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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 556882 matches for " Ameel M. R. Al-Mayah "
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Simulation of Enzyme Catalysis in Calcium Alginate Beads
Ameel M. R. Al-Mayah
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/459190
Abstract: A general mathematical model for a fixed bed immobilized enzyme reactor was developed to simulate the process of diffusion and reaction inside the biocatalyst particle. The modeling and simulation of starch hydrolysis using immobilized α-amylase were used as a model for this study. Corn starch hydrolysis was carried out at a constant pH of 5.5 and temperature of . The substrate flow rate was ranging from 0.2 to 5.0?mL/min, substrate initial concentrations 1 to 100?g/L. α-amylase was immobilized on to calcium alginate hydrogel beads of 2?mm average diameter. In this work Michaelis-Menten kinetics have been considered. The effect of substrate flow rate (i.e., residence time) and initial concentration on intraparticle diffusion have been taken into consideration. The performance of the system is found to be affected by the substrate flow rate and initial concentrations. The reaction is controlled by the reaction rate. The model equation was a nonlinear second order differential equation simulated based on the experimental data for steady state condition. The simulation was achieved numerically using FINITE ELEMENTS in MATLAB software package. The simulated results give satisfactory results for substrate and product concentration profiles within the biocatalyst bead. 1. Introduction Enzyme immobilization on to supports (or carriers) and their applications as catalysts have grown considerably during the last three decades, and during the last few years have become the most exciting aspects of biotechnology [1–3]. Several methods of enzyme immobilization exist and can be classified into three main categories: carrier binding, cross linking, and entrapment [1]. A number of advantages of enzyme immobilization on to support and several major reasons are the ability to stop the reaction rapidly by removing the enzyme from the reaction solution (or vice versa), products being free of enzyme (especially useful in the food and pharmaceutical industries), reduced effluent disposal problems, suitability for continuous reactor operation, and multiple or respective use of a single batch of enzymes, especially if the enzymes are scarce or expensive, their applicability to continuous processes, and the minimization of pH and substrate-inhibition effects. This has an obvious economic impact and allows the utilization of reactors with high enzyme loads [4]. Enzyme entrapment within a gel matrix is one of the enzyme immobilization ways. In this way, the enzyme is surrounded by a semipermeable membrane. Enzyme support of a specific structure permits the contact between the
Effect of Fish Oil on Immune Response in Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against IBD
Ali A.S. Al-Mayah
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: IBD can only be controlled by proper vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an intermediate strain of live attenuated IBD vaccine in broiler chicks at 7th day of age, as well as the effect of fish oil on immune response in birds vaccinated with IBD vaccine. One hundred forty, day-old broiler chicks were reared and used for this purpose. The chicks were divided into 7 groups A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Groups A, B and C were vaccinated via drinking water route at 7th day whereas D, E and F were vaccinated at 14th day of age. Groups B, C, E and F were fed 50gm fish oil/kg diet for one week either before or after vaccination. Group G was acted as control. Three chicks from each group were sacrificed by decapitation one week interval from the first day until 28th day of age and bursa weight to body weight (Bursal index) was recorded at these periods. Blood samples were collected for detection IBD antibody titer using ELISA at all these periods from control group for detection MDA, whereas the blood has been collected from the treated groups at a period of seven days after vaccination until the end of the experiment at 28th day of age to detect the effect of time of vaccination and fish oil supplementation on the IBD antibody titer. On necropsy, the gross pathological changes were recorded. The changes were occurred after 7 days postvaccination. The affected bursa was edematous and covered with yellowish transudate, other showed pinpoint mucosal surface necrosis, whereas other undergo atrophy. The Bursal Index (BI) was gradually increased from 1st-28th day of age in the control group, whereas in group A it was increased from the 1st to the 7th day and decreased thereafter. In group D the index was increased from the 1st-14th day and decreased thereafter until the 28th day of age. The MDA of control group was decreased from the 1st to the 28th day. The antibody titer of group A was decreased in a way similar to that of the control group, but a significant (p<0.05) difference was present between them at 14th day and thereafter, whereas in group D it was decreased from the 1st-14th day and then increased at 21st and 28th of age. Fish oil supplemented groups exhibited a slight numerical increment of both BI and antibody titer. Although single dose at the 7th day old vaccination could induce slight increase of IBD antibody in comparison to that of the control, vaccination at the 14th day of age induced high and protective level of IBD antibody titer. These may be due to the ability of vaccine at each time of vaccination to neutraliz
Immune Response of Broiler Chicks to DL-Methionine Supplementation at Different Ages
Ali A.S. Al-Mayah
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of methionine (ME) supplementation on immune response of broiler chicks during the period of 1st -7th and 29th - 36th day of age. The amino acid powder was supplemented as 1gm/L of drinking water or as 1gm/kg of feed during these early and late period of supplementation. The mean value of bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus weights of chicks supplemented DL-ME during the early period of age showed significant increment (P< 0.05). Whereas chicks which were supplemented during the late period of the maturation of the immune system did not show significant increasing in lymphoid organ weights. Of all the blood parameters examined, the red blood cell counts and mean cell volume showed significant increment (P< 0.05) from the control. Other haematological values were more than that of the normal values. The values of serum and liver total protein, albumin and globulin were highest but did not vary significantly from one another and from the control. We concluded that better immune response could be obtained with adequate supplementation of ME which have been identified to be in marginal quantities in poultry feed.
