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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2776 matches for " Amit Nanda "
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Spectrophotometric estimation of betahistine hydrochloride in tablet formulations
Kumar Amit,Nanda Sanju,Chomwal Rajiv
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Aim: The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Betahistine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: For method I and II, in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml) in double distilled water were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 15-90 μg/ml and 10-80 μg/ml respectively of betahistine hydrochloride. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of methyl orange for method I and 5 ml of bromo phenol blue for method II) reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 421.6 nm and 412 nm for method I and II respectively. Results: The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion: Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of betahistine hydrochloride from tablet formulations.
A Scalable Architecture Supporting QoS Guarantees Using Traffic Engineering and Policy Based Routing in the Internet  [PDF]
Priyadarsi NANDA, Andrew SIMMONDS
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.27065
Abstract: The study of Quality of Service (QoS) has become of great importance since the Internet is used to support a wide variety of new services and applications with its legacy structure. Current Internet architecture is based on the Best Effort (BE) model, which attempts to deliver all traffic as soon as possible within the limits of its abilities, but without any guarantee about throughput, delay, packet loss, etc. We develop a three-layer policy based architecture which can be deployed to control network resources intelligently and support QoS sensi-tive applications such as real-time voice and video streams along with standard applications in the Internet. In order to achieve selected QoS parameter values (e.g. loss, delay and PDV) within the bounds set through SLAs for high priority voice traffic in the Internet, we used traffic engineering techniques and policy based routing supported by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Use of prototype and simulations validates function-ality of our architecture.
A Survey on the Vehicle Routing Problem and Its Variants  [PDF]
Suresh Nanda Kumar, Ramasamy Panneerselvam
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2012.43010
Abstract: In this paper, we have conducted a literature review on the recent developments and publications involving the vehicle routing problem and its variants, namely vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) and the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) and also their variants. The VRP is classified as an NP-hard problem. Hence, the use of exact optimization methods may be difficult to solve these problems in acceptable CPU times, when the problem involves real-world data sets that are very large. The vehicle routing problem comes under combinatorial problem. Hence, to get solutions in determining routes which are realistic and very close to the optimal solution, we use heuristics and meta-heuristics. In this paper we discuss the various exact methods and the heuristics and meta-heuristics used to solve the VRP and its variants.
A Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows for E-Commerce Supplier Site Pickups Using Genetic Algorithm  [PDF]
Suresh Nanda Kumar, Ramasamy Panneerselvam
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2015.74015
Abstract: The VRP is classified as an NP-hard problem. Hence exact optimization methods may be difficult to solve these problems in acceptable CPU times, when the problem involves real-world data sets that are very large. To get solutions in determining routes which are realistic and very close to the actual solution, we use heuristics and metaheuristics which are of the combinatorial optimization type. A literature review of VRPTW, TDVRP, and a metaheuristic such as the genetic algorithm was conducted. In this paper, the implementation of the VRPTW and its extension, the time-dependent VRPTW (TDVRPTW) has been carried out using the model as well as metaheuristics such as the genetic algorithm (GA). The algorithms were implemented, using Matlab and HeuristicLab optimization software. A plugin was developed using Visual C# and DOT NET framework 4.5. Results were tested using Solomon’s 56 benchmark instances classified into groups such as C1, C2, R1, R2, RC1, RC2, with 100 customer nodes, 25 vehicles and each vehicle capacity of 200. The results were comparable to the earlier algorithms developed and in some cases the current algorithm yielded better results in terms of total distance travelled and the average number of vehicles used.
A Comparative Study of Proposed Genetic Algorithm-Based Solution with Other Algorithms for Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows for E-Commerce Supply Chain  [PDF]
Suresh Nanda Kumar, Ramasamy Panneerselvam
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.86085
Abstract: The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is classified as an NP-hard problem. Hence exact optimization methods may be difficult to solve these problems in acceptable CPU times, when the problem involves real-world data sets that are very large. To get solutions in determining routes which are realistic and very close to the optimal solution, one has to use heuristics and meta-heuristics. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a GA based meta-heuristic to solve the time dependent vehicle route problem with time windows (TDVRPTW). This algorithm is compared with five other existing algorithms in terms of minimizing the number of vehicles used as well as the total distance travelled. The algorithms are implemented using Matlab and HeuristicLab optimization software. A plugin was developed using Visual C# and NET Framework 4.5. Results were tested using Solomon’s 56 benchmark instances (of which 24 instances are used with 4 in each of the 6 problem classes) classified into groups such as C1, C2, R1, R2, RC1, and RC2. For each of the performance measures, through a complete factorial experiment with two factors, it is proved that the proposed algorithm is the best among all the six algorithms compared in this paper.
