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Child Rights Protection in Ethiopia: Critical Analysis of the Statutory Rape Provisions of the Criminal Code and Their Application  [PDF]
Amare Tesfaye
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.84028
Abstract: Children, due to their mental and physical immaturity, are among the vulnerable section of the society. States are thus required to provide special protection and care for children by making necessary legal and institutional arrangements. To this effect, Ethiopia has ratified international and regional human rights instruments meant to provide protection for children. It also included provisions protecting child rights in its constitution. These constitutional provisions have also found expression in the subsequent legislative reform that, among others, resulted in the adoption of a New Criminal Code in 2004. This Criminal Code replaces the provisions of the earlier 1957 Penal Code on statutory rape providing better protection for children against sexual abuse. Yet, gaps still persist both in the law and practice in terms of fully realizing the rights of children in Ethiopia. This article aims to examine the legal and practical protection of children by the statutory rape provisions of the Criminal Code in the Ethiopian legal system. In doing so, it attempts to evaluate the current statutory rape provisions of the Criminal Code against child rights standards as well as evaluating the practical application of the laws by courts and prosecutors.
The Protection of Linguistic Minorities: An Appraisal on the Role of Multination Federalism  [PDF]
Amare Tesfaye, Zelalem Kebu
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.74028
Abstract: This article mainly focuses on the role of multination federalism in protecting linguistic minorities from assimilation or crumbling to/from the majority in a multination federacy like Ethiopia. In doing so, it has attempted to reflect the concerns raised by some other scholars in relation to territorial integrity of the state in a multination federal state structure and a conclusion as to the inappropriateness of such concern has been reached exhaustively. Resultantly, this article argues that multination federalism is highly potent to maintain integrity of the state, resolving the void by filling it against the possible tensions that may exist between the linguistic minorities and majorities. It has subtle fortitude for the protection of linguistic minorities among others through exactitude of the schemes like conferring them distinctive autonomy within a multination state, igniting them to employ their language without any encroachment and epithet, ensuring them to deserve their distinct identity and paving the way to ensure their participation in different fields meant for the public concerns. It also attracts the linguistic minorities’ right to education in their own mother tongue.
The pattern and predictors of mortality of HIV/AIDS patients with neurologic manifestation in Ethiopia: a retrospective study
Tesfaye Berhe, Yilma Melkamu, Amanuel Amare
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-9-11
Abstract: Medical records of 347 patients (age ≥13 years) admitted to Tikur Anbesa Hospital from September 2002 to August 2009 were reviewed and demographic and clinical data were collected.Data from 347 patients were analysed. The mean age was 34.6 years. The diagnosis of HIV was made before current admission in 33.7% and 15.6% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Causes of neurological manifestation were: cerebral toxoplasmosis (36.6%), tuberculous meningitis (22.5%), cryptococcal meningitis (22.2%) and bacterial meningitis (6.9%). HIV-encephalopathy, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy were rare in our patients. CD4 count was done in 64.6% and 89.7% had count below 200/mm3[mean = 95.8, median = 57] and 95.7% were stage IV. Neuroimaging was done in 38% and 56.8% had mass lesion. The overall mortality was 45% and the case-fatality rates were: tuberculous meningitis (53.8%), cryptococcal meningitis (48.1%), cerebral toxoplasmosiss (44.1%) and bacterial meningitis (33.3%). Change in sensorium and seizure were predictors of mortality.CNS opportunistic infections were the major causes of neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS and were associated with high mortality and morbidity. Almost all patients had advanced HIV disease at presentation. Early diagnosis of HIV, prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections, timely ART, and improving laboratory services are recommended. Mortality was related to change in sensorium and seizure.Symptomatic neurologic dysfunction develops in more than 50% of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [1] and about 10% experience neurologic symptoms as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [2]. Neurologic disorders associated with HIV infection include central nervous system (CNS) infections, neoplasms, vascular complications, peripheral neuropathies and myopathies [3]. Neurologic dysfunction is an important cause or a strong marke
Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in North Gondar Zone Prison, northwest Ethiopia
Moges Beyene,Amare Bemnet,Asfaw Fanaye,Tesfaye Wogahta
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-352
Abstract: Background People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. Methods An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. Results A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6%) inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4%) had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26). From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2%) were having under nutrition (BMI < 18.5kg/m2). Conclusions There is high prevalence of TB in North Gondar Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.
