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Agamenon R. E. Oliveira, A History of the Work Concept: From Physics to Economics (New York and London: Springer, 2014)  [PDF]
Babak Amini
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.44023
Abstract: Book Review: Agamenon R. E. Oliveira, A History of the Work Concept: From Physics to Economics (New York and London: Springer, 2014)
A 17-year study of septic arthritis in neonates in two University Hospitals
Amini E,Daneshjou Kh,Ghasemi M
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Septic arthritis in neonates can be difficult to diagnose and may be associated with severe morbidity and even mortality. A majority of apparent septic arthritis cases may have a negative culture, thereby creating a dilemma regarding treatment. The present study investigates demographic, laboratory and clinical variables of septic arthritis in neonates hospitalized over a period of 17 years.Methods: The medical files of all neonates hospitalized in Imam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr Hospitals in Tehran, Iran, from 1989 to 2005 were assessed and the files of 59 neonates with a diagnosis of septic arthritis were further evaluated. Variables such as age, sex, gestational age, birth weight, history of hospitalization, body temperature, involved joints, blood and joint fluid cultures, ESR, CRP, and WBC count were evaluated in this group of hospitalized patients.Results: Of the 59 neonates, 39 cases were male and 20 cases were female. At the time of hospitalization, 45.8% of the neonates were 20-28 days old and 52.2% were 10-20 days old, and 67.7% and 35.6% of cases had been preterm and had low birth weight, respectively. Histories of hospital admission were found for 30.5% of patients. The two most common joints involved were hip (30.5%) and knee (23.72%). The mean body temperature was 36.6oC. ESR was elevated in all patients (mean 85 mm/h) and CRP was positive in all cases. The WBC count was >15,000/mm3 in 39% of the neonates and was in the range of 10,000-15,000/mm3 for 47.4%. Blood and joint fluid cultures were positive in 51% and 91.5% of cases, respectively. The organisms isolated from joint fluid culture were Klebsiella (54%), S. aureus (37%) and E. coli (9%).Conclusion: Due to the rarity of septic arthritis in neonates and paucity of signs and symptoms, all neonates with a high index of suspicion should be examined carefully with septic arthritis in mind.
Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite
Yasini E.,Ataei M.,Amini M
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6) and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interventional study done in Iran polymer institute. Five specimens were considered in each group. All ceramic IPS Empress (Ivoclar- Vivadent) ingots based on leucite crystals were ball milled, passed through an 800 sieve and used as filler. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing the silane- treated fillers with monomers (BisGMA and TEGDMA). Camphorquinone and amine were used as photoinitiator system. Degree of conversion of the light-cured and post-cured composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared pastes were inserted into plexy-glass mold and light cured (700 mw/cm2, 40 s). Then for maximum degree of conversion specimens were post- cured (120oC, 5 hours). Three body abrasion wear testing was performed using a wear machine with 50 rpm rotational movement. In this machine, pumice (150 meshes) was used as the third body. Weight loss of specimens in each group was measured by balance after each 50 hours. After wear testing SEM examination was made specimens in each group. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P<0.05). Tetric Ceram was tested as commercial composite. Results: There were significantly differences between three body abrasive wear of composites. The ranking from lowest to highest was as follows: leucite composite (19%) < Tetric Ceram (22%) < glass composite (28%). leucite composite showed the highest wear resistance value, propably due to the crystalliniy and hardness of filler. Conclusion: Introduction of this new filler as an alternative to glass filler, significantly increases the wear resistance of the resin composites. Further investigations on mechanical properties of new composites would be beneficial in the development of new dental materials.
Prevalence and Etiology of Neonatal Conjunctivitis in Neonates Hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran
E Amini,M Ghasemi,A Zamani
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2006,
Abstract: Background: The purpose of the present study was to identify the prevalence of neonatal conjunctivitis and its bacteriological causes in neonates hospitalized in Imam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr hospitals during 5 years and to investigate the maternal and newborns data in conjunctivitis cases. Methods: All newborns born in or referred to the two above-mentioned hospitals being clinically suspicious of conjunctivitis and with positive microbiology were studied. Findings: Of 4021 neonates hospitalized in the two hospitals, 198 (4.9%) had conjunctivitis. 65% of conjunctivitis cases were delivered by cesarean section. 47% had a history of maternal premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and 11% genitourinary infection. 65% were preterm. 61% had low birth weight and 32% an APGAR score below 7 at birth. Also 22% had septicemia. The most common organism causing ophthalmia was S. aureus (31%). Other pathogens consisted of E. coli (23%), S. epidermidis (22%), Klebsiella (10%), N. gonorrheae (3%), C. trachomatis (2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2%). In neonates with septicemia, the most common cause of conjunctivitis was E. coli (38%). Neonates with E. coli conjunctivitis had significantly (p<0.05) higher rate of history of maternal genitourinary infection and higher rate of septicemia compared to non-E. coli cases. Conclusion: Data such as birth weight, APGAR score, presence of septicemia, maternal genitourinary infections and PROM may play a role in developing neonatal conjunctivitis with different pathogens.
