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Provision and awareness for isoniazid preventive therapy among PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Amenu Wesen, Getnet Mitike
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-12-2
Abstract: Between February 2008 and May 2008, a cross sectional facility-based survey was conducted by exit interview of 406 PLHIV from six health facilities. The findings were analyzed and described in this report.The proportion of PLHIV ever had been provided with IPT were 74 of 231 TB free PLHIV (32.0%) and the proportion of having information about IPT among study participants was 29.8%. Females were about two times more informed about the provision of IPT in their health facilities than males [AOR (95%CI): 2.18 (1.31-3.61)].We conclude that the practice of provision of IPT for PLHIV is high, but there is room for improvement. Provision of INH for TB free PLHIV has to be strengthened with better diagnostic facilities to certainly rule out active TB cases.The spread of the HIV epidemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa has been accompanied by up to a fourfold increase in the number of TB cases registered by national TB programs [1]. Several researchers have reported the benefit of IPT for PLHIV in reducing the incidence of tuberculosis including in resource poor countries where TB infection rates are very high [2-7]. Interventions for preventing and treating TB include: IPT intensified case finding for active TB and TB infection control [8]. The World Health Organization recommends IPT for all PLHIV in countries with a prevalence of latent TB infection > 30%, and for all PLHIV with documented latent TB infection or exposure to an infectious TB case. In the same policy report it is indicated that the combined use of IPT and antiretroviral therapy among PLHIV significantly reduces new infections [8]. Most IPT studies focused on issues related to adherence by PLHIV [9,10].Information about the status of IPT provision and awareness of PLHIV regarding IPT in Ethiopia is limited. This is due to the absence of well standardized information flow at all levels and scarcity of research based evidences.Therefore, this paper attempted to present the status of IPT provision and awareness a
A model for hydraulic redistribution incorporating coupled soil-root moisture transport
G. G. Amenu ,P. Kumar
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: One of the adaptive strategies of vegetation, particularly in water limited ecosystems, is the development of deep roots and the use of hydraulic redistribution which enables them to make optimal use of resources available throughout the soil column. Hydraulic redistribution refers to roots acting as a preferential pathway for the movement of water from wet to dry soil layers driven by the moisture gradient – be it from the shallow to deep layers or vice versa. This occurs during the nighttime while during the daytime moisture movement is driven to fulfill the transpiration demand at the canopy. In this study, we develop a model to investigate the effect of hydraulic redistribution by deep roots on the terrestrial climatology. Sierra Nevada eco-region is chosen as the study site which has wet winters and dry summers. Hydraulic redistribution enables the movement of moisture from the upper soil layers to deeper zones during the wet months and this moisture is then available to meet the transpiration demand during the late dry season. It results in significant alteration of the profiles of soil moisture and water uptake as well as increase in the canopy transpiration, carbon assimilation, and the associated water-use-efficiency during the dry summer season. This also makes the presence of roots in deeper soil layers much more important than their proportional abundance would otherwise dictate. Comparison with observations of latent heat from a flux tower demonstrates improved predictability and provides validation of the model results. Hydraulic redistribution serves as a mechanism for the interaction between the variability of deep layer soil-moisture and the land-surface climatology and could have significant implications for seasonal and sub-seasonal climate prediction.
A model for hydraulic redistribution incorporating coupled soil-root moisture transport
G. G. Amenu,P. Kumar
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: One of the adaptive strategies of vegetation, particularly in water limited ecosystems, is the development of deep roots and the use of hydraulic redistribution which enables them to make optimal use of resources available throughout the soil column. Hydraulic redistribution refers to roots acting as a preferential pathway for the movement of water from wet to dry soil layers driven by the moisture gradient – be it from the shallow to deep layers or vice versa. This occurs during the nighttime while during the daytime moisture movement is driven to fulfill the transpiration demand at the canopy. In this study, we develop a model to investigate the effect of hydraulic redistribution by deep roots on the terrestrial climatology. Sierra Nevada eco-region is chosen as the study site which has wet winters and dry summers. Hydraulic redistribution enables the movement of moisture from the upper soil layers to deeper zones during the wet months and this moisture is then available to meet the transpiration demand during the late dry season. It results in significant alteration of the profiles of soil moisture and water uptake as well as increase in the canopy transpiration, carbon assimilation, and the associated water-use-efficiency during the dry summer season. This also makes the presence of roots in deeper soil layers much more important than their proportional abundance would otherwise dictate. Comparison with observations of latent heat from a flux tower demonstrates improved predictability and provides validation of the model results. Hydraulic redistribution serves as a mechanism for the interaction between the variability of deep layer soil-moisture and the land-surface climatology and could have significant implications for seasonal and sub-seasonal climate prediction.
