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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3218 matches for " Amit Shrestha "
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The non-death role of metacaspase proteases
Amit Shrestha,Lynn A. Megeney
Frontiers in Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2012.00078
Abstract: The activation of caspase proteases and the targeting of protein substrates act as key steps in the engagement and conduct of apoptosis/programmed cell death. However, the discovery of caspase involvement in diverse non-apoptotic cellular functions strongly suggests that these proteins may have evolved from a core behavior unrelated to the induction of cell death. The presence of similar proteases, termed metacaspases, in single cell organisms supports the contention that such proteins may have co-evolved or derived from a critical non-death function. Indeed, the benefit(s) for single cell life forms to retain proteins solely dedicated to self destruction would be countered by a strong selection pressure to curb or eliminate such processes. Examination of metacaspase biology provides evidence that these ancient protease forerunners of the caspase family also retain versatility in function, i.e., death and non-death cell functions. Here, we provide a critical review that highlights the non-death roles of metacaspases that have been described thus far, and the impact that these observations have for our understanding of the evolution and cellular utility of this protease family.
Compound Heterozygous Sickle and Thalassemia Trait: A Case Report
Bikash Shrestha,Kavita Karmacharya,Jasjit Singh,Jyoti Kotwal,Amit Devgan
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v31i2.4414
Abstract: Sickle cell disease is a type of hemoglobinopathy, which is fairly common in certain parts of the world. We would like to report an interesting case of a child who was labeled as sickle cell anemia but subsequently turned out to be a case of compound heterozygous sickle cell and thalassemia trait. Keywords: Sickle cell disease; haemoglobinopathy; thalassemia; hydroxyurea; globin; electrophoresis; HPLC DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v31i2.4414 J Nep Paedtr Soc 2010;31(2):130-133
Comparative prevalence of MRSA in two Nepalese tertiary care hospitals  [PDF]
Bidya Shrestha
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2013.32013
Abstract: This comparative study has been focused on the prevalence of MRSA types and their antibiotic resistance in two tertiary care hospitals of Nepal. During November 2007 to June 2009, clinical samples from patients with nosocomial infection from two Nepali hospitals, Kathmandu Based Hospital (KBH) and Lalitpur Based Hospital (LBH) were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility tests done following standard methodology in Microbiology laboratory, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Occurrence of MRSA (52.9% of 304 Staphylococcus aureus isolates) in KBH and that of MSSA (62% of 100 S. aureus isolates) in LBH were significant. No association of age was observed with MRSA or MSSA. Among MSSA from both hospitals, the highest resistance was found against penicillin. KBH urinary isolates were resistant to norfloxacin (51.4%), while isolates from other sites were resistant to ciprofloxacin (30.6%), erythromycin (12%), gentamicin (10.3%). LBH isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (22.6%), erythromycin (17.2%), ciprofloxacin (13.8%), gentamicin (12.9%). Among MRSA, most of the isolates from both hospitals were resistant to a wide array of antibiotics. A majority of the MSSA and MRSA isolates were susceptible to rifampicin and chloramphenicol. Most of KBH MRSA were homogeneous MRSA, 80.5% (significant), of which, 99.2% were multiresistant oxacillin resistant S. aureus (MORSA). And among the heterogeneous MRSA isolates from KBH, 71% were MORSA. On the other hand, among LBH MRSA isolates, 52.6% were homogeneous MRSA, cent percent of which were MORSA while 47.4% were heterogeneous MRSA of which 44.5% were MORSA. Since almost all of the homogeneous MRSA and most of the heterogeneous MRSA from both hospitals were MORSA, there is a possibility that a hospital acquired S. aureus could be MORSA. Hence, every infected patient should be considered as a potential source of MORSA.