Multifractality and quantum-to-classical crossover in the Coulomb anomaly at the Mott-Anderson metal-insulator transition
M. Amini,V. E. Kravtsov,M. Mueller
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/16/1/015022
Abstract: We study the interaction driven localization transition, which a recent experiment in Ga_{1-x}Mn_xAs As has shown to come along with multifractal behavior of the local density of states (LDoS) and the intriguing persistence of critical correlations close to the Fermi level. We show that the bulk of these phenomena can be understood within a Hartree-Fock treatment of disordered, Coulomb-interacting spinless fermions. A scaling analysis of the LDoS correlation demonstrates multifractality with correlation dimension d_2=1.57, which is significantly larger than at a non-interacting Anderson transition. At the interaction-driven transition the states at the Fermi level become critical, while the bulk of the spectrum remains delocalized up to substantially stronger interactions. The mobility edge stays close to the Fermi energy in a wide range of disorder strength, as the interaction strength is further increased. The localization transition is concomitant with the quantum-to-classical crossover in the shape of the pseudo-gap in the tunneling density of states, and with the proliferation of metastable HF solutions that suggest the onset of a glassy regime with poor screening properties.
A random matrix model with two localization transitions
V. E. Kravtsov,I. M. Khaymovich,E. Cuevas,M. Amini
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/17/12/122002
Abstract: Motivated by the problem of Many-Body Localization and the recent numerical results for the level and eigenfunction statistics on the random regular graphs, a generalization of the Rosenzweig-Porter random matrix model is suggested that possesses two localization transitions as the parameter $\gamma$ of the model varies from 0 to $\infty$. One of them is the Anderson transition from the localized to the extended states that happens at $\gamma=2$. The other one at $\gamma=1$ is the transition from the extended non-ergodic (multifractal) states to the extended ergodic states similar to the eigenstates of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. We computed the two-level spectral correlation function, the spectrum of multifractality $f(\alpha)$ and the wave function overlap which all show the transitions at $\gamma=1$ and $\gamma=2$.
HIV-1 associated dementia: symptoms and causes
Mohammad Ghafouri, Shohreh Amini, Kamel Khalili, Bassel E Sawaya
Retrovirology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-3-28
Abstract: Dementia cannot be considered as a disease by itself but it is the term used to describe a set of symptoms resulting from damages and disorders affecting the brain. These symptoms can be caused by a multitude of diseases and depend upon the specific brain regions affected. These symptoms appear as a variety of cognitive, behavioral, affective, motor, and psychiatric disorders. Dementia can be caused by a variety of diseases, known as neurodegenerative diseases resulting from protein aggregation in the brain [1]. These diseases include Alzheimer's, Lewy bodies, Huntington and Parkinson [1]. Infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to dementia. These infections can be caused by different agents such as: abnormal protein in prion diseases (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), bacteria in syphilis and borrelia, parasites in toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis and neurocysticercosis [2], however viral agents are the leading cause of infection related dementia. Among the viruses infecting the brain, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the most common cause of dementia, other CNS viral infection implying herpes simplex virus type I, Varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus cause encephalitis and severe brain dysfunction. The collection of viral agent infecting the CNS and producing viral encephalitis includes also arboviruses, rabies viruses, polyomaviruses and enteroviruses [3]. Finally, dementia could also be caused by vascular disorders (e.g. multiple-infarct dementia), drug addiction, hydrocephalus, and injury or brain tumors [4,5]. Despite the variability of symptoms with the disease causing dementia there is overlap, potentially because of the involvement of common neural pathways and the nature of the damage. However, the time of appearance, the severity, and type of symptoms allow, in most cases, to help making the distinction between diseases. There are however cases of coexistence of clinical and/or pathological featu
Prevalence of Anaerobic and Aerobic Bacteria in Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis
F Nili,SM Saleh Tabib,E Amini,F Nayeri
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2008,
