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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 437 matches for " Amber Farooqui "
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Indigenous plants: a golden opportunity for discovery
Amber Farooqui
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries , 2007,
Abstract: Microbiologists and infectious disease experts are alarmed by the fact that effective antibiotics will not be available to treat severely ill patients in the near future because of the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance. This threat is especially worrisome with regard to our lack of ability to combat multidrug resistant bacterial infections. This situation necessitates the development of new antimicrobial agents and their synergistic combinations. From conception of the idea to rational drug design, drug development is a decade-long process which requires the tireless efforts of scientists.
Investigation of a community outbreak of typhoid fever associated with drinking water
Amber Farooqui, Adnan Khan, Shahana U Kazmi
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-476
Abstract: A total of 250 suspected cases of typhoid fever were interviewed, out of which 100 were selected for sample collection on the basis of criteria included temperature > 38°C since the onset of outbreak, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, vomiting and weakness. Food and water samples were also collected and analyzed microbiologically.Inhabitants of village lived in poor and unhygienic conditions with no proper water supply or sewage disposal facilities and other basic necessities of life. They consumed water from a nearby well which was the only available source of drinking water. Epidemiological evidences revealed the gross contamination of well with dead and decaying animal bodies, their fecal material and garbage. Microbiological analysis of household and well water samples revealed the presence of heavy bacterial load with an average total aerobic count 106-109 CFU/ml. A number of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus species, Enterobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Lab investigations confirmed the presence of multidrug resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in 100% well water, 65% household water samples and 2% food items. 22% of clinical stool samples were tested positive with Salmonella enterica serover TyphiThis study indicated the possible involvement of well water in outbreaks. In order to avoid such outbreaks in future, we contacted the local health authorities and urged them to immediately make arrangements for safe drinking water supply.Salmonella is most commonly involved bacteria in gastrointestinal tract infections. Its significant involvement in human mortality and morbidity is a major health concern. In 2006, The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated incidence of 16 to 33 million typhoid fever cases globally every year, with 500,000 to 600,000 deaths and case fatality rate of between 1.5 and 3.8% [1]. With more than 80% of global cases,
Antibiotic resistance and cagA gene correlation: A looming crisis of Helicobacter pylori
Adnan Khan,Amber Farooqui,Hamid Manzoor,Syed Shakeel Akhtar
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i18.2245
Abstract: AIM: To determine antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Pakistan and its correlation with host and pathogen associated factors. METHODS: A total of 178 strains of H. pylori were isolated from gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients. Susceptibility patterns against first and second-line antibiotics were determined and trends of resistance were analyzed in relation to the sampling period, gastric conditions and cagA gene carriage. The effect of cagA gene on the acquisition of resistance was investigated by mutant selection assay. RESULTS: The observations showed that monoresistant strains were prevalent with rates of 89% for metronidazole, 36% for clarithromycin, 37% for amoxicillin, 18.5% for ofloxacin and 12% for tetracycline. Furthermore, clarithromycin resistance was on the rise from 2005 to 2008 (32% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and it is significantly observed in non ulcerative dyspeptic patients compared to gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer cases (53% vs 20%, 18% and 19%, P = 0.000). On the contrary, metronidazole and ofloxacin resistance were more common in gastritis and gastric ulcer cases. Distribution analysis and frequencies of resistant mutants in vitro correlated with the absence of cagA gene with metronidazole and ofloxacin resistance. CONCLUSION: The study confirms the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance associated with the degree of gastric inflammation and cagA gene carriage in H. pylori strains.