Antioxidant And Antibacterial Activity Of Methanolic Extract Of Machilus Odoratissima
Amit Subedi,Mohan Prasad Amatya,Tirtha Maiya Shrestha,Shyam Kumar Mishra,Bharat Mani Pokhrel
Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v8i1.6045
Abstract: The methanol extract of the bark of Machilus odoratissima was subjected to investigate its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of different types of compound like terpenoids, tannins, deoxy sugar, saponins and phenolic compounds. The methanol extract of the plant was tested for antioxidant activity using scavenging activity of DPPH(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) radical method and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria using cup plate method. The extract exhibited high free radical scavenging activity. IC50 was found to be 3.37μg/ml. Antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus in dose dependent manner
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolated from Uninary Tract Infected Patients Attending Bir Hospital
Amit Raj Sharma,Dwij Raj Bhatta,Jyotsna Shrestha,Megha Raj Banjara
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v14i1.8938
Abstract: Correction: on 23/08/2014, the spelling of 'Uninary' in the title was changed to 'Urinary'. Antibiotic resistance among uropathogens is emerging public health problem. This study was done for assessing antibiotic and multidrug resistance (MDR) patterns of Escherichia coli at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, among suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) patients from January to March, 2011. Altogether, 739 urine samples were analysed by semi-quantitative culture method and uropathogens were identified by conventional methods. E. coli was tested (109 samples) for antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Out of 739 samples, 27.3% gave significant growth of E. coli while 3.1% and 29.2% samples gave mixed and non-significant growth respectively. E. coli was found to be most predominant isolate (54.0%) followed by coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (21.3%) and Enterococcus spp. (7.3%). Nitrofurantoin was found to be the most effective antibiotic followed by ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin while cephalexin was least effective. Out of 109 E. coli isolates, 90.8% were MDR strains and most of the isolates had a very high multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index, suggesting the origin of the isolates to be of high antibiotic usage. E. coli showed higher rate of resistance towards commonly used oral antibiotics. However, nitrofurantoin is still active against organisms. Thus, nitrofurantoin could be the choice for empirical therapy of UTI. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 14, No. 1 (2013) 177-184 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v14i1.8938
Colonic Strictures after Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Infants: Case Series
Vikal Chandra Chakya,Chandra Shekhar Agrawal,Amit Bahadur Shrestha,Anju Pradhan,Prakash Poudel,Pannalal Sah,Shailesh Adhikary
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v31i2.4181
Abstract: The fate of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis is variable, with colonic strictures being one rare phenomenon after the insult. We describe here two infants with colonic strictures, which developed secondary to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Infants recovered or in the process of recovery after it should be investigated for possibility of development of colonic strictures. Keywords: Colonic strictures; necrotizing enterocolitis; barium enema; stoma DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v31i2.4181 J Nep Paedtr Soc 2010;31(2):127-129
Non-Fragile Controller Design for 2-D Discrete Uncertain Systems Described by the Roesser Model  [PDF]
Amit Dhawan
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.32033
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the design problem of non-fragile controller for a class of two-dimensional (2-D) discrete uncertain systems described by the Roesser model. The parametric uncertainties are assumed to be norm-bounded. The aim of this paper is to design a memoryless non-fragile state feedback control law such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable for all admissible parameter uncertainties and controller gain variations. A new linear matrix inequality (LMI) based sufficient condition for the existence of such controllers is established. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery-An Overview and Current Status  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.310100
Abstract: Single incision laproscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laproscopy. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery term coined by a Consortium in 2005 remains a research technique with few clinical cases. Single incision surgery offers advantage of better cosmesis, reduced incisions, lesser hernias, decreased pain and infections. Long learning curves and cost of instrumentation are the difficulties encountered in its propagation. Single incision laproscopic surgery is an evolving technique for advanced laproscopic centers. This article outlines the overview of devices and instruments and the techniques, feasibility of single incision laproscopic surgery.
Comparative Study of Clinical Manifestation, Plain Film Radiography and Computed Tomography for Diagnosis of Maxillofacial Trauma  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2015.54008
Abstract: Objective: Maxillofacial injuries are one of the commonest injuries encountered. Roentgenographic evaluation of maxillofacial trauma is of prime importance for diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Study Design: Forty patients were evaluated in the prospective four-year study. We studied and evaluated the demography and diagnostic efficacy of clinical, plain radiography, and computed scan in maxillofacial trauma. Result: Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries. Patients having multiple fractures, mandibular fractures were the commonest. Conclusion: Computed tomography proved a useful adjunct in midfacial trauma.
Long Lead-Time Streamflow Forecasting Using Oceanic-Atmospheric Oscillation Indices  [PDF]
Niroj Kumar Shrestha
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66062

Climatic variability influences the hydrological cycle that subsequently affects the discharge in the stream. The variability in the climate can be represented by the ocean-atmospheric oscillations which provide the forecast opportunity for the streamflow. Prediction of future water availability accurately and reliably is a key step for successful water resource management in the arid regions. Four popular ocean-atmospheric indices were used in this study for annual streamflow volume prediction. They were Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Multivariate Relevance Vector Machine (MVRVM), a data driven model based on Bayesian learning approach was used as a prediction model. The model was applied to four unimpaired stream gages in Utah that spatially covers the state from north to south. Different models were developed based on the combinations of oscillation indices in the input. A total of 60 years (1950-2009) of data were used for the analysis. The model was trained on 50 years of data (1950-1999) and tested on 10 years of data (2000-2009). The best combination of oscillation indices and the lead-time were identified for each gage which was used to develop the prediction model. The predicted flow had reasonable agreement with the actual annual flow volume. The sensitivity analysis shows that the PDO and ENSO have relatively stronger effect compared to other oscillation indices in Utah. The prediction results from the MVRVM were compared with the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) where MVRVM performed relatively better.

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