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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 85270 matches for " Amelia W. Cheney "
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A Virtual World for Collaboration: The AETZone
Amelia W. Cheney,Robert L. Sanders,Nita J. Matzen,Stephen C. Bronack
Themes in Science and Technology Education , 2009,
Abstract: Participation in learning communities, and the construction of knowledge in communities ofpractice, are important considerations in the use of 3D immersive worlds. This article describesthe creation of this type of learning environment in AETZone, an immersive virtualenvironment in use within graduate programs at Appalachian State University since 2000.Both student and faculty perceptions of elements such as presence, co-presence, and the forgingof active community are presented, along with examples of formal and informal activitieswhich serve as the base for teaching and learning in the Zone.
Causality and the Semantics of Provenance
James Cheney
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.26.6
Abstract: Provenance, or information about the sources, derivation, custody or history of data, has been studied recently in a number of contexts, including databases, scientific workflows and the Semantic Web. Many provenance mechanisms have been developed, motivated by informal notions such as influence, dependence, explanation and causality. However, there has been little study of whether these mechanisms formally satisfy appropriate policies or even how to formalize relevant motivating concepts such as causality. We contend that mathematical models of these concepts are needed to justify and compare provenance techniques. In this paper we review a theory of causality based on structural models that has been developed in artificial intelligence, and describe work in progress on using causality to give a semantics to provenance graphs.
Logic Column 14: Nominal Logic and Abstract Syntax
James Cheney
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: Formalizing syntactic proofs of properties of logics, programming languages, security protocols, and other formal systems is a significant challenge, in large part because of the obligation to handle name-binding correctly. We present an approach called nominal abstract syntax that has attracted considerable interest since its introduction approximately six years ago. After an overview of other approaches, we describe nominal abstract syntax and nominal logic, a logic for reasoning about nominal abstract syntax. We also discuss applications of nominal techniques to programming, automated reasoning, and identify some future directions.
A dependent nominal type theory
James Cheney
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-8(1:8)2012
Abstract: Nominal abstract syntax is an approach to representing names and binding pioneered by Gabbay and Pitts. So far nominal techniques have mostly been studied using classical logic or model theory, not type theory. Nominal extensions to simple, dependent and ML-like polymorphic languages have been studied, but decidability and normalization results have only been established for simple nominal type theories. We present a LF-style dependent type theory extended with name-abstraction types, prove soundness and decidability of beta-eta-equivalence checking, discuss adequacy and canonical forms via an example, and discuss extensions such as dependently-typed recursion and induction principles.
Static Enforceability of XPath-Based Access Control Policies
James Cheney
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We consider the problem of extending XML databases with fine-grained, high-level access control policies specified using XPath expressions. Most prior work checks individual updates dynamically, which is expensive (requiring worst-case execution time proportional to the size of the database). On the other hand, static enforcement can be performed without accessing the database but may be incomplete, in the sense that it may forbid accesses that dynamic enforcement would allow. We introduce topological characterizations of XPath fragments in order to study the problem of determining when an access control policy can be enforced statically without loss of precision. We introduce the notion of fair policies that are statically enforceable, and study the complexity of determining fairness and of static enforcement itself.
A simple sequent calculus for nominal logic
James Cheney
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Nominal logic is a variant of first-order logic that provides support for reasoning about bound names in abstract syntax. A key feature of nominal logic is the new-quantifier, which quantifies over fresh names (names not appearing in any values considered so far). Previous attempts have been made to develop convenient rules for reasoning with the new-quantifier, but we argue that none of these attempts is completely satisfactory. In this article we develop a new sequent calculus for nominal logic in which the rules for the new- quantifier are much simpler than in previous attempts. We also prove several structural and metatheoretic properties, including cut-elimination, consistency, and equivalence to Pitts' axiomatization of nominal logic.
Flux: FunctionaL Updates for XML (extended report)
James Cheney
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: XML database query languages have been studied extensively, but XML database updates have received relatively little attention, and pose many challenges to language design. We are developing an XML update language called Flux, which stands for FunctionaL Updates for XML, drawing upon ideas from functional programming languages. In prior work, we have introduced a core language for Flux with a clear operational semantics and a sound, decidable static type system based on regular expression types. Our initial proposal had several limitations. First, it lacked support for recursive types or update procedures. Second, although a high-level source language can easily be translated to the core language, it is difficult to propagate meaningful type errors from the core language back to the source. Third, certain updates are well-formed yet contain path errors, or ``dead'' subexpressions which never do any useful work. It would be useful to detect path errors, since they often represent errors or optimization opportunities. In this paper, we address all three limitations. Specifically, we present an improved, sound type system that handles recursion. We also formalize a source update language and give a translation to the core language that preserves and reflects typability. We also develop a path-error analysis (a form of dead-code analysis) for updates.
Regular Expression Subtyping for XML Query and Update Languages
James Cheney
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: XML database query languages such as XQuery employ regular expression types with structural subtyping. Subtyping systems typically have two presentations, which should be equivalent: a declarative version in which the subsumption rule may be used anywhere, and an algorithmic version in which the use of subsumption is limited in order to make typechecking syntax-directed and decidable. However, the XQuery standard type system circumvents this issue by using imprecise typing rules for iteration constructs and defining only algorithmic typechecking, and another extant proposal provides more precise types for iteration constructs but ignores subtyping. In this paper, we consider a core XQuery-like language with a subsumption rule and prove the completeness of algorithmic typechecking; this is straightforward for XQuery proper but requires some care in the presence of more precise iteration typing disciplines. We extend this result to an XML update language we have introduced in earlier work.
Causality and the semantics of provenance
James Cheney
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Provenance, or information about the sources, derivation, custody or history of data, has been studied recently in a number of contexts, including databases, scientific workflows and the Semantic Web. Many provenance mechanisms have been developed, motivated by informal notions such as influence, dependence, explanation and causality. However, there has been little study of whether these mechanisms formally satisfy appropriate policies or even how to formalize relevant motivating concepts such as causality. We contend that mathematical models of these concepts are needed to justify and compare provenance techniques. In this paper we review a theory of causality based on structural models that has been developed in artificial intelligence, and describe work in progress on a causal semantics for provenance graphs.
A New Method of Synthesizing Black Birnessite Nanoparticles: From Brown to Black Birnessite with Nanostructures
Marcos A. Cheney,Pradip K. Bhowmik,Shizhi Qian,Sang W. Joo,Wensheng Hou,Joseph M. Okoh
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/763706
Abstract: A new method for preparing black birnessite nanoparticles is introduced. The initial synthesis process resembles the classical McKenzie method of preparing brown birnessite except for slower cooling and closing the system from the ambient air. Subsequent process, including wet-aging at 7°C for 48 hours, overnight freezing, and lyophilization, is shown to convert the brown birnessite into black birnessite with complex nanomorphology with folded sheets and spirals. Characterization of the product is performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and N2 adsorption (BET) techniques. Wet-aging and lyophilization times are shown to affect the architecture of the product. XRD patterns show a single phase corresponding to a semicrystalline birnessite-based manganese oxide. TEM studies suggest its fibrous and petal-like structures. The HRTEM images at 5 and 10 nm length scales reveal the fibrils in folding sheets and also show filamentary breaks. The BET surface area of this nanomaterial was found to be 10.6 m2/g. The TGA measurement demonstrated that it possessed an excellent thermal stability up to 400°C. Layer-structured black birnessite nanomaterial containing sheets, spirals, and filamentary breaks can be produced at low temperature (?49°C) from brown birnessite without the use of cross-linking reagents.
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