The synergy between TB and HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in Ethiopia
Amare Deribew, Yohannes HaileMichael, Markos Tesfaye, Dejene Desalegn, Ajeme Wogi, Shallo Daba
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-249
Abstract: A total of 591 participants were included in the study of whom 124 (20.9%) were co-infected with TB/HIV. The stigma items were highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93) and had strong inter dimension correlation. Respondents who were co-infected with TB and HIV were more likely to have perceived stigma compared to non-co-infected HIV patients, [OR = 1.4, (95% CI: 1.2, 2.0)]. Non-literate individuals [OR = 1.9, (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0)] and females [OR = 1.6, (95% CI: 1.2, 2.3)] had also more perceived stigma.TB/HIV co-infected patients, non-literate individuals and females were more likely to have high perceived stigma. Behavioral Change Communication should focus on these segments of the population to rectify the high perceived stigma.The extensive nature of stigma against people with AIDS is well established [1,2]. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) have been stigmatized worldwide since the beginning of the epidemic; leading to severe social consequences related to their rights, health care services, freedom, self identity and social interactions [1]. Stigma and discrimination related to HIV/AIDS would undermine public health efforts to combat the epidemic. The UN stated that stigma against PLHA still hamper prevention, care and treatment efforts everywhere [2].The literature showed that perceived HIV stigma has a negative and constant impact on life satisfaction [3] and quality of life [4,5]. HIV related stigma has been correlated with poorer mental health outcomes, lowered self-esteem, lowered self-efficacy, and decreased adherence to antiretroviral treatments [6].Several studies have been conducted on the consequences of stigma [7] and its effect on receiving HIV/AIDS related services [8,9]. However, little is known about the synergy between TB and HIV co-infection on perceived stigma. The present study assessed effect of TB/HIV co-infection on perceived stigma towards TB/HIV co-infection.From February to April, 2009, we conducted a cross sectional study in three hos
Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia
Amare Deribew, Markos Tesfaye, Yohannes Hailmichael, Ludwig Apers, Gemeda Abebe, Luc Duchateau, Robert Colebunders
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-201
Abstract: We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire.TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good".TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers.The global burden of disease report revealed that neuropsychiatric conditions accounted for up to a quarter of all the disability-adjusted life years lost[1]. In low and middle income countries (LAMIC), neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders account for 9.8% of the global burden of diseases[2].The risk factors for mental health problems are complex [3]. Poverty, low education, social exclusion, gender disadvantage, conflict and disasters are the major social determinants of mental disorders[2]. Presence of medical illnesses
Conservation Challenges of Gibe Sheleko National Park, Southwestern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Alemneh Amare
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.64025
Abstract: An effective management practice of protected areas is one of the best methods to harmonize nature conservation in a given ecosystem. However, the implementation of conservation management plan of protected areas through community approaches is the major conservation challenge in Ethiopia. This paper described the major conservation challenge of Gibe Sheleko National Park, southwestern Ethiopia. Data were organized during training workshops and panel discussions with participants held at Wolkite University, Ethiopia. Stakeholders included park managers, scouts, community and local administrative representatives, farmers, district and zonal administrations, conservationists and researchers. The participants reported that livestock grazing, encroachment, logging, expansion of agricultural investors and settlements in and around were the major challenges of the park. Moreover, limited community awareness and little conservation attention by the government officials also affected the protected area. As means to overcome these conservation challenges, innovative and develop new interdisciplinary approaches to support the practices aiming to solve current conservation challenges. Therefore, to introduce community- based conservation approaches, enhance public awareness of the locals, pay better conservation attention by the government and develop conservation bylaws are the best mechanisms to preserve Gibe Sheleko National Park.
