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Removal of cyanide by eggshell as low-cost adsorbent
Ghorban Asgari,AbdolMotaleb Seid Mohammadi,Amir Shabanlo,Jamal Mehr Ali Pour
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Cyanides as carbon-nitrogen radicals are very toxic compounds and highly harmful to humans and aquatic organisms. The efficacy of eggshells (ES) was investigated in this research work as an adsorbent for the elimination of cyanide from polluted streams.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the capability of ES to adsorb cyanide ions was conducted using a series of batch tests in a shaker-incubator instrument. For each batch run, 100 mL of solution containing a known initial concentration of cyanide and with the preferred level of pH was shacked. The effects of selected parameters such as pH (3-11), reaction time (5–60 min) cyanide concentrations (50–150 mg/L) and the adsorbent dosage (0.25–2 g/L) were investigated on the removal cyanide as a target contaminate. Chemical composition ES were analyzed using a Philips model XL-30 scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The specific surface and pore size distributions of ES were measured via Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods using a Micrometrics particle size analyzer. The concentration of cyanide in solution before and after treatment was determined using the titrimetric method as described in the standard methods.Results: Analysis of the ES component using the EDX technique showed that the main part of it consisted of calcium and its other components were magnesium, iron, aluminum and silicate. The experimental data showed that the maximum cyanide removal occurred at pH of 11, adsorbent dose (0.5 g/L ) and 40 min contact time. The kinetic evaluation indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic had the best fit to the experimental results predicting a chemisorption process. The equilibrium adsorption of cyanide onto ES was well represented by the Langmuir equation.Conclusion: As a result, ES as waste materials was revealed as a very efficient and low-cost adsorbent and a promising option for removing cyanide from industrial wastewaters.
Violent Crime on American Television: A Critical Interpretation of Empirical Studies  [PDF]
Amir Hetsroni
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.22018
Abstract: This article reviews six decades of studies regarding the presentation of violent crime on American television, and its impact. We critically discuss the major findings and analyze the political-public discourse regarding the macro-social effects of fictional and non-fictional televised violent crime. The claim made here is that this discourse created “too much fuss over not too much blame” in order to mark television as the agent in responsibility for social atrocities.
Efficient Routing of Emergency Vehicles under Uncertain Urban Traffic Conditions  [PDF]
Amir Elalouf
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.53029
Abstract: Emergency-vehicle drivers who aim to reach their destinations through the fastest possible routes cannot rely solely on expected average travel times. Instead, the drivers should combine this travel-time information with the characteristics of data variation and then select the best or optimal route. The problem can be formulated on a graph in which the origin point and destination point are given. To each arc in the graph a random variable is assigned, characterized by the expected time to traverse the arc and the variance of that time. The problem is then to minimize the total origin-destination expected time, subject to the constraint that the variance of the travel time does not exceed a given threshold. This paper proposes an exact pseudo-polynomial algorithm and an ε-approximation algorithm (so-called FPTAS) for this problem. The model and algorithms were tested using real-life data of travel times under uncertain urban traffic conditions and demonstrated favorable computational results.
A CMOS 3.1 - 10.6 GHz UWB LNA Employing Modified Derivative Superposition Method  [PDF]
Amir Homaee
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2013.43044
Abstract: Low noise amplifier (LNA) performs as the initial amplification block in the receive path in a radio frequency (RF) receiver. In this work an ultra-wideband 3.1 10.6-GHz LNA is discussed. By using the proposed circuits for RF CMOS LNA and design methodology, the noise from the device is decreased across the ultra wide band (UWB) band. The measured noise figure is 2.66 3 dB over 3.1 10.6-GHz, while the power gain is 14 ± 0.8 dB. It consumes 23.7 mW from a 1.8 V supply. The input and output return losses (S11 & S22) are less than –11 dB over the UWB band. By using the modified derivative superposition method, the third-order intercept point IIP3 is improved noticeably. The complete circuit is based on the 0.18 μm standard RFCMOS technology and simulated with Hspice simulator.
Reactive Search Optimization; Application to Multiobjective Optimization Problems  [PDF]
Amir Mosavi, Atieh Vaezipour
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330217
Abstract: During the last few years we have witnessed impressive developments in the area of stochastic local search techniques for intelligent optimization and Reactive Search Optimization. In order to handle the complexity, in the framework of stochastic local search optimization, learning and optimization has been deeply interconnected through interaction with the decision maker via the visualization approach of the online graphs. Consequently a number of complex optimization problems, in particular multiobjective optimization problems, arising in widely different contexts have been effectively treated within the general framework of RSO. In solving real-life multiobjective optimization problems often most emphasis are spent on finding the complete Pareto-optimal set and less on decision-making. However the com-plete task of multiobjective optimization is considered as a combined task of optimization and decision-making. In this paper, we suggest an interactive procedure which will involve the decision-maker in the optimization process helping to choose a single solution at the end. Our proposed method works on the basis of Reactive Search Optimization (RSO) algorithms and available software architecture packages. The procedure is further compared with the excising novel method of Interactive Multiobjective Optimization and Decision-Making, using Evolutionary method (I-MODE). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of both methods the well-known study case of welded beam design problem is reconsidered.
Using Capillary Pressure Derived Parameters for Improving Permeability Prediction  [PDF]
Amir Maher S. Lala
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.49126
Abstract:

