Abstract:
The current paper is an investigation towards understanding the navigational performance of humans on a network when the "landmark" nodes are blocked. We observe that humans learn to cope up, despite the continued introduction of blockages in the network. The experiment proposed involves the task of navigating on a word network based on a puzzle called the wordmorph. We introduce blockages in the network and report an incremental improvement in performance with respect to time. We explain this phenomenon by analyzing the evolution of the knowledge in the human participants of the underlying network as more and more landmarks are removed. We hypothesize that humans learn the bare essentials to navigate unless we introduce blockages in the network which would whence enforce upon them the need to explore newer ways of navigating. We draw a parallel to human problem solving and postulate that obstacles are catalysts for humans to innovate techniques to solve a restricted variant of a familiar problem.

Abstract:
Human navigation has been a topic of interest in spatial cognition from the past few decades. It has been experimentally observed that humans accomplish the task of way-finding a destination in an unknown environment by recognizing landmarks. Investigations using network analytic techniques reveal that humans, when asked to way-find their destination, learn the top ranked nodes of a network. In this paper we report a study simulating the strategy used by humans to recognize the centers of a network. We show that the paths obtained from our simulation has the same properties as the paths obtained in human based experiment. The simulation thus performed leads to a novel way of path-finding in a network. We discuss the performance of our method and compare it with the existing techniques to find a path between a pair of nodes in a network.

Abstract:
A new idea was proposed to find out the stability and root location of multi-dimensional linear time invariant discrete system (LTIDS) for real coefficient polynomials. For determining stability the sign criterion is synthesized from the Jury’s method for stability which is derived from the characteristic polynomial coefficients of the discrete system. The number of roots lying inside or outside the unit circle and hence on the unit circle is directly determined from the proposed single modified Jury tabulation and the sign criterion. The proposed scheme is simple and the examples are given to bring out the merits of the proposed scheme which is also applicable for the singular and non-singular cases.

Abstract:
This paper proposes a method to ascertain the stability of two dimensional linear time invariant discrete system within the shifted unit circle which is represented by the form of characteristic equation. Further an equivalent single dimensional characteristic equation is formed from the two dimensional characteristic equation then the stability formulation in the left half of Z-plane, where the roots of characteristic equation f(Z) = 0 should lie within the shifted unit circle. The coefficient of the unit shifted characteristic equation is suitably arranged in the form of matrix and the inner determinants are evaluated using proposed Jury’s concept. The proposed stability technique is simple and direct. It reduces the computational cost. An illustrative example shows the applicability of the proposed scheme.

Abstract:
This paper addresses the
new algebraic test to check the aperiodic stability of two dimensional linear
time invariant discrete systems. Initially, the two dimensional characteristics
equations are converted into equivalent one-dimensional equation. Further
Fuller’s idea is applied on the equivalent one-dimensional characteristics
equation. Then using the co-efficient of the characteristics equation, the routh
table is formed to ascertain the aperiodic stability of the given two-dimensional linear discrete system. The illustrations were presented to show the
applicability of the proposed technique.

Abstract:
This technical brief
proposes a new approach to multi-dimensional linear time invariant discrete
systems within the unity shifted unit circle which is denoted in the form of
characteristic equation.？The
characteristic equation of multi–dimensional linear system is modified into an
equivalent？one- dimensional
characteristic equation. Further formation of stability in the left of the
z-plane, the roots of the characteristic equation？f(z) =0 should lie
within the shifted unit circle. Using the coefficients of the unity shifted one
dimensional equivalent characteristic equation by applying minimal shifting of
coefficients either left or right and elimination of coefficient method to two
triangular matrixes are formed. A single square matrix is formed by adding the
two triangular matrices. This matrix is used for testing the sufficient
condition by proposed Jury’s inner determinant concept. Further one more
indispensable condition is suggested to show the applicability of the proposed
scheme. The proposed method of construction of square matrix consumes less
arithmetic operation like shifting and eliminating of coefficients when compare
to the construction of square matrix by Jury’s and Hurwitz matrix method.

Abstract:
Whenever streaming of multimedia based data such as video, audio and text is performed traffic will be more and network becomes congested in mobile ad hoc networks. The present routing protocols are not able to cope up with this situation. It is observed that network congestion is the dominant reason for packet loss, longer delay and delay jitter in streaming video. Most of the present routing protocols are not designed to adapt to congestion control.
We propose a new routing protocol, Congestion Adaptive AODV Routing Protocol (CA-AODV), to address the congestion issues considering delay, packet loss and routing overhead. To evaluate their performance, we have considered mpeg4 for streaming video data using network simulator (NS2). CA-AODV outperforms present protocols in delivery ratio and delay, while introducing less routing protocol overhead. The result demonstrates that integrating congestion adaptive mechanisms with AODV is a promising way to improve performance for heavy traffic load in multimedia based mobile ad hoc networks.

Abstract:
The corrosion behavior of water borne epoxy-ester primer coatings (10% - 50% PVCs) was evaluated through electrochemical techniques such as polarization and impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements. Studies were carried out for a longer duration of exposure extending up to 60 days in aqueous solution of NaCl (5%). Corrosion current (i_{corr}), Corrosion potential (E_{corr}), Coating resistance (R_{c}), Charge transfer resistance (R_{ct}), Coating capacitance (C_{c}), Double layer capacitance (C_{dl}), break point frequency (f_{b}), Water uptake (∮), diffusion coefficient (D_{w}) etc., indicated that 10% - 30% PVC coatings performed well in comparison to higher PVCs. Changes in the electrochemical characteristics were found to occur as a function of exposure time in all cases. The corrosion stability of the coatings were found to be greatly affected by the percentage of PVCs. Studies further indicated that when lower concentration of pigments were available, they remained completely surrounded by the binder; Thus leaving no space for the entry of corrosive agents. From these studies, it was concluded that the water borne paints could replace the conventional coatings, containing organic solvents. Therefore, water soluble epoxy-ester primers have to be employed in paints for developing eco- friendly coatings.

Abstract:
Present study deals with an extensive ecological assessment of natural forest areas under several in-situ conservation plots which have resulted from high rate of grazing and biotic pressure. Over-exploitation of forest and unwanted incidental fire cases decreased the diversity of several ethnomedicinally and economically valuable plants species from the Boridand forest region in Korea district, Chhattisgarh. The total number of plants reported in all three study sites, 41 plants species belonging to 26 families and 37 plant genera were identified. A field survey was conducted at three different study sites in Boridand forest, district Korea, Chhattisgarh as Plot A, Plot B and Plot C, during months March 2013 to February 2014 to identify the diversity of ethnomedicinal plants.

Abstract:
The Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks (ICMN) is a
disconnected mobile network where a complete connectivity never exists.？More number of moving nodes
makes them impenetrable genre which in turn makes the network intermittently
connected. Detection of malicious node and routing is onerous due to its genre.
In this paper, we put forward a secure routing that aids in detecting and
preventing intrusion of malicious nodes. The routing process is made more
adorable through Bee Colony Optimization (BCO). The amalgamation of BCO with
authentication series leads a novel routing protocol named Privacy Preserving
Bee Routing Protocol (PPBRP) which is highly secure. The degree of security is
tested with malicious nodes in the network to prove that the proposed PPBRP
ensures secure routing.