were derived reaching the atomic ground state asymptote and allowing first predictions of cold collision properties of Li + Cs pairs.
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