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Sargassum, Gracilaria and Ulva Exhibit Positive Antimicrobial Activity against Human Pathogens  [PDF]
Amrit Kumar Mishra
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104258
Abstract:
Bacterial resistance to pharmaceutical drugs is on rise, which emphasizes the need for screening of new drugs from natural resources. Seaweeds from the marine ecosystem are important source of bioactive compounds making them one of the major subjects for screening of various pharmaceutical drugs. So here, we assessed the bacterial growth inhibitory functions of four seaweeds Sargassum wightii, Gracillaria edulis, G. corticata and Ulva lactuca of Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal, India respectively against three pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eischeira coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Solvent extraction of four seaweeds was performed using 70% methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate. Agar well diffusion method was used to test the bioactivity of seaweeds against pathogens. S. wightii, G. edulis and U. lactuca were observed with better solvent extracts compared to G. corticata. Methanol extract of S. wightii was observed with the highest (29.0 ± 1.22) zone of inhibition (ZOI) and ethyl acetate extract of U. lactuca was observed with the lowest ZOI (5.0 ± 0.0) against S. aureus. Butanol extract of S. wightii was observed with the highest ZOI (14.0 ± 0.83) against P. aeruginosa, whereas G. edulis methanol extract and U. lactuca ethyl-acetate extract were observed with the lowest ZOI (6.0 ± 0.0). For E. coli, butanol and methanol extracts of G. edulis and U. lactuca showed the highest (12.0 ± 0.54) and the lowest (6.0 ± 0.0). Our preliminary results suggest bioactivity of S. wightii, G. edulis and U. lactuca showed positive results. Further biochemical characterization of S. wightii should be carried out for potential bioactive compounds against human pathogens. Our results suggest bioactive compounds from seaweeds can be used as pharmaceutical drugs.
Epiphytic Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Meadows of Oligotrophic Waters of Andaman Sea  [PDF]
Amrit Kumar Mishra, Raju Mohanraju
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104388
Abstract:
The epiphytic microbial communities of seagrass (Cymodocea rotundata and Thalassia testudinum) along with sediments and seawater of the seagrass ecosystem of Andaman Sea were assessed for heterotrophic bacterial communities. Young leaves of C. nodosa and T. testudinum sediments and water samples were collected from two different locations at Burmanala and Havelock island. Young leaves were swabbed and transferred into Alkaline peptone water along with 1 gm of sediments and 1 ml of seawater for initial microbial enrichments, followed by culture of microbes in Salt Yeast Extract Agar. Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt agar was used for seagrass leaves, sediments and water for culturing of Vibrio like microbes. The observed colonies were morphologically (colour) identified first and then further identification was done by Gram staining and various biochemical tests. Sediment bacterial count was 10-fold higher than seagrass and water column communities. Morphologically 29% of total bacterial colonies identified were of grey and white colour. T. testudinum bacterial epiphytes were 2-fold higher than C. rotundata communities. Gram negative bacterial isolates of Pseudomonas, Vibrios and Aeromonas dominated the bacterial colonies than gram positive bacteria of Bacillus and Micrococcus. Vibrios were only observed on seagrass leaves. Seagrass harboured more gram positive bacterial colonies than gram negative, which were dominated in the sediments of seagrass ecosystem. The bacterial communities of landward site of Burmanala and Havelock were similar whereas 2-fold higher communities were observed at the seaward site of Havelock site on T. testudinum. Seagrass ecosystem bacterial epiphytic communities are diverse in oligotrophic waters.
