Abstract:
We consider the macroscopic model derived by Degond and Motsch from a time-continuous version of the Vicsek model, describing the interaction orientation in a large number of self-propelled particles. In this article, we study the influence of a slight modification at the individual level, letting the relaxation parameter depend on the local density and taking in account some anisotropy in the observation kernel (which can model an angle of vision). The main result is a certain robustness of this macroscopic limit and of the methodology used to derive it. With some adaptations to the concept of generalized collisional invariants, we are able to derive the same system of partial differential equations, the only difference being in the definition of the coefficients, which depend on the density. This new feature may lead to the loss of hyperbolicity in some regimes. We provide then a general method which enables us to get asymptotic expansions of these coefficients. These expansions shows, in some effective situations, that the system is not hyperbolic. This asymptotic study is also useful to measure the influence of the angle of vision in the final macroscopic model, when the noise is small.

Abstract:
We prove the nonlinear local stability of Dirac masses for a kinetic model of alignment of particles on the unit sphere, each point of the unit sphere representing a direction. A population concentrated in a Dirac mass then corresponds to the global alignment of all individuals. The main difficulty of this model is the lack of conserved quantities and the absence of an energy that would decrease for any initial condition. We overcome this difficulty thanks to a functional which is decreasing in time in a neighborhood of any Dirac mass (in the sense of the Wasserstein distance). The results are then extended to the case where the unit sphere is replaced by a general Riemannian manifold.

Abstract:
Motivated by a phenomenon of phase transition in a model of alignment of self-propelled particles, we obtain a kinetic mean-field equation which is nothing else than the Doi equation (also called Smoluchowski equation) with dipolar potential. In a self-contained article, using only basic tools, we analyze the dynamics of this equation in any dimension. We first prove global well-posedness of this equation, starting with an initial condition in any Sobolev space. We then compute all possible steady-states. There is a threshold for the noise parameter: over this threshold, the only equilibrium is the uniform distribution, and under this threshold, there is also a family of non-isotropic equilibria. We give a rigorous prove of convergence of the solution to a steady-state as time goes to infinity. In particular we show that in the supercritical case, the only initial conditions leading to the uniform distribution in large time are those with vanishing momentum. For any positive value of the noise parameter, and any initial condition, we give rates of convergence towards equilibrium, exponentially for both supercritical and subcritical cases and algebraically for the critical case.

Abstract:
We investigate systems of self-propelled particles with alignment interaction. Compared to previous work, the force acting on the particles is not normalized and this modification gives rise to phase transitions from disordered states at low density to aligned states at high densities. This model is the space inhomogeneous extension of a previous work by Frouvelle and Liu in which the existence and stability of the equilibrium states were investigated. When the density is lower than a threshold value, the dynamics is described by a non-linear diffusion equation. By contrast, when the density is larger than this threshold value, the dynamics is described by a hydrodynamic model for self-alignment interactions previously derived in Degond and Motsch. However, the modified normalization of the force gives rise to different convection speeds and the resulting model may lose its hyperbolicity in some regions of the state space.

Abstract:
This paper deals with the derivation and analysis of the the Hall Magneto-Hydrodynamic equations. We first provide a derivation of this system from a two-fluids Euler-Maxwell system for electrons and ions, through a set of scaling limits. We also propose a kinetic formulation for the Hall-MHD equations which contains as fluid closure different variants of the Hall-MHD model. Then, we prove the existence of global weak solutions for the incompressible viscous resistive Hall-MHD model. We use the particular structure of the Hall term which has zero contribution to the energy identity. Finally, we discuss particular solutions in the form of axisymmetric purely swirling magnetic fields and propose some regularization of the Hall equation.

Abstract:
In this note, we study the phase transitions arising in a modified Smoluchowski equation on the sphere with dipolar potential. This equation models the competition between alignment and diffusion, and the modification consists in taking the strength of alignment and the intensity of the diffusion as functions of the order parameter. We characterize the stable and unstable equilibrium states. For stable equilibria, we provide the exponential rate of convergence. We detail special cases, giving rise to second order and first order phase transitions, respectively. We study the hysteresis diagram, and provide numerical illustrations of this phenomena.

Abstract:
We provide a complete and rigorous description of phase transitions for kinetic models of self-propelled particles interacting through alignment. These models exhibit a competition between alignment and noise. Both the alignment frequency and noise intensity depend on a measure of the local alignment. We show that, in the spatially homogeneous case, the phase transition features (number and nature of equilibria, stability, convergence rate, phase diagram, hysteresis) are totally encoded in how the ratio between the alignment and noise intensities depend on the local alignment. In the spatially inhomogeneous case, we derive the macroscopic models associated to the stable equilibria and classify their hyperbolicity according to the same function.

Abstract:
In this paper, we review recent developments on the derivation and properties of macroscopic models of collective motion and self-organization. The starting point is a model of self-propelled particles interacting with its neighbors through alignment. We successively derive a mean-field model and its hydrodynamic limit. The resulting macroscopic model is the Self-Organized Hydrodynamics (SOH). We review the available existence results and known properties of the SOH model and discuss it in view of its possible extensions to other kinds of collective motion.

Abstract:
Most current designs are aimed at achieving success in the market. The design industry is generally interested in creating designs that can connect with users. However, not all designs successfully connect with users or create valuable design experiences. Hence, scholars in the discipline of user experience are increasingly investigating user experience mechanisms including the roles of human needs, affective concerns, thoughts, and actions. Studies have revealed that different senses, such as the auditory and visual, are connections influencing design consumption experiences. Such experiences highly influenced user satisfaction with designs. This finding could invoke a shift in the current design trend, from a function-oriented to an experience-oriented approach. Studies have also demonstrated that affective concerns have become a promising aspect of design experience and enhanced the influence of experience on an individual’s memory. Hence, affective concerns are crucial factors in the perception of design experience. Studies on design and affective concerns have investigated techniques for intentionally eliciting the affective concerns of users through designed solutions. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the relationships between affective changes and design outcomes and developed tools for supporting designers in introducing affective concerns in design. In addition, a critical literature review was undertaken to investigate the state of the art in user experience and analyze, compare, and enhance existing knowledge. The investigation revealed the understanding of the affective changes which is one of the important factors to influence the perception of design experience. This understanding is an essential criterion of shaping the design experience for users. Hence, a set of guideline was proposed for generating user experience with affective concerns. It is a tool for designer to shape the design experience with affective concerns of users.

Abstract:
The multiple scattering of scalar waves in diffusive media is investigated by means of the radiative transfer equation. This approach amounts to a resummation of the ladder diagrams of the Born series; it does not rely on the diffusion approximation. Quantitative predictions are obtained, concerning various observables pertaining to optically thick slabs, such as the mean angle-resolved reflected and transmitted intensities, and the shape of the enhanced backscattering cone. Special emphasis is put on the dependence of these quantities on the anisotropy of the cross-section of the individual scatterers, and on the internal reflections due to the optical index mismatch at the boundaries of the sample. The regime of very anisotropic scattering, where the transport mean free path $\ell^*$ is much larger than the scattering mean free path $\ell$, is studied in full detail. For the first time the relevant Schwarzschild-Milne equation is solved exactly in the absence of internal reflections, and asymptotically in the regime of a large index mismatch. An unexpected outcome concerns the angular width of the enhanced backscattering cone, which is predicted to scale as $\Delta\theta\sim\lambda/\sqrt{\ell\ell^*}$, in contrast with the generally accepted $\lambda/\ell^*$ law, derived within the diffusion approximation.