Induction of Fas Mediated Caspase-8 Independent Apoptosis in Immune Cells by Armigeres subalbatus Saliva
Shanshan Liu, David J. Kelvin, Alberto J. Leon, Liqun Jin, Amber Farooqui
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041145
Abstract: Background It is widely recognized that the introduction of saliva of bloodsucking arthropods at the site of pathogen transmission might play a central role in vector-borne infections. However, how the interaction between salivary components and the host immune system takes place and which physiological processes this leads to has yet to be investigated. Armigeres subalbatus is one of the prominent types of mosquitoes involved in the transmission of parasitic and viral diseases in humans and animals. Methodology/Principal Findings Using murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, and human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study shows that saliva of the female Ar. subalbatus induces apoptosis via interaction with the Fas receptor within a few hours but without activating caspase-8. The process further activates downstream p38 MAPK signaling, a cascade that leads to the induction of apoptosis in capase-3 dependent manner. We further illustrate that Ar. subalbatus saliva suppresses proinflammatory cytokines without changing IL-10 levels, which might happen as a result of apoptosis. Conclusions Our study shows for the first time that saliva-induced apoptosis is the leading phenomenon exerted by Ar. subalbatus that impede immune cells leading to the suppression of their effecter mechanism.
Prevalence of HCV and HIV infections in 2005-Earthquake-affected areas of Pakistan
Saeed Khan, Mohammad A Rai, Adnan Khan, Amber Farooqui, Shahana U Kazmi, Syed H Ali
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-147
Abstract: The objective of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C viruses (respectively, HIV and HCV) in the earthquake-affected communities of Pakistan. The samples were analyzed 2 months and then again 11 months after the earthquake to estimate the burden of HIV and HCV in these areas, and to determine any rise in the prevalence of these viral infections as a result of the earthquake.Blood samples were initially collected during December, 2005 to March 2006, from 245 inhabitants of the earthquake-affected areas. These samples were screened for HCV and HIV, using immunochromatography and Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA).Out of 245 samples tested, 8 (3.26%) were found positive for HCV, and 0 (0.0%) for HIV, indicating the existence of HCV infection in the earthquake-stricken areas. The same methods were used to analyze the samples collected in the second round of screening in the same area, in September, 2006 – 11 months after the earthquake. This time 290 blood samples were collected, out of which 16 (5.51%) samples were positive for HCV, and 0 for HIV.A slightly higher prevalence of HCV was recorded 11 months after the earthquake; this increase, however, was not statistically significant. None of the study participants was found HIV-infected.Natural disasters generate mass casualty situations within a very short time [1-3]. Disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods have an obvious immediate toll on human life and infra-structure. The gravity of such circumstances exacerbates due to the temporary paralysis of local emergency response and of healthcare services [4,5]. The issue of post-disaster management and care of the affected is equally important in addressing the prevention of infection and blood-borne diseases [2,6,7].On October 8, 2005, at 08:50:38 am local time, a major earthquake measuring 7.6 on Richter scale hit the Northern areas of Pakistan. The epicenter of this earthquake was in Muza
Heterogeneous virulence of pandemic 2009 influenza H1N1 virus in mice
Amber Farooqui, Alberto J Leon, Yanchang Lei, Pusheng Wang, Jianyun Huang, Raquel Tenorio, Wei Dong, Salvatore Rubino, Jie Lin, Guishuang Li, Zhen Zhao, David J Kelvin
Virology Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-9-104
Abstract: This study presents the heterogeneous virulence of clinically similar strains of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells and mice. The viruses were obtained from patients who were admitted in a local hospital in China with a similar course of infection and recovered. The A/Nanchang/8002/2009 and A/Nanchang/8011/2009 viruses showed efficient replication and high lethality in mice while infection with A/Nanchang/8008/2009 was not lethal with impaired viral replication, minimal pathology and modest proinflammatory activity in lungs. Sequence analysis displayed prominent differences between polymerase subunits (PB2 and PA) of viral genomes that might correlate with their different phenotypic behavior.The study confirms that biological heterogeneity, linked with the extent of viral replication, exists among pandemic H1N1 strains that may serve as a benchmark for future investigations on influenza pathogenesis.
