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Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Anti-infective Activity Screening of Marine Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes
Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen,Sheila M. Pimentel-Elardo,Amro Hanora,Mona Radwan,Soad H. Abou-El-Ela,Safwat Ahmed,Ute Hentschel
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8030399
Abstract: Terrestrial actinomycetes are noteworthy producers of a multitude of antibiotics, however the marine representatives are much less studied in this regard. In this study, 90 actinomycetes were isolated from 11 different species of marine sponges that had been collected from offshore Ras Mohamed (Egypt) and from Rovinj (Croatia). Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 18 different actinomycete genera representing seven different suborders. Fourteen putatively novel species were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other strains in the NCBI database. A putative new genus related to Rubrobacter was isolated on M1 agar that had been amended with sponge extract, thus highlighting the need for innovative cultivation protocols. Testing for anti-infective activities was performed against clinically relevant, Gram-positive ( Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, fungi ( Candida albicans) and human parasites ( Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei). Bioactivities against these pathogens were documented for 10 actinomycete isolates. These results show a high diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges as well as highlight their potential to produce anti-infective agents.
Phishing Techniques in Mobile Devices  [PDF]
Belal Amro
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.62003
Abstract: The rapid evolution in mobile devices and communication technology has increased the number of mobile device users dramatically. The mobile device has replaced many other devices and is used to perform many tasks ranging from establishing a phone call to performing critical and sensitive tasks like money payments. Since the mobile device is accompanying a person most of his time, it is highly probably that it includes personal and sensitive data for that person. The increased use of mobile devices in daily life made mobile systems an excellent target for attacks. One of the most important attacks is phishing attack in which an attacker tries to get the credential of the victim and impersonate him. In this paper, analysis of different types of phishing attacks on mobile devices is provided. Mitigation techniques—anti-phishing techniques—are also analyzed. Assessment of each technique and a summary of its advantages and disadvantages is provided. At the end, important steps to guard against phishing attacks are provided. The aim of the work is to put phishing attacks on mobile systems in light, and to make people aware of these attacks and how to avoid them.
Commedia dell'arte Actresses and the Performance of Lovesickness
Clarissa Hanora Hurley
The Brock Review , 2009,
Abstract: In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries there was a conjunction of interest in erotomania as a “real” medical condition and the representation of that condition in literature and on the popular stage. This period corresponds with the rise of the professional actress of the commedia dell’arte. This paper explores some instances of pazzia (madness) scenes in the scenarios of Flaminio Scala and contemporary accounts of commedia performances with a view to better understanding the role of the professional theatre and professional actress in shaping and reflecting cultural attitudes towards gender-based erotic “distraction”.
Mobile Agent Systems, Recent Security Threats and Counter Measures
Belal Amro
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Mobile agent technology offers a dramatically evolving computing paradigm in which a program, in the form of a software agent, can suspend its execution on a host computer, transfers itself to another agent-enabled host on the network, and resumes execution on the new host. It is 1960's since mobile code has been used in the form of remote job entry systems. Today's mobile agents can be characterized in a number of ways ranging from simple distributed objects to highly organized intelligent softwares. As a result of this rapid evolvement of mobile agents, plenty of critical security issues has risen and plenty of work is being done to address these problems. The aim is to provide trusted mobile agent systems that can be easily deployed and widely adopted. In this paper, we provide an overview of the most recent threats facing the designers of agent platforms and the developers of agent-based applications. The paper also identifies security objectives, and measures for countering the identified threats and fulfilling those security objectives.
Characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs)
Omar Hamarsheh, Ahmad Amro
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-189
Abstract: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were characterized in P. papatasi expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a public database, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). A total of 42,784 sequences were mined, and 1,499 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 3.5% and an average density of 15.55 kb per SSR. Dinucleotide motifs were the most common SSRs, accounting for 67% followed by tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats, accounting for 31.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. The length of microsatellites varied from 5 to 16 repeats. Dinucleotide types; AG and CT have the highest frequency. Dinucleotide SSR-ESTs are relatively biased toward an excess of (AX)n repeats and a low GC base content. Forty primer pairs were designed based on motif lengths for further experimental validation.The first large-scale survey of SSRs derived from P. papatasi is presented; dinucleotide SSRs identified are more frequent than other types. EST data mining is an effective strategy to identify functional microsatellites in P. papatasi.The sand fly Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Scopoli) is a natural vector of Leishmania major (Yakimov & Schokov), which is the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East and other countries [1,2]. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, are common components of eukaryotic genomes and are short, repeated nucleotide sequence elements arrayed in tandem and flanked by non-repetitive regions [3,4]. SSRs often harbour high levels of polymorphism, in terms of repeat number, and have been developed into one of the most common classes of genetic markers due to their high degree of ubiquity, co-dominance and variability in number among individuals. In recent years, microsatellites were extensively used to investigate genetic variability and the population structures of a wide range of organisms, including parasites and vectors of infectious diseases [5-13]. In the absence of genome sequences for sand flies,
The Complete Genome of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901: An Intracellular Endosymbiont of Marine Wood-Boring Bivalves (Shipworms)
Joyce C. Yang,Ramana Madupu,A. Scott Durkin,Nathan A. Ekborg,Chandra S. Pedamallu,Jessica B. Hostetler,Diana Radune,Bradley S. Toms,Bernard Henrissat,Pedro M. Coutinho,Sandra Schwarz,Lauren Field,Amaro E. Trindade-Silva,Carlos A. G. Soares,Sherif Elshahawi,Amro Hanora,Eric W. Schmidt,Margo G. Haygood,Janos Posfai,Jack Benner,Catherine Madinger,John Nove,Brian Anton,Kshitiz Chaudhary,Jeremy Foster,Alex Holman,Sanjay Kumar,Philip A. Lessard,Yvette A. Luyten,Barton Slatko,Nicole Wood,Bo Wu,Max Teplitski,Joseph D. Mougous,Naomi Ward,Jonathan A. Eisen,Jonathan H. Badger,Daniel L. Distel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006085
Abstract: Here we report the complete genome sequence of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901. T. turnerae is a marine gamma proteobacterium that occurs as an intracellular endosymbiont in the gills of wood-boring marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms). This species is the sole cultivated member of an endosymbiotic consortium thought to provide the host with enzymes, including cellulases and nitrogenase, critical for digestion of wood and supplementation of the host's nitrogen-deficient diet. T. turnerae is closely related to the free-living marine polysaccharide degrading bacterium Saccharophagus degradans str. 2–40 and to as yet uncultivated endosymbionts with which it coexists in shipworm cells. Like S. degradans, the T. turnerae genome encodes a large number of enzymes predicted to be involved in complex polysaccharide degradation (>100). However, unlike S. degradans, which degrades a broad spectrum (>10 classes) of complex plant, fungal and algal polysaccharides, T. turnerae primarily encodes enzymes associated with deconstruction of terrestrial woody plant material. Also unlike S. degradans and many other eubacteria, T. turnerae dedicates a large proportion of its genome to genes predicted to function in secondary metabolism. Despite its intracellular niche, the T. turnerae genome lacks many features associated with obligate intracellular existence (e.g. reduced genome size, reduced %G+C, loss of genes of core metabolism) and displays evidence of adaptations common to free-living bacteria (e.g. defense against bacteriophage infection). These results suggest that T. turnerae is likely a facultative intracellular ensosymbiont whose niche presently includes, or recently included, free-living existence. As such, the T. turnerae genome provides insights into the range of genomic adaptations associated with intracellular endosymbiosis as well as enzymatic mechanisms relevant to the recycling of plant materials in marine environments and the production of cellulose-derived biofuels.