Surgical Site Infection Rate and Risk Factors among Obstetric Cases of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia
D Amenu, T Belachew, F Araya
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Surgical Site infections are the second most frequently reported infections of all nosocomial infections among hospital patients. Among surgical patients in obstetrics, Surgical Site Infections were the most common nosocomial infections and the rate is higher in sub-Saharan Africa. There has not been a study which documented the extent of the problem in the study area; hence the objective of this study was to determine the surgical site infection rate among women having surgery for delivery in obstetrics of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) from April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study design was conducted with the aim of determining the surgical site infection rate on all 770 women who had surgery for delivery from April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010 in obstetric ward of the Hospital. Data on history of the patient, patient specific demographic information on potential risk factors and the occurrence of Surgical Site infections in the first 30 days following surgery were collected using pretested data collection form. In addition, relevant data were also abstracted from the operation logbook of the cases. Then data were cleaned, edited and fed to computer and analyzed using SPSS for window version 16.0. Finally Statistical test for significance was employed using chi-squared (X 2) where appropriate at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) of the subjects’ age was 26(±7) years and the majority of the women were from the rural areas (72.7%). The overall surgical site infection rate was 11.4%. Of those who had surgical site infections, 64.8% had clean-contaminated wound and 35.2% had contaminated /dirty wounds. Wound class at time of surgery has a statistically significant association with Surgical Site infections (p < 0.001).The Surgical Site infections rate was similar for cesarean section and abdominal hysterectomy but higher for destructive delivery under direct vision. Majority of the operations were made for emergency Obstetric conditions (96.6%) and the Surgical Site Infections rate was two times higher compared to that of elective surgery. Chorioamnionitis, presence of meconium, large intraoperative blood loss and Perioperative blood transfusion were associated with increased severity of SSIs with p < 0.001. Absence of antenatal care follow up was also associated with increased severity of Surgical Site Infections. CONCLUSION: it has been revealed that Surgical Site Infections rates are higher than acceptable standards indicating the need for improving Antenatal care, increasing the number of skilled birth attendants at the local clinics, increasing basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care services, applying improved surgical techniques and improving infection prevention practices to decrease infection rate to acceptable standard. KEYWORDS: surgical site infection, antenatal care, chorioamnionitis, meconium.
Cuauthemone sesquiterpenes and flavones from Laggera tomentosa endemic to Ethiopia
Kibrom Gebreheiwot, Dibaba Amenu, Nigist Asfaw
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2010,
Abstract: Three sesquiterpenes, 3-O-(3’-acetoxy-2’-hydroxy-2’-methylbutyryl)cuauthemone (1), 4-O-acetylcuauthemone-3-O-angelate (2), 4-O-acetylcuauthemone 3-O-(2’-hydroxy-2’-methyl-3’-acetoxybutyrate) (3) and two flavones, 3’,4’,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone (4), 3’,5,6-trihydroxy-3,4’,7-trimethoxyflavone (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Laggera tomentosa. The compounds were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignment of compound 1 was done for the first time. This is the first report on the occurrence of cuauthemone sesquiterpenes in the genus Laggera. KEY WORDS: Laggera tomentosa, Asteraceae, Cuauthemone sesquiterpenes, 3-O-(3’-acetoxy-2’-hydroxy-2’-methylbutyryl)cuauthemone Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010, 24(2), 267-271.
Cuauthemone sesquiterpenes and flavones from Laggera tomentosa endemic to Ethiopia
Kibrom Gebreheiwot,Dibaba Amenu,Nigist Asfaw
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2010,
Abstract: Three sesquiterpenes, 3-O-(3’-acetoxy-2’-hydroxy-2’-methylbutyryl)cuauthemone (1), 4-O-acetylcuauthemone-3-O-angelate (2), 4-O-acetylcuauthemone 3-O-(2’-hydroxy-2’-methyl-3’-acetoxybutyrate) (3) and two flavones, 3’,4’,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone (4), 3’,5,6-trihydroxy-3,4’,7-trimethoxyflavone (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Laggera tomentosa. The compounds were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignment of compound 1 was done for the first time. This is the first report on the occurrence of cuauthemone sesquiterpenes in the genus Laggera.
HIV Screening among TB Patients and Co-Trimoxazole Preventive Therapy for TB/HIV Patients in Addis Ababa: Facility Based Descriptive Study
Amenu Wesen Denegetu, Bethabile Lovely Dolamo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086614
Abstract: Background Collaborative TB/HIV management is essential to ensure that HIV positive TB patients are identified and treated appropriately, and to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in HIV positive patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV case finding among TB patients and Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) for HIV/TB patients in Addis Ababa. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional, facility-based survey was conducted between June and July 2011. Data was collected by interviewing 834 TB patients from ten health facilities in Addis Ababa. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and analyze findings. Results The proportion of TB patients who (self reported) were offered for HIV test, tested for HIV and tested HIV positive during their anti-TB treatment follow-up were; 87.4%, 69.4% and 20.2%; respectively. Eighty seven HIV positive patients were identified, who knew their status before diagnosed for the current TB disease, bringing the cumulative prevalence of HIV among TB patients to 24.5%. Hence, the proportion of TB patients who knew their HIV status becomes 79.9%. The study revealed that 43.6% of those newly identified HIV positives during anti-TB treatment follow-up were actually treated with CPT. However, the commutative proportion of HIV positive TB patients who were ever treated with CPT was 54.4%; both those treated before the current TB disease and during anti-TB treatment follow-up. Conclusions HIV case finding among TB patients and provision of CPT for TB/HIV co-infected patients needs boosting. Hence, routine offering of HIV test and provision of CPT for PLHIV should be strengthened in-line with the national guidelines.