Influence of Antibiotics Treatment on Hematological Aspect in Chickens
Ali A.S. AL-Mayah,Jalaa A. AL-Ahmed
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: Two experiments were described in which sixty one-day old (IPA) chicks were distributed into four equal groups, three for treatment & the other for control. Ampicillin, Enrofloxacine or Amoxicillin were used for five consecutive days via drinking water for treatment for at the first and twenty second day of life. Five birds from each group were slaughtered on 6 and 28 days post treatment and hematological examinationsperformed on blood samples collected just prior to slaughter. Changes in PCV, HB, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC were observed. The investigations demonstrated a fall in hematological values in body chicks, Whereas in older ages these values were analogous with normal ranges. The changes were not substantiate the presence of anemia. They might be an indications of an incidental haemodilutionin the hematological observed in this study.
Investigation on Bursa Fabricius and Body Weights in Broiler and Local Chicks Vaccinated with Two Types of Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines
Ali A.S. Al-Mayah,Mudhar A.S. Abu Tabeekh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: Forty five Hubbard broiler chicks and Forty five local chicks of one day old were reared on litter floor for 35 days. The chicks were divided into six groups A, B and C for broiler chicks, D, E and F for local chicks. The chicks of group A and D were vaccinated with an intermediate vaccine (Bursine -2) whereas, the chicks of group B and E were vaccinated with an intermediate-plus type of vaccine (Bursine Plus). Vaccination has been performed at 14th day. The chicks of group C and F were acted as control. Five chicks were sacrificed by decapitation from the experimental groups at 21st, 28th and 35th day and the bursae were removed, bursa weight (gram) and body weight (gram) were recorded for each individual bird. Significant decrease of bursa weight (p<0.05) was found in group B compared with that of group C at 21st day. The bursa weights in group D and E of local chicks were significantly differed at (p<0.05) from that of control group (F). The body weights of group D and E of local chicks were significantly decreased from those of group F at (p<0.05). The present study revealed that the more pathogenic intermediate vaccine (intermediate-plus) caused severe bursa of Fabricius injury in vaccinated local chicks. This could be explained by the lower degree of attenuation of this kind of vaccine and may be also related to the lack of maternally-derived antibody in these chicks.
Fulminant hepatic failure in association with quetiapine: a case report
Al Mutairi Fawaz,Dwivedi Girish,Al Ameel Turki
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-418
Abstract: Introduction Fulminant hepatic failure is a serious disease with significant mortality and morbidity. Identifying the exact cause of hepatic failure and predicting prognosis is of paramount importance in managing such patients. Drug-induced liver injury is a common but challenging entity to treat. The use of newer drugs and medications with previously unknown hepatotoxicity add to the challenges faced by treating physicians. Quetiapine is an antipsychotic that has rarely been linked to acute liver injury. In the present work we describe a case of fulminant hepatic failure secondary to use of quetiapine. Case presentation A 59-year-old Caucasian woman with known Parkinson’s disease was being treated with quetiapine for hallucinations. She was referred to our hospital with yellow discoloration of the sclera and later on developed clinical features suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy. A diagnosis of fulminant hepatic failure was made following her admission to the intensive care unit. Her condition improved after discontinuing the drug and providing the standard supportive treatment. Conclusions Our findings in the present report emphasize the importance of keeping an open mind in cases of fulminant hepatic failure. As drug-induced hepatotoxicity is the most common cause of fulminant hepatic failure in many parts of the world, consideration should be given to the medication(s) patients receive as the potential cause and a review of this list should be part of the clinical care given.