Gingival Metastasis Revealing Lung Adenocarcinoma  [PDF]
Lamyae Amro, Leila Maliki, Badia Belabidia, Abdelhaq Alaoui Yazidi
Advances in Lung Cancer (ALC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alc.2014.32005

Introduction: The lung adenocarcinoma is an invasive malignant tumor. Its visceral metastases are multiple. The gingival location is uncommon if not exceptional. Observation: We report the case of 66-year-old patient with a right cervical radiculopathology. Clinical examination objectified a superior vena cava syndrome with gingival tumor budding whose excisional biopsy found a location of a poorly differentiated and infiltrating carcinoma. The bronchoscopy revealed a tumor nodule obstructing the right mainstem bronchus with the histological study concluded as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma infiltrating. Conclusion: Gingival metastasis revealing lung adenocarcinoma is uncommon even exceptional. It may delay the diagnosis and management of already poor prognosis.

Carbon Nanotubes as Nanosensor for Differential Electrolytic Micropotentiometry  [PDF]
Abdulaziz N. Amro, Abdalla Mahmud Abulkibash, Muataz Ali Atieh
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.513096
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes as nanosensor were synthesized on the surface of the silver electrode using floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition reactor. Acetylene gas was used as a carbon source, ferrocene as a source of the iron nanocatalyst and hydrogen as a carrier and an activate agent. Several runs were performed to find the optimum conditions that produce sensitive Ag-CNTs electrodes. The electrodes obtained at each run were characterized by SEM. The optimum conditions that produce sensitive Ag-CNTs were found to be at a reaction time of 15 minutes, reaction temperature of 700°C, hydrogen flow rate of 25 ml/min and an acetylene flow rate of 75 ml/min. These optimum conditions were confirmed from the normal behavior of the resulting Ag-CNTs electrodes in the titration of 10 μL of chloride using dc differential electrolytic potentiometry. When conditions that differ from the optimum ones were applied in the preparation of the Ag-CNTs electrodes, abnormal titration curves were obtained. The superiority of the Ag-CNTs electrodes was demonstrated by the successful applications of these electrodes as an indicating system in the micro titrations of different volumes of cyanide solution with silver nitrate reach. By applying this technique a volume of 1.2 μL sample of cyanide was successfully titrated. The normal behavior of the Ag-CNts electrodes was compared to that of the normal silver electrodes which exhibit an abnormal behavior.
Ataxia Telangiectasia Syndrome Revealed by Severe Pneumonia  [PDF]
Hind Serhane, Nisserine Louhab, Hafsa Sajiai, Selma Aitbatahar, Lamyae Amro
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.45037
Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disease. The diagnosis is often made on a clinical triad that combines neurological signs dominated by a progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous signs (telangiectasia, coffee stain milk), immunodeficiency (humoral and cellular) with sinopulmonary infections and elevated alphaphetoprotein. The diagnosis of AT is usually early, however, some forms may be revealed late. We reported a case of a 19-year-old patient, admitted for severe pneumonia with Klebsiella Pneumonia. In its history, it was found a notion of recurrent respiratory infections and bronchiectasis. In its clinical examination, it had been discovered cerebellar ataxia and occulocutaneous telangiectasia. The determination of plasmatic alphafoetoprotein was elevated, and the search of immunodeficiency showed a mixed deficit (humoral and cellular) suggesting the diagnosis of AT.
Hiatal Hernia by Rolling Revealed by Respiratory Symptoms: A Rare Condition and Atypical Presentation  [PDF]
Hind Serhane, Othmane Ouardi, Hafsa Sajiai, Selma Aitbatahar, Lamyae Amro
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.59050
Abstract: Hiatal hernia by rolling is a rare pathology estimated at 5% of all diaphragmatic hernias. It is usually asymptomatic. Sometimes, it can be accompanied by different symptoms, such as post prandial bloating, dysphagia, regurgitation, retro sternal pain, even respiratory symptoms. The aim of this article is to show that a hiatus hernia by rolling can cause a misleading clinical picture that may be taken wrongly for a heart or respiratory disease. We report the case of an 80-year-old patient whose presentation was suggestive of an acute heart condition, but the scan confirmed a rolling diaphragmatic hernia. Because of the rarity and the atypical presentation of this case, we have found it desirable to bring this new observation.
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