Review of octopamine in insect nervous systems
Farooqui T
Open Access Insect Physiology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAIP.S20911
Abstract: f octopamine in insect nervous systems Review (3303) Total Article Views Authors: Farooqui T Published Date June 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 1 - 17 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAIP.S20911 Received: 31 December 2011 Accepted: 09 April 2012 Published: 05 June 2012 Tahira Farooqui Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Octopamine (OCT) belongs to a group of compounds known as biogenic amines. OCT, a monohydroxylic analog of norepinephrine, is found in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. OCT is present in relatively high concentrations in the neuronal and non-neuronal tissues of most invertebrate species studied. However, OCT occurs as a trace amine in vertebrates where its physiological significance remains uncertain. OCT acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insect nervous systems where it prominently influences multiple physiological events. In the peripheral nervous system, OCT modulates the activity of flight muscles, peripheral organs, and most sense organs. In the central nervous system, OCT is essential for the regulation of motivation, desensitization of sensory inputs, arousal, initiation, and maintenance of various rhythmic behaviors, hygiene behavior, and complex social behaviors, including establishment of labor, as well as learning and memory. As a neurotransmitter, OCT regulates endocrine gland activity and controls the emission of light in the firefly lantern. As a neurohormone, OCT is released into hemolymph, transported to target tissues, and induces mobilization of lipids and carbohydrates, preparing insects for a period of extended activity or assisting recovery from a period of increased energy demand. OCT modulates hemocytic nodulation in nonimmune larvae and enhances phagocytosis as a neurohormone. OCT exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors belonging to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors and shares the structural motif of seven transmembrane domains. Activation of octopaminergic receptor types is coupled with different second messenger pathways depending on the species, tissue source, receptor type, and cell line used for expression of the cloned receptor. OCT-mediated generation of second messengers is associated with changes in cellular response, affecting insect behaviors. This review describes the roles of OCT in insect nervous systems at the behavioral and molecular levels.
Oxidative stress and age-related olfactory memory impairment in the honeybee Apis mellifera
Tahira Farooqui
Frontiers in Genetics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00060
Abstract:
Spin Precession of Dirac Particles in Kerr Geometry
Anusar Farooqui
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We isolate and study the transformation of the intrinsic spin of Dirac particles as they propagate along timelike geodesics in Kerr geometry. Reference frames play a crucial role in the definition and measurement of the intrinsic spin of test particles. We show how observers located in the outer geometry of Kerr black holes may exploit the symmetries of the geometry to set up reference frames using purely geometric, locally-available information. Armed with these geometrically-defined reference frames, we obtain a closed-form expression for the geometrically-induced spin precession of Dirac particles in the outer geometry of Kerr black holes. We show that the spin of Dirac particles does not precess on the equatorial place of Kerr geometry; and hence, in Schwarschild geometry.
Lipid-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease
Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/247467
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder of unknown etiology. PD is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, depletion of dopamine in the striatum, abnormal mitochondrial and proteasomal functions, and accumulation of α-synuclein that may be closely associated with pathological and clinical abnormalities. Increasing evidence indicates that both oxidative stress and inflammation may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of PD. Oxidative stress is characterized by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione. Lipid mediators for oxidative stress include 4-hydroxynonenal, isoprostanes, isofurans, isoketals, neuroprostanes, and neurofurans. Neuroinflammation is characterized by activated microglial cells that generate proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β. Proinflammatory lipid mediators include prostaglandins and platelet activating factor, together with cytokines may play a prominent role in mediating the progressive neurodegeneration in PD. 1. Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. PD is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which project to the striatum, the output of which governs locomotor behavior [1, 2]. While 90–95% of PD cases have no known genetic basis, approximately 5–10% arise from inherited mutations [3]. Roughly half of early-onset PD is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene [4], which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Although the molecular mechanism of vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is not known, it is suggested that monoamine oxidase-mediated abnormal dopamine metabolism, hydrogen peroxide generation, abnormal mitochondrial and proteasomal dysfunctions along with microglial cell activation may be closely associated with neurodegenerative process [5]. Monoamine oxidase catalyzes the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, β-phenylethylamine, and other trace amines. The rapid degradation of these molecules ensures the proper functioning of synaptic neurotransmission and is critically important not only for the regulation of emotional behaviors, but also for other neural functions. PD is accompanied by abnormalities in synaptic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta may be related to resting tremor,
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