Renal Allograft Thrombosis in the Early Post Transplant Period  [PDF]
M. Budruddin, Issa Al Salmi, R. Shilpa
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2013.33027
Abstract:

Renal allograft thrombosis involving either the renal artery or the veins is a well known entity in clinical practice. This complication of the renal transplant surgery is more common in the early part of the post transplant period and it is usually associated with acute antibody mediated rejection. This more commonly occurs in the paediatric renal transplant and also seems to have some relation to the duration of peritoneal dialysis pretransplant. However, the occurrence of graft thrombosis in isolation without clinical or histological graft rejection is not rare. We encountered a patient in whom the renal allograft thrombosis occurred after 6 weeks of commercial renal transplantation without any histological evidence of rejection.

New oxorhenium (V) complex with an imidazol [NN] /hydantoin [SN] mixed ligand system, and radiochemical behavior of its oxotechnetium (V) complex analog  [PDF]
N. S. Al-Hokbany, R. M. Mahfouz, I. J. Al-Jammaz
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2011.22012
Abstract: A [ReO(Imz)(Hyd)(H2O)2OH] complex was successfully synthesized by the ligand exchange method using oxorhenuim citrate and an imidazole /Hydanton mixed ligand system. Geometry optimization of complex has been carried out using DFT at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ functional in singlet state. B3LYP predicated infrared spectrum of the geometrically optimized structure using the same level of the theory and the same base set showed good agreement with experimentally observed values. The spin allowed singlet-singlet electronic transition of the [ReO(Imz)(Hyd) (H2O)2OH] complex was calculated with time dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) and the UV-Vis spectra has been discussed on this basis. The complex was characterized using microanalysis and IR, UV-Vis, NMR and mass spectroscopic. The technetium tracer [99mTcO(Imz)(Hyd) (H2O)2OH] has also been synthesized by two methods using 99mTc-gluconate as a precursor or; by direct reduction. The radiochemical purity of the complex was over 95% as measured by thin layer chromatography. In vitro studies showed that the complex possessed good stability under physiological conditions. The partition coefficient indicated that the complex hydrophilic and the electrophoresis results showed that the complex cationic. Biodistrbution in mice showed that the complex accumulated in heart uptake of 9.53±3.87 % ID/gm at 5 min and good retention (6.37±1.21) % ID/gm at 60 min. One hour after the injection, the heart/liver, heart/lung and heart/blood radioactivity ratios were 0.46, 1.04 and 0.56, respectively. These findings indicate that the complex might be suitable for myocardial imaging.
Theoretical Study of N-Methyl-3-Phenyl-3-(4-(Trifluoromethyl) Phenoxy) Propan as a Drug and Its Five Derivatives  [PDF]
Qabas M. Abdul Hussein AL-Makhzumi, Hussein I. Abdullah, Ramzie R. AL-Ani
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.68007
Abstract: Quantum chemical calculation was correlated with geometrical structure and total energy of fluoxetine and its five derivatives. Theoretical vibrational frequencies and geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) have been calculated using ab initio (HF), density functional theory (B3LYP), semi-empirical (AM1, PM3) methods with different basis sets to design the fluoxetine drugs and its derivatives by a Gaussian 09 W program. Theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies of fluoxetine have been compared with the corresponding five derivatives data. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies have been determined. The theoretical study includes the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of the drugs and its derivatives like zero-point energy, enthalpy, entropy, ionization energy, electron affinity to make a correlation between the gained results. The results of the four methods were not very clear, but an correlation between the dipole moment (potential character), static distribution (an active site character) and HOMO-LUMO energies (energy for electron transfer) shows that the patent 1.5 was important derivatives as a recommended drug relative to fluoxetine drug.
The Effect of Antimony Substitution on the Magnetic and Structural Properties of Fe0.75–xSi0.25Sbx Alloys  [PDF]
Imaddin A. Al-Omari, M. R. Anantharaman
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2012.22011
Abstract: The results of the investigation of the magnetic and structural properties of the alloy system Fe0.75–xSi0.25Sbx, where x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25 synthesized by mechanical alloying followed by heat treatment are described. The x-ray diffraction reveals that all samples crystallize in the DO3-type cubic phase structure. Substituting Fe by Sb led to a decrease in the lattice constant and the unit cell volume. The magnetic properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer and show that all the samples are ferromagnetically ordered at room temperature. The Curie temperature is found to decrease linearly from (850 ± 5) K for the parent alloy to (620 ± 5) K for the alloyith x = 0.25. The saturation magnetizations at room temperature and at 100 K are found to decrease with increasing the antimony concentration. The above results indicate that Sb dissolves in the cubic structure of this alloy system.
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