Development of an Efficient Genetic Algorithm for the Time Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows  [PDF]
Suresh Nanda Kumar, Ramasamy Panneerselvam
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2017.71001
Abstract: This research considers the time-dependent vehicle routing problem (TDVRP). The time-dependent VRP does not assume constant speeds of the vehicles. The speeds of the vehicles vary during the various times of the day, based on the traffic conditions. During the periods of peak traffic hours, the vehicles travel at low speeds and during non-peak hours, the vehicles travel at higher speeds. A survey by TCI and IIM-C (2014) found that stoppage delay as percentage of journey time varied between five percent and 25 percent, and was very much dependent on the characteristics of routes. Costs of delay were also estimated and found not to affect margins by significant amounts. This study aims to overcome such problems arising out of traffic congestions that lead to unnecessary delays and hence, loss in customers and thereby valuable revenues to a company. This study suggests alternative routes to minimize travel times and travel distance, assuming a congestion in traffic situation. In this study, an efficient GA-based algorithm has been developed for the TDVRP, to minimize the total distance travelled, minimize the total number of vehicles utilized and also suggest alternative routes for congestion avoidance. This study will help to overcome and minimize the negative effects due to heavy traffic congestions and delays in customer service. The proposed algorithm has been shown to be superior to another existing algorithm in terms of the total distance travelled and also the number of vehicles utilized. Also the performance of the proposed algorithm is as good as the mathematical model for small size problems.
Agile Development: Exploring What Practitioners Want to Know  [PDF]
Nanda C. Surendra, Salman Nazir
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2018.111001
Abstract: Agile development has its origins and roots in practice rather than academia. Hence, in this research, we go to the practitioners’ world to explore what they want to know about Agile development. We conducted our study using a multi-methodological approach, a combination of a survey and an interpretive case study. We learned that Agile development is yet to reach a mature phase with: a) relatively limited numbers of experienced Agile practitioners; b) a large number of software developers who were trained in plan-based Waterfall development trying to transition to Agile; c) some companies and practitioners continuing to be skeptical of the benefits of Agile development over plan-based development; and d) tools in the process of being developed to support Agile development. Based on those factors, we learned that practitioners are wanting to find answers to the following questions: a) What should good Agile practitioners and teams know and do? b) How to train developers and teams to become good Agile practitioners? c) How to transition from plan-driven Waterfall development to Agile development? d) What tools are available to practice Agile development? How to use them to support Agile practices? The following are the answers we derived from our interpretive case study for the above four questions: a) Good Agile practitioners define their job in terms of the client’s mission; they don’t define their jobs as analysts, designers, programmers, testers, or project managers; b) For training, Agile practices such as test-driven development and continuous integration are best understood not in theory but by the act of doing; for organizational adoption of Agile development, Agile practices should be used not only in software development but encouraged in all functional areas; c) The best way to introduce a plan-based Waterfall practitioner to Agile is to have him think of Agile in terms of something familiar, as a series of mini-waterfalls that have very quick iterations; d) Simple tools, even non-software tools, that help manage Agile practices intuitively are preferable to complex Agile management software.
Non-Fragile Controller Design for 2-D Discrete Uncertain Systems Described by the Roesser Model  [PDF]
Amit Dhawan
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.32033
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the design problem of non-fragile controller for a class of two-dimensional (2-D) discrete uncertain systems described by the Roesser model. The parametric uncertainties are assumed to be norm-bounded. The aim of this paper is to design a memoryless non-fragile state feedback control law such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable for all admissible parameter uncertainties and controller gain variations. A new linear matrix inequality (LMI) based sufficient condition for the existence of such controllers is established. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery-An Overview and Current Status  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.310100
Abstract: Single incision laproscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laproscopy. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery term coined by a Consortium in 2005 remains a research technique with few clinical cases. Single incision surgery offers advantage of better cosmesis, reduced incisions, lesser hernias, decreased pain and infections. Long learning curves and cost of instrumentation are the difficulties encountered in its propagation. Single incision laproscopic surgery is an evolving technique for advanced laproscopic centers. This article outlines the overview of devices and instruments and the techniques, feasibility of single incision laproscopic surgery.
Comparative Study of Clinical Manifestation, Plain Film Radiography and Computed Tomography for Diagnosis of Maxillofacial Trauma  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2015.54008
Abstract: Objective: Maxillofacial injuries are one of the commonest injuries encountered. Roentgenographic evaluation of maxillofacial trauma is of prime importance for diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Study Design: Forty patients were evaluated in the prospective four-year study. We studied and evaluated the demography and diagnostic efficacy of clinical, plain radiography, and computed scan in maxillofacial trauma. Result: Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries. Patients having multiple fractures, mandibular fractures were the commonest. Conclusion: Computed tomography proved a useful adjunct in midfacial trauma.
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