This paper presents the construction and verification of a new better semi-analytical, statistically derived universal model than that modified from Huet and Blasingame equation for estimating absolute permeability from mercury injection capillary pressure data. The foundation of my new model is the petrophysical relation between absolute permeability and capillary-pressure/wetting phase saturation properties. I also incorporate characteristics of capillary pressure behavior using the classic Brooks-Corey power-law model. The final form of my new proposed model allowed us to predict absolute permeability as a function of effective porosity, irreducible wetting phase saturation, displacement or threshold pressure corresponding pore throat radius, and basic pore size characteristics. I built my model using 189 sets of mercury—injection (Hg-air) capillary pressure data and measured permeability-including core samples from several reservoirs both carbonate and sandstone lithologies. I identified this correlation by quantifying its accuracy and precision based on regression analysis. I compared permeability estimates obtained from Huet and Blasingame mercury-injection capillary-pressure-based model and my new universal predicted permeability model to a set of laboratory measured permeability of my studied core sample and previously published data results respectively, where I quantified the methods accuracy and precision based on error analysis. The measured permeability samples range is from 0.003 mD to 5341 mD. I review current employed models that are classified as belonging to Poiseuille model.

A Study of Water Supercooling  [PDF]
Amir Gholaminejad, Reza Hosseini
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control (JECTC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jectc.2013.31001
Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to investigate water supercooling. Supercooling occurs when a liquid does not freeze although its temperature is below its freezing point. In general, supercooling is an unstable condition and occurs under special conditions. The parameters that influence supercooling stability and probability of occurrence include freezer temperature and water’s initial temperature. In this paper, it is shown that with a freezer temperature range of -3 to -8, supercooling is most likely to happen and is independent of the water’s initial temperature. Furthermore, as the freezer temperature decreases, the probability of nucleation increases, causing instant freezing. Finally, it is concluded that the Mpemba effect, in which initially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water, is due to the supercooling instability in initially hot water in which nucleation agents are more active.

Developing and Establishing the Psychometric Properties of an Ethos towards Wellness Questionnaire (EtWeQ)  [PDF]
Bengt Fridlund, Amir Baigi
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47057
Abstract:

Aim: Validated instruments exist measuring parts of personal health, ill-health and lifestyle, but there are few, if any, instruments “grasping the big picture” of wellness and ethos. Accordingly the aim was to develop and establish the psychometric properties of a 74-item Ethos towards Wellness Questionnaire (EtWeQ) with regards to content and construct validity, as well as homogeneity and stability reliability. Methods: A questionnaire based on a methodological and developmental design was sent out twice with a four week gap between, on 221 healthy middle-aged participants in four steps: item generating, content validating, statistical analyzing and establishing the final questionnaire. Results: The substantial base, consisting of content validity resulted in, besides basic characteristics, six well-defined and sufficient indexes comprising of; two health indexes (healthiness and ill-healthiness), three life context indexes (work, family, spare time), and one brief comprehensive index (ethos). The three life context as well as the ethos indexes at an ordinal scale level, identified overall satisfactory communalities of >0.30, factor loadings > 0.30, and factor total variance > 50% with regard to construct validity. The homogeneity reliability, in terms of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient > 0.70, at both occasions with a four week gap between, as well as the stability reliability in terms of intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.70, were also considered satisfactory in the same indexes. Conclusions: This newly developed, and likely the only

Antimicrobial Assay of Chlorhexidine-Wetted Textile Napkins for Surgical Site Disinfection in Ocular Surgery  [PDF]
Amir Reza Daneshmand Eslami
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412099
Abstract:

Background: As a new intraoperative disinfection method, chlorhexidine-wetted textile napkins have been employed in order to cover the upper and lower eyelid edges, eyelid skin, eyelashes, lid margins and palpebral conjunctiva during phacoemulsification cataract extraction. This study was conducted to compare the antimicrobial activity of textile napkins before and after their use. Methods: This study evaluated 80 textile napkins wetted with 0.02% aqueous solution of chlorhexidine. All textile napkins were divided into groups. The study group consisted of 60 used textile napkins which were collected from 29 patients (30 eyes) at the end of phacoemulsification, and the control group included 20 unused sterile textile napkins. Antimicrobial assay was performed by means of measuring the growth inhibition zones of the standard or clinical isolate strains under the textile napkins on the surface of agar media. Results: The number of textile napkins and the diameter of the growth inhibition zones (mm) in the study group and in the control group relating to gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungi were: 24/31 vs. 8/31, 32/30 vs. 8/30, and 4/30 vs. 4/30. The diameter of the growth inhibition zones of gram-positive bacteria was more than other investigated microorganisms. In the growth inhibition zones, exogenous microorganism colonies were not found. Conclusion: Antimicrobial activity of textile napkins wetted with 0.02% aqueous solution of chlorhexidine against gram-positive bacteria is more than gram-negative bacteria and fungi, and is preserved to the end of the

Ochratoxin A in dried figs, raisings, apricots, dates on Iranian retail market  [PDF]
Ebrahim Rahimi, Amir Shakerian
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512282
Abstract:

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is among the most important mycotoxins, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). A total of 121 samples of dried fruits from the central zone of Iran were analyzed for OTA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The recovery percentages of OTA in spiked dried fruit samples at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 ng/g were found to be 84.9%, 89.3% and 90.4% as mean, respectively. OTA was found in 20.7% of the analyzed samples by average concentration of 6.7 ± 3.9 ng/g. The incidence rates of OTA contamination in dried fig, raising, apricots, and date samples were 10.4%, 44.7%, 6.7% and 10.0%, respectively. The concentrations of OTA in 7.9% of contaminated dried raising samples and 2.1% of dried fig samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (10 ng/g). This value reflects that the analyzed samples have a minimal contribution to toxicological risk. To our best knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of OTA by ELISA in dried fruit samples in Iran.

 

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