Patterns of health-seeking behaviour amongst leprosy patients in former Shoa Province, Ethiopia
Assefa Amenu, June Nash, Tefera Tamiru, Peter Byass
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: This case-control study sought to determine factors influencing the early reporting of leprosy patients to modern treatment units. The Cases were 31 patients presenting with WHO disability grade 2 while controls were 48 patients presenting with grade 0. More than three- quarters (77%) of the cases waited for longer than 1 year before going to a leprosy clinic, whereas only 60% of the controls had waited over one year. On finding their first symptom, 68% of the cases and 23% of the controls went to a traditional healer. Ex-leprosy patients were found to be important advisors for early treatment. Compared with patients who sought traditional treatment, those whose initial contact was with the general health services had better outcomes. Worsening of symptoms was the final motivation for many of the patients to move from the traditional healer to the leprosy clinic. There were no significant differences between cases and controls with regard to sex, occupation, education or ethnic group. The study showed the need for intensive health education using different strategies to improve voluntary self-reporting of early cases of leprosy. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development: 2000, 14(1): 43-48)
Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in Arsi-Negele District Ethiopia: Prevalence in Ruminants and People's Behaviour towards Zoonoses
Amenu, K.,Thys, E.,Regassa, A.,Marcotty, T.
Tropicultura , 2010,
Abstract: A study was carried out in Arsi-Negele District of Southern Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in livestock and to identify risk behaviours that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. The study involved testing some 400 cattle, 200 sheep and 170 goats for tuberculosis and brucellosis and interviewing 98 livestock keepers. Single comparative intradermal tuberculin test and Rose Bengal plate test were used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and brucellosis, respectively. Tuberculosis was recorded in 27 cattle, 1 goat and 1 sheep. In cattle, the estimated individuallevel and herd-level tuberculosis prevalence was 5.9% and 35%, respectively. The individual-level and herdlevel brucellosis prevalence in cattle was 2.6% and 12%, respectively. The questionnaire survey showed that most respondents had no accurate knowledge about the transmission of zoonoses. It was also found that some of their behaviours would potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to human, such as raw animal product consumption and backyard slaughtering. Even though the prevalence of the two diseases was relatively low, surveillance and prevention may be warranted taking into account possible animal genetic improvement programs, unrestricted animal movement in the area and low awareness of the community about zoonoses, which might result in an increased transmission to humans.
Comparative Study of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Compounds Isolated from Solvent Extracts of the Roots of Securinega virosa  [PDF]
Justice D. Amenu, David Neglo, Daniel A. Abaye
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2019.78003
Abstract: There are several lines of indications on the importance of plants as accepted sources of therapeutic agents since most synthetic antioxidants and antibiotics have been associated with cytotoxicity and/or microbial resistance. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of a brown compound recovered from the ethanol extractable fraction (EEF) and white crystals isolated from the chloroform-methanol elution (CME) following column chromatography of the ethanolic extracts of roots of Securinega virosa were examined. Preparations from the white crystalline compound recorded greater antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activities than the crude ethanol extracts of S. virosa. Both the ethanol extract and the crystals showed significant antimicrobial activities against all microbes employed in this study. The crystalline compound demonstrated the highest zone of inhibition against the microbes Enterococcus faecalis with varied inhibitory activities with respect to other microorganisms. The least inhibition was against Pseudomonas fluorescens. The overall range was 8.0 - 22.5 mm. The EEF of the roots of S. virosa recorded its highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. There was varied inhibitory activity against other organisms; the least was against Micrococcus liteus. The zone of inhibition ranged 6.33 - 17.67 mm. Similar to the trends in susceptibility test, the EEF showed appreciable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ranging from 3.13 - 25 mg/mL against test microorganisms while the crystalline preparation had a MIC range of 1.5 - 25 mg/mL except against Salmonella typhii which was 50 mg/mL. Both extracts demonstrated their highest activity against E. faecalis reducing significantly in a dose-dependent manner by each sample against the rest of the test microbes. However, the standard broad-spectrum antibiotic, chloramphenicol, used elicited a zone of inhibition ranging from 0 - 30 mm but with no activity against Streptococcus thermophilus. We conclude that both the EEF and the white crystal compound isolated from the CME chromatographic fraction are potentially excellent sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.
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