Wildlife Resources of Ethiopia: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions: From Ecotourism Perspective: A Review Paper  [PDF]
Alemneh Amare
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.66039
Abstract: The economy of Ethiopia has prospered for many years on agricultural products but currently, the country expands to industrialization and service providing for additional incomes. However, the wildlife tourism and conservation practices are still at low attention. Therefore, this review paper identifies potential opportunities and wildlife diversity to promote wildlife tourism practices in Ethiopia. Furthermore, it also identifies the challenges and future directions to put into practice for future wildlife tourism industry. Wildlife tourism is one of the best potential economies to the country due to the presence of magnificent diversity of wildlife with high endemism and expansion of protected areas. The main intentions of tourists are to visit large mammals and birds with their natural habitats. The country earns million dollars per year only from protected areas through nature based tourism. The Montane and Afroalpine, Rift Valley and Transboundary ecosystem, a world class icon for wildlife tourism which attracts various tourists, and potential tourism destination for Ethiopia due to its high mammalian diversity and scenic area. The expansion of protected areas, peaceful and friendly people, and endemism promote tourism industry in Ethiopia. Even though, Ethiopia is the third country next to Tanzania and Uganda in terms of land surface of protected area; human-wildlife conflict, loss of biodiversity, and limited tourism and conservation attention with poor infrastructure are some of the major challenges. To scale up wildlife tourism industry, better promotion with practical conservation practices, community based tourism approaches and infrastructures should be implemented throughout the whole area of tourist destination.
Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: its impact on quality of life
Amare Deribew, Markos Tesfaye, Yohannes Hailmichael, Nebiyu Negussu, Shallo Daba, Ajeme Wogi, Tefera Belachew, Ludwig Apers, Robert Colebunders
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-105
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in selected hospitals in Oromiya Regional state, Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 467 HIV patients and 124 TB/HIV co-infected patients. Data on quality of life was collected by trained nurses through face to face interviews using the short Amharic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument for HIV clients (WHOQOL HIV). Depression was assessed using a validated version of the Kessler scale. Data was collected by trained nurses and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 statistical software.TB/HIV co-infected patients had a lower quality of life in all domains as compared to HIV infected patients without active TB. Depression, having a source of income and family support were strongly associated with most of the Quality of life domains. In co-infected patients, individuals who had depression were 8.8 times more likely to have poor physical health as compared to individuals who had no depression, OR = 8.8(95%CI: 3.2, 23). Self-stigma was associated with a poor quality of life in the psychological domain.The TB control program should design strategies to improve the quality of life of TB/HIV co-infected patients. Depression and self-stigma should be targeted for intervention to improve the quality of life of patients.Ethiopia is among the countries most heavily affected by the Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). There are an estimated 1.3 million people living with the virus and roughly 68,136 of them were children under 15 years [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified Ethiopia 7th among the 22 high burden countries with TB and HIV infection in the world [2]. The annual TB incidence of Ethiopia is estimated to be 341/100,000. TB mortality rate is 73/100,000 and the prevalence of all forms TB is estimated to be 546/100,000 [3]. About 40-70% of HIV patients in Ethiopia are co-infected with TB [4,5].TB and HIV co-infection are associated with speci
Prevalence of acute respiratory bacterial pathogens in children in Gondar
Endris Mohammed, Lulu Muhe, Aberra Geyid, Tsehaye Asmelash, Tesfaye Tesema, Amare Dejene, Yared Mekonnen, Kidanemariam Mammo, Aklog Afework, Redwan Muzein
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: A study was conducted in Gondar, North-Western Ethiopia, during 1997-1998 to determine the prevalence of bacterial etiologic agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. A total of 390 subjects were studied out of which 63% were cases from Gondar Hospital and Gondar Health Center and the rest (37%) were controls from different schools and kindergartens in Gondar Town. From each case and control throat and nasopharyngeal specimens were collected, and cultured and biochemical tests done to isolate the bacterial etiologic agents of the disease. Clinical findings, such as cough, raised respiratory rate, difficult breathing, and fever were correlated with laboratory findings. S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type b were the dominant isolated pathogens in both throat and nasopharyngeal specimens obtained from 71% and 68% of the cases and 5% and 1% of the controls, respectively. About 20% of the cases had diarrhea as concurrent illness. Even though different bacteria are known to cause ARI, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type b were found to be the dominant etiologic agents of acute respiratory infection. This paper discusses the association of bacteria isolated with acute respiratory infection in children in Gondar. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2000, 14(2): 191-197)
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