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The Effects of Student-Centered Approach in Improving Students’ Graphical Interpretation Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Kinematical Motion
Ambelu Tebabal,Gebregziabher Kahssay
Latin-American Journal of Physics Education , 2011,
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of student-centered instruction in improving students graphical interpretation skills and conceptual understanding of kinematical motion in Bistu Gebre Michael Catholic general and preparatory school found in Bahir Dar town of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 77 (39 female and 38 male) grade nine students were involved in the study. The design adopted in the study was non-randomized pre-test and post-test control group design. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was background survey, Graphical Interpretation Skill Test (GIST) and Motion Content Test (MCT). Chi-square ( 2) and t-test were used as statistical analysis. The internal reliability coefficient of the test was 0.73 using Kuder Richardson Formula-20 (KR-20). The result showed that studentcentered instruction was found to be more promising in improving students graphical interpretation skill and conceptual understanding of kinematical motion.
Importance of labelling and patient knowledge to ensure proper care during drug dispensing: A case study from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Seblework Mekonen, Wondimu Samuel, Argaw Ambelu
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.41001

Correct drug labelling is central for ensuring proper drug dispensing and thus for patient safety. Labelling errors may result in adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess the effect of labelling on the quality of drug dispensing and patient knowledge about dispensed drugs in Jimma University model and specialized hospital outpatient Pharmacies. Individual packages with prescribed drugs were examined using pretested questionnaire and observational check lists during the dispensing process. Patients’ knowledge about drugs dispensed to them was assessed at the exit interview using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 743 prescribed drugs, 682 (91.8%) were dispensed to 426 patients. The average labelling score (range from 0 to 6) of dispensed drugs in Model and Outpatient pharmacy was 2.00 (95% CI 1.97 to 2.04) and 1.73 (95% CI 1.6 to 1.8) respectively, with overall average labelling score of 1.90 (95% CI 1.84 to 1.91). The average patient knowledge score (range from 0 t0 5) was 3.45 (95% CI 3.31 to 3.59) and 3.5 (95% CI 3.35 to 3.64) for model and outpatient pharmacy, respectively, while the overall average knowledge score was 3.46 (95% CI 3.37 to 3.57). Major labelling problems were absence of patient’s name and dose followed by frequency of administration, duration of treatment, and the reason for prescription. Literacy status of patients had a significant effect on their knowledge (p < 0.005) but age had not (p > 0.05). We recommend that corrective measures targeting both, labelling and patients’ knowledge should be implemented to improve the patients’ safety and drug therapy adherence.

Prevalence, Knowledge and Self-Reported Containment Practices about Bedbugs in the Resource-Limited Setting of Ethiopia: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Survey  [PDF]
Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi, Buzuna Beyene, Argaw Ambelu
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.79130
Abstract: Over the past decade, a dramatic rise in bedbug resurgence has become one of the top potential public health hazards. This study was conducted to determine prevalence, knowledge and self-reported containment practices about bedbugs in the resource-limited setting of Ethiopia. A community based, cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and May 2014. Selected 260 respondents were interviewed by the administration of a pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge and practices about bedbug infestation in the resource-limited setting of Ethiopia. Overall, 91.6% (238/260) of the residents had ample awareness on bedbug infestation. The majority of them (97.2%) extremely bothered about infestations because of bad odors (83.8%), insomnia (79.8%), biting (66.9%), and skin rashes (56.9%). A high prevalence of infestation (72.7%) was observed. Bedrooms and main hall/salon were identified as potential high-risk areas. Chi-square exhibited a strong association between sanitary status and housing conditions (χ2 = 40.91; df = 4; P = 0.0001). Besides, there was a strong association between respondents’ monthly income (χ2 = 42.1; df = 6; P = 0.0001) and educational status (χ2 = 26.01; df = 5; P = 0.0001) with the presence or absence of bedbug infestation. Though the majority of respondents had adequate knowledge, they suffer with deprived practices attributable to deficient resources as well as negligence/ignorance. This study emphasizes the following key interventions: 1) community-based awareness campaigns, 2) implementation of sustainable preventive/containment strategies, 3) educational interventions to ensure translation of knowledge into practices, and 4) the implementation of appropriate poverty alleviation programs to enhance the local-residents living-standard in the future.
Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia
Yalemsew Adela, Argaw Ambelu, Dejene A Tessema
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-7-15
Abstract: A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis) were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16). The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs.The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10?μg/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20?μg/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20?μg/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage.Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58%) of those with the highest BLLs (≥ 20?μg/dL). Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects.The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the BLLs of automotive-garage workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 11.73 – 36.52?μg/dL and the workers are in danger of impending lead toxicity. The BLLs of the workers are influenced by their occupational practices, chewing Catha adulis leaves at the workplace, and the time spent working in an automotive garage.
Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia
Wayessa Amasa,Dante Santiago,Seblework Mekonen,Argaw Ambelu
Journal of Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/204830
Abstract: Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. 1. Introduction Cosmetics refer to all of the products used to care for and clean the human skin and make it more beautiful. The intentions of using cosmetic products is to maintain the body in a good condition, protect it from the effects of the environment and aging processes, change the appearance, and make the body smell nicer. Cosmetic products are widely used by every socioeconomic class of human beings to cleanse, perfume, protect, and change the appearance of skin [1]. Public observations and reviewing of the relevant literatures indicated that most of the cosmetic users were not seriously concerned about the effect of usage of products to their skin and focus on the short term result of skin appearance rather than the long-term effects to the whole body. Generally, consumers assume that cosmetic products are safer and pose no risk to the human health [2]. Some consumers did not read the label to identify the ingredients and other useful information of the cosmetic products before they decide to use them. The cosmetics sector grows tremendously, driven by demands from consumers but some users are not very concerned about the implications of cosmetics to their healthy body such as skin and physical outlook [2, 3]. In Ethiopia, cosmetics do not need marketing authorization unlike that of medicinal products which can only be marketed
Estimation of total solar irradiance from sunspot number
Ambelu T,Falayi E. O,Elemo, E. O,Oladosu O
Latin-American Journal of Physics Education , 2011,
Abstract: Annual levels of the Sun’s irradiance are estimated since 1915 using parameterization of the sunspot number and Ca II K index. The regression estimation technique is applied to estimate the total irradiance. The goodness of fit statisticswas used to choose the best fit among the different models (linear, quadratic and cubic). Therefore, from the statistical indictors, the quadratic model is considered as the best fit among the three models using TSI and sunspot number. The comparison with satellite data reveals a correlation coefficient of 0.97. We conclude that using sunspot numbers as proxy to estimate the contribution of active region for total solar irradiance estimation is useful to explain the phenomena of emitted energy at all wave lengths in temporal variations.
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