Municipality Declaration, Urban Imagination and Urban Experience A Case of Putalibazaar and Walling, Syangja, Nepal
Amrit Kumar Bhandari
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10686
Abstract: Municipalities, which are basically administrative divisions, have been treated as urban entities in Nepal, though most of them lack even the basic urban amenities. Municipality declaration by government can be taken as an effort to foster the process of urbanization in Nepal. On the basis of firsthand qualitative data collected through interviews, observations and focused group discussions conducted in the two municipalities: Putalibazaar and Walling of Syangja District of Western Nepal, this article attempts to highlight the status of urbanization here after 17 years of municipality declaration. This article reveals that local people were out of sorts about how urbanization flourishes in their area due to municipality declaration. It also divulges that local people themselves, municipality offices and other governmental and non-governmental agencies have not been able to make vibrant contribution in the urbanization process. Therefore, this article concludes that the mere act of municipality declaration cannot foster urbanization; thus local people and municipalities offices need to play collective, more responsible, productive and meaningful role to transform the urban imagination into a reality. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10686 Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.6 2014: 1-21
Participatory Needs Assessment in Local Development: Rhetoric or Reality: A Case of Putalibazaar, Syangja
Amrit Kumar Bhandari
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v5i0.7035
Abstract: Based on the first hand data collected through fieldwork, this article highlights the rhetoric and reality of people’s participation in the local development activities in Putalibazaar Syangja. Concentrating on the foundational aspect of participatory development i.e. needs assessment, this article explains that the needs assessment program being practiced by Putalibazaar Municipality is weaker and ineffective one. In the name of participatory planning, there has been the domination of the leader-centric approach as opposed to the people-centric one in needs assessment. Thus, this article posits that people’s participation in development activities in Putalibazaar is more rhetoric than reality. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v5i0.7035 Himalayan Journal of Sociology & Anthropology-Vol. V (2012) 1-9
Urban Anthropology: An Overview of the Discipline and Scope
Amrit Kumar Bhandari
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v4i0.4664
Abstract: Based on the review of some selected literatures, this article attempts to explain Urban Anthropology as an emerging sub-ield within Sociocultural Anthropology. In this process, it reviews the history of the subield in short and elaborates its ield of scope in the modern rapidly urbanizing world. Deinitely, the process of urbanization has also been given adequate emphasis by highlighting its concept and nature. Even the status of urbanization in Nepal has also been given place in brief. The article towards the latter part explains about the prospects of Urban Anthropology in Nepal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v4i0.4664 Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.IV (2010) 1-14
Pollution of Seti River in Pokhara: An Anthropological Perspective
Amrit Kumar Bhandari
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2008, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v3i0.1493
Abstract: Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Seti River is one of important components of the ecology of Pokhara so it holds a great significance for maintaining ecological balance and fulfilling different types of needs of people here. But only a few people are aware of its real value while others are pretending to be unaware of this and are accelerating its pollution. It's true that its pollution is not as devastating as the pollution of the Bagmati and the Vishnumati in Kathmandu. But its pollution is increasing, if it goes on increasing like this, it will surely reach that devastating stage in the near future which will threaten the existence of eco-system and components including human kind inhabiting around its vicinity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v3i0.1493 Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.III, Sept. 2008 p.11-33
Menopausal transition and postmenopausal health problems: a review on its bio-cultural perspectives  [PDF]
Shailendra Kumar Mishra
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.34041
Abstract: This paper documents health problems faced by menopausal and postmenopausal women. These women constitute a sizable proportion of India's population though there exist no health care programmes to cater their specific health needs and health vulnerabilities arose due to menopausal transition. Researchers have generally tried to determine age at menopause and a few have explored psychosomatic problems experienced by them. Abrupt changes in hormone levels among women generally bring out several physical infirmities which have hardly been the interest of research. Studies on menopausal and postmenopausal health problems and their bio-cultural correlates are warranted. Efforts should be made to understand the process of aging among women in relation to menopausal transition. Cross-cultural differences in coping mechanisms to minimise the health problems arose due to menopausal transition are important to study. This review argues provision of culturally appropriate health care programs to facilitate easier menopausal transition and to ensure healthy postmenopausal life for women.
An Introduction to Numerical Methods for the Solutions of Partial Differential Equations  [PDF]
Manoj Kumar, Garima Mishra
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.211186
Abstract: Partial differential equations arise in formulations of problems involving functions of several variables such as the propagation of sound or heat, electrostatics, electrodynamics, fluid flow, and elasticity, etc. The present paper deals with a general introduction and classification of partial differential equations and the numerical methods available in the literature for the solution of partial differential equations.
Application of Merged Precipitation Estimation Technique to Study Intense Rainfall Events over India and Associated Oceanic Region  [PDF]
Anoop Kumar Mishra
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.22023
Abstract: In this paper, an effort has been made to study heavy rainfall events during cyclonic storms and active monsoon cycle over Indian land and associated oceanic regions from recently developed merged rainfall technique using rain gauge and multi-satellite observations from Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Meteosat of Eumetsat. Four recent cyclonic events namely Gonu, Bijli, Aila and Laila were qualitatively analyzed using rainfall from this technique. This technique is validated against another merged rainfall product TRMM-3B42V6 and rain gauge observations during heavy rainfall events of the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010. Results presented in this study show that the heavy rainfall events are efficiently monitored by this technique.
A Comparative Study of Variational Iteration Method and He-Laplace Method  [PDF]
Hradyesh Kumar Mishra
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.310174
Abstract: In this paper, variational iteration method and He-Laplace method are used to solve the nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations. Laplace transformation with the homotopy perturbation method is called He-Laplace method. A comparison is made among variational iteration method and He-Laplace. It is shown that, in He-Laplace method, the nonlinear terms of differential equation can be easily handled by the use of He’s polynomials and provides better results.
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