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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462280 matches for " Amber A. Fultz "
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What an Optimist Looks Like: Separating Optimistic Bias from Social Reality  [PDF]
Amber A. Fultz, Frank J. Bernieri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.93026
Abstract: Optimists hold positive expectancies for their future, which some have suggested leads to advantages in the social realm (Carver, Scheier, & Segerstrom, 2010). Unfortunately, the research supporting this notion is scant and suffers from the confound that self-reports from optimists reflect their optimistic perspective. To address this issue, the present study examined the impact of optimism on interpersonal outcomes assessed from the perspective of those in relationships with each target. We recruited 182 participants to complete a series of psychological measures and interpersonal activities over the course of ten weeks. Participants rated themselves and each other on the five-factor traits at three stages in the developing relationship: zero-acquaintance, after their first conversation with each other, and after nine weeks of acquaintance. Two additional informants nominated by each target as those who knew them well (i.e. friends or family members) provided more extensive personality descriptions using a California Q-Set. Optimists consistently rated themselves as more agreeable and less neurotic than those low in optimism, but only the difference in neuroticism was detectable by perceivers. Furthermore, this difference was discernable only after nine-weeks of acquaintanceship had been established. Target optimism had no impact on first impressions. Although there may exist an optimistic personality profile across the five major traits, we found little evidence to suggest that anything other than lower neuroticism contributes to the impact that optimism might have on one’s social life and relationships.
Introducing SKYSET - a Quintuple Approach for Improving Instructions
Kerry Fultz,Seth Filip
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: A new approach called SKYSET (Synthetic Knowledge Yield Social Entities Translation) is proposed to validate completeness and to reduce ambiguity from written instructional documentation. SKYSET utilizes a quintuple set of standardized categories, which differs from traditional approaches that typically use triples. The SKYSET System defines the categories required to form a standard template for representing information that is portable across different domains. It provides a standardized framework that enables sentences from written instructions to be translated into sets of category typed entities on a table or database. The SKYSET entities contain conceptual units or phrases that represent information from the original source documentation. SKYSET enables information concatenation where multiple documents from different domains can be translated and combined into a single common filterable and searchable table of entities.
Phonon quarticity induced by changes in phonon-tracked hybridization during lattice expansion and its stabilization of rutile TiO$_2$
Tian Lan,C. W. Li,O. Hellman,D. Kim,J. A. Mu?oz,H. Smith,D. L. Abernathy,B. Fultz
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.054304
Abstract: Although the rutile structure of TiO$_2$ is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000\,K. Inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO$_2$ from 300 to 1373\,K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizing the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of $3d$ electrons of Ti and $2p$ electrons of O atoms. With thermal expansion, the energy variation in this "phonon-tracked hybridization" flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.
Nonharmonic Phonons in $α$-Iron at High Temperatures
L. Mauger,M. S. Lucas,J. A. Mu?oz,S. J. Tracy,M. Kresch,Yuming Xiao,Paul Chow,B. Fultz
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.064303
Abstract: Phonon densities of states (DOS) of bcc $\alpha$-$^{57}$Fe were measured from room temperature through the 1044K Curie transition and the 1185K fcc $\gamma$-Fe phase transition using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. At higher temperatures all phonons shift to lower energies (soften) with thermal expansion, but the low transverse modes soften especially rapidly above 700K, showing strongly nonharmonic behavior that persists through the magnetic transition. Interatomic force constants for the bcc phase were obtained by iteratively fitting a Born-von K\'{a}rm\'{a}n model to the experimental phonon spectra using a genetic algorithm optimization. The second-nearest-neighbor fitted axial force constants weakened significantly at elevated temperatures. An unusually large nonharmonic behavior is reported, which increases the vibrational entropy and accounts for a contribution of 35 meV/atom in the free energy at high temperatures. The nonharmonic contribution to the vibrational entropy follows the thermal trend of the magnetic entropy, and may be coupled to magnetic excitations. A small change in vibrational entropy across the $\alpha$-$\gamma$ structural phase transformation is also reported.
Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Intervention for Methadone-Maintained Women: A Comparison of Pregnant and Parenting Women
Amber M. Holbrook,Karol A. Kaltenbach
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/567056
Abstract: Women in substance abuse programs have high rates of smoking. Pregnancy represents a unique opportunity for intervention, but few data exist to guide tailoring of effective interventions. In this study, 44 pregnant and 47 nonpregnant opioid-dependent women enrolled in comprehensive substance abuse treatment received a 6-week smoking cessation intervention based on the 5A's counseling model. The number of daily cigarettes decreased by 49% for pregnant patients and 32% for nonpregnant patients at the 3-month followup. Length of time in substance abuse treatment did not correlate with smoking cessation or reduction for either group. Factors predicting reduction of cigarette smoking differed for pregnant versus nonpregnant patients. For pregnant patients, lower levels of nicotine use prior to intervention and self-reported cigarette cravings predicted successful reduction in smoking. For nonpregnant patients, lower affiliative attachment to cigarettes, reliance on cigarettes for cognitive enhancement, and greater sense of control predicted more successful outcomes.
Conductance Ratios and Cellular Identity
Amber E. Hudson ,Astrid A. Prinz
PLOS Computational Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000838
Abstract: Recent experimental evidence suggests that coordinated expression of ion channels plays a role in constraining neuronal electrical activity. In particular, each neuronal cell type of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion exhibits a unique set of positive linear correlations between ionic membrane conductances. These data suggest a causal relationship between expressed conductance correlations and features of cellular identity, namely electrical activity type. To test this idea, we used an existing database of conductance-based model neurons. We partitioned this database based on various measures of intrinsic activity, to approximate distinctions between biological cell types. We then tested individual conductance pairs for linear dependence to identify correlations. Contrary to experimental evidence, in which all conductance correlations are positive, 32% of correlations seen in this database were negative relationships. In addition, 80% of correlations seen here involved at least one calcium conductance, which have been difficult to measure experimentally. Similar to experimental results, each activity type investigated had a unique combination of correlated conductances. Finally, we found that populations of models that conform to a specific conductance correlation have a higher likelihood of exhibiting a particular feature of electrical activity. We conclude that regulating conductance ratios can support proper electrical activity of a wide range of cell types, particularly when the identity of the cell is well-defined by one or two features of its activity. Furthermore, we predict that previously unseen negative correlations and correlations involving calcium conductances are biologically plausible.
Early enteral nutrition after surgical treatment of gut perforations: A prospective randomised study
Malhotra Amber,Mathur A,Gupta S
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Withholding enteral feeds after an elective gastrointestinal surgery is based on the hypothesis that this period of "nil by mouth" provides rest to the gut and promotes healing. AIMS: To assess whether early postoperative naso-gastric tube feeding in the form of a balanced diet formula is safe in and beneficial to patients who have undergone surgical intervention for perforation of the gut. SETTING: A surgical unit of a Medical College Hospital. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Prospective randomised open control study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients undergoing surgical intervention for peritonitis following perforation of the gut were randomised to the study group receiving feedings of a balanced diet formula through a naso-gastric tube from the second postoperative day, or the control group in which patients were managed with the conventional regimen of intravenous fluid administration. The groups were compared for incidence and duration of complications, biochemical measurements and other characteristics like weight loss/gain. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Chi square test and ′T′ test. RESULTS: One hundred patients were enrolled in each group. 88% subjects in the study group achieved positive nitrogen balance on the eighth postoperative day as compared to none in the conventionally managed group. The relative risks (95% confidence interval) of morbidity from wound infection, wound dehiscence, pneumonia, leakage of anastomoses and septicaemia were 0.66 (0.407-1.091), 0.44 (0.141-1.396), 0.70 (0.431-1.135), 0.54 (0.224-1.293) and 0.66 (0.374-1.503) respectively. Average loss of weight between the first and tenth day was 3.10 kg in the study group as compared to 5.10 kg in the conventionally managed group (′P′ value < 0.001, 95% Confidence Interval - 2.46 - 1.54). CONCLUSION: Early enteral nutrition is safe and is associated with beneficial effects such as lower weight loss, early achievement of positive nitrogen balance as compared to the conventional regimen of feeding in operated cases of gut perforation.
Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Intervention for Methadone-Maintained Women: A Comparison of Pregnant and Parenting Women
Amber M. Holbrook,Karol A. Kaltenbach
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/567056
Abstract: Women in substance abuse programs have high rates of smoking. Pregnancy represents a unique opportunity for intervention, but few data exist to guide tailoring of effective interventions. In this study, 44 pregnant and 47 nonpregnant opioid-dependent women enrolled in comprehensive substance abuse treatment received a 6-week smoking cessation intervention based on the 5A's counseling model. The number of daily cigarettes decreased by 49% for pregnant patients and 32% for nonpregnant patients at the 3-month followup. Length of time in substance abuse treatment did not correlate with smoking cessation or reduction for either group. Factors predicting reduction of cigarette smoking differed for pregnant versus nonpregnant patients. For pregnant patients, lower levels of nicotine use prior to intervention and self-reported cigarette cravings predicted successful reduction in smoking. For nonpregnant patients, lower affiliative attachment to cigarettes, reliance on cigarettes for cognitive enhancement, and greater sense of control predicted more successful outcomes. 1. Introduction Tobacco use represents a significant long-term risk to women’s health [1, 2], and cigarette smoking is currently one of the leading preventable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes, as well as infant mortality and morbidity [3]. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of preterm birth [4–6], placental abruption, placenta previa, low birth weight [6–8], and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) [9, 10]. The risks related to cigarette smoking continue following birth with child exposure to second hand tobacco smoke associated with an increased incidence of respiratory ailments such as asthma, respiratory infections, and bronchiolitis [11–13]. Estimates of the prevalence of smoking in participants in methadone maintenance programs range from 85 to 98% [14–17]. However, few substance abuse treatment programs offer smoking cessation interventions, and smoking cessation is often viewed as a low priority by treatment program staff [18]. Treatment staff may perceive substance-dependent individuals as possessing low motivation for smoking cessation [19] or believe that engaging in efforts to reduce nicotine dependence may be overwhelming for substance-dependent individuals, particularly those early in their recovery [18]. Some studies have also suggested that methadone maintenance may compound difficulty quitting smoking with a dose-dependent effect on tobacco craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms [20, 21] affected through increased rate of nicotine metabolism or
Temporal Memory Dysfunction and Alterations in Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity in Adult Rats Following Neonatal Exposure to Domoic Acid  [PDF]
Mark A. Robbins, Catherine L. Ryan, Amber L. Marriott, Tracy Ann Doucette
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2013.41005
Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether early alterations in glutamate signaling, via daily injections of the glutamate agonist, domoic acid (DOM; 20 μg/kg), during a critical period of CNS development (PND 8 - 14), would result in temporal memory deficits and/or alterations in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity. As adults, subjects were assessed for temporal memory ability using a recency discrimination paradigm. Both number and duration of exploratory contacts directed at familiar objects, differing by one hour in recall delay, were measured. Analyses revealed that DOM-treated females demonstrated temporal memory dysfunction, as evidenced in a significantly lower proportion of total exploratory behaviour directed toward the remote object. Integrity of the dopamine system was assessed using immunohistochemistry to examine TH immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Sections obtained from DOM-treated males had significantly less TH immunoreactivity in the right mPFC, while DOM-treated females had significantly greater TH immunoreactivity in the left core and right shell of the NAcc. These findings are discussed in context of early alterations to glutamate signaling in the development of human neuropsychiatric disorders.

Climate Change Associated with Global Teleconnections, Volcanic Eruptions, and the Arctic’s Snow-Ice Albedo in Godthab, Greenland  [PDF]
Amber Penner, Jacqueline Binyamin
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.31005
Abstract:

To study the impact of climate change on Godthab(Greenland), temperature and precipitation gathered from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) were analyzed for patterns within 1866-2011. Both temperature and precipitation have experienced an overall increase throughout the past 146 years. Precipitation, however, has experienced a declining trend since 1985. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) indices showed strong correlations with average annual temperature (R = ?0.6) and smaller correlations with annual total precipitation (R = ?0.2). There are moderate correlations between temperature, precipitation, and Southern-Oscillation Index (SOI). The positive phases of Pacific-North American (PNA) led to increased winter and spring precipitation. The climate mode’s influential strength on Godthab’s temperature and precipitation, vary seasonally. In contrast with global average temperatures, Greenland has not experienced a continual warming trend since the 1950s; 30- and 10-year trends show a cooling period between 1965 and 1995. From 1866 to 2011, Godthab’s average annual temperature has increased by 1.9?C, and is anticipated to continue to warm in accordance with the global warming trend and the Arctic’s associated feedback mechanisms.

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