Abstract: "nBackground: To determine prospectively the prevalence of anaerobic and aerobic infection in early onset (during 72 hours of age) neonatal sepsis, in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital."nMethods: Among all the live birth, neonates suspecting of having septicemia were investigated for isolation of micro-organisms. Culture bottle containing enriched tryptic soy broth was used for standard blood culture system to detect aerobes and an ANAEROBIC/F bottle was inoculated using BACTEC 9120 continuous monitoring blood culture system to deter-mine the growth of anaerobic bacteria. Among 1724 live births, 402 consecutive neonates suspecting of having septicemia were investigated for isolation of micro organism."nResults: A total of 27 episodes of early onset neonatal sepsis occurred with an incidence of 15.66 (11.6 aerobe + 4.0 anaer-obe) per 1000 live births. Aerobic bacteria were the major etiological agents, accounting for 20 cases. 7 (26%) cases had posi-tive blood cultures with anaerobic bacteria. Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococccus (amongst anaerobic) and coagu-lase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus (amongst aerobic) were the most commonly isolated organisms. Compari-son of clinical findings and demographic characteristics between aerobic and anaerobic infection did not have a signifi-cant statistical difference."nConclusion: Our impression is that while anaerobic bacteremia in the newborn infants can occasionally cause severe morbid-ity and mortality, majority of cases experience a self limited illness with transient bacteremia.
Different doses of ibuprofen in the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus: a randomized clinical trial
H Jafari Fesharaki,FS Nayeri,P Akbari asbaq,E Amini
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common finding among premature or low-birth-weight infants and it often does not close. Nowadays, drugs used for its treatment include indomethacin and more commonly ibuprofen. Oral ibuprofen was recently shown to be as effective and have several important advantages in preterm infants. Studies performed to find the best dose of ibuprofen for PDA treatment are limited; hence, we compared the effects of two different doses of ibuprofen in this interventional study.Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, we randomly divided 60 patients with echocardiographically confirmed PDA into two groups of 30. This study was done in NICU of Valiasr hospital in 1387-89 years. In the first group, we administered a loading dose of 10 mg/kg ibuprofen on the first day, followed by two doses of 5 mg/kg in the next two days. In the second group, we administered a loading dose of 15 mg/kg ibuprofen on the first day followed by two doses of 7.5 mg/kg in next two days. Eventually, we compared PDA closure rates and complications of therapy between the two groups. Results: Thirty (100%) patients in 15-mg/kg group and 23 (76.7%) patients in 10 mg/kg group had successful PDA closure with no need for surgery. The two groups had a statistically significant difference (P=0.011) and the highest response to treatment was seen within the first 24 hours of treatment.Conclusion: We may conclude that higher doses of ibuprofen (15 and 2×7.5 mg/kg) would offer better outcomes for PDA closure without gastrointestinal or renal complications and less need for surgery.
Neonatal weaning from ventilator: PSV versus SIMV mode
Nayeri F,Goodarzi R,Amini E,Nili F
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: The use of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) have been used for older children and adults. The purpose of this study was to compare PSV and SIMV modes in weaning from mechanical ventilation in neonate with respiratory failure. "nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study carried out in NICU ward of Valiasr hospital Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, Tehran, Iran. Thirty neonates enrolled in two groups of 15. At the weaning time they randomly assigned to SIMV or PSV. They compared for tidal volume (VT), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), incidence of pneumothorax, weaning failure and duration of weaning. For two groups to be homogeneous, maternal disease during pregnancy were also considered. "nResults: In this study, VT, PIP, incidence of pneumothorax and weaning failure did not differ between groups; duration of ventilation of the two methods (hours) and duration of hospitalization (days) were separately calculated. The only meaningful difference in two groups were due to weaning duration. The neonates weaned by PSV mode experienced shorter weaning time. (6.05 hours). The weaning time in SIMV mode was longer (45 hours) (P=0.006). There were no other meaningful differences between the two groups "nConclusions: According to the results of this study there were no advantage using PSV over SIMV except that the weaning time were shorter in PSV. This decrease in weaning time causes less dependence of the neonate to the ventilator and as a result secure them from complications.
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