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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6298 matches for " Amar Hassan Khamis "
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HIV and AIDS related knowledge, beliefs and attitudes among rural communities hard to reach in Sudan  [PDF]
Amar Hassan Khamis
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.59203

Background and Objective: There is a rising concern about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) related knowledge in rural communities of Sudan. This study focuses on determining the extend of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about HIV/ AIDS among rural communities difficult to access in the six States of Sudan. Subjects and Methods: Six thousand and one hundred twenty five respondents were interviewed through the method of house-to-house visits. A structured questionnaire was administered by research assistants recruited from the Faculty of Medicine, Khartoum University during a rural residency campaign in six states of Central, Eastern and Northern Sudan during 2008/2009. Results: Of the total interviewees, 48% were aware of the HIV/AIDS risk; 46% reported to have good health seeking behaviors for HIV/AIDS. 54.4% of women reported to have better knowledge about the disease than men (45.6%). 38% (2005) had not heard of safety use of condom whereas 16% (320) had used it. Logistic regression revealed that 5.3% of knowledge about the disease was explained by gender, education and religion adjusted over age of the respondents. Conclusions: Mass media were the most common source of information about the existent risk of HIV/AIDS in rural communities. These findings could assist Sudanese National Aids Programme (SNAP), healthcare providers and policymakers to develop informative materials and health education programs to educate rural community is about the risk of HIV/AIDS.

Re-Visiting the Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index with a Mathematical Modeling Concept  [PDF]
Amar Hassan Khamis
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2016.61003
Abstract: Background: The well-established DMFT index has been used for over 75 years as a key for measuring dental caries in dentistry. DMFT is applied to permanent dentition and expressed as the total number of teeth decayed (D), missing (M), or filled (F), tooth (T) in an individual. Objectives: The objective of this study is to build a mathematical model for the existing DMFT index and compare its parameters by suggested new mathematical model. Mathematical Models: Fixed Model: Is a mathematical model for the existing DMFT index and will be considered as fixed model; in which all individuals under screening will have the same probability θ, 0 ≤ θ ≤1 of dental caries. In this fixed model the unit of the screening is the individual, and will be evaluated for caries as a dichotomous (0, 1) variable. Random Model: The new suggested model is a random model that suggests a mouth of an individual as an environment and the tooth is a unit of research. In this random model, only the teeth in one mouth have the same probability θ, 0 ≤ θi ≤ 1 where i?=1, 2...,k?; number of screening individuals. Expected Outcome: Mathematically, the fixed model will highlight what the value 1 will hide as information and hence this may explain why the average of DMFT is may be overestimated for any sample studied using fixed model. The random model will yield a cumulative weighed probability on the function of the number of teeth screened per mouth θ, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 1, hence the average DMFT index will be weighed against the number of teeth screened per all subjects. Conclusion: The random model yields an average and more realistic expected value for the population studied. Furthermore, in such model, it is easy to estimate the variance and it is obvious that this model yields the smallest variance.
Efficacy of Composite Restorative Techniques in Marginal Sealing of Extended Class V Cavities
Salwa Khier,Khamis Hassan
ISRN Dentistry , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/180197
Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan
Ishag Adam, Amar H Khamis, Mustafa I Elbashir
Malaria Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-18
Abstract: The prevalence and possible risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria were investigated in 744 pregnant Sudanese women attending the antenatal clinic of New Haifa Teaching Hospital, eastern Sudan, during October 2003-April 2004.A total 102 (13.7%) had P. falciparum malaria, 18(17.6%) of these were severe cases (jaundice and severe anaemia). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that, age and parity were not associated with malaria. Women who attended the antenatal clinic in the third trimester were at highest risk for malaria (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02–2.4; P < 0.05).Women with malaria had significantly lower mean haemoglobin (9.4 g/dl, 95% CI 9.1–9.7 versus 10.7, CI 10.6–10.8, P < 0.05). A significantly lower haemoglobin was observed in those with severe falciparum malaria compared to non-severe form (8.3 g/dl, 95% CI 7.6–9.1 versus 9.4, 95% CI 9.1–9.7, P = < 0.05).The results suggest that P. falciparum malaria is common in pregnant women attending antenatal care and that anaemia is an important complication. Preventive measures (chemoprophylaxis and insecticide-treated bednets) may be beneficial in this area for all women irrespective of age or parity.Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes serious adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. It is the leading cause maternal mortality in Sudan [1-7].The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the pre-existing immunity of the mother. Women living in areas of low transmission have little immunity to malaria which can cause severe syndromes, such as cerebral malaria and pulmonary oedema. In contrast, those who live in areas of stable malaria transmission enjoy greater immunity and experience fewer symptoms during episodes of malaria, although they commonly develop severe anaemia as consequence of the infection [1,2,5,8,9].Understanding the epidemiology of malaria during pregnancy provides important insight into relevant immunological pr
The Association between Physical Activity and Fitness: The Influence of Muslim and Non-Muslim  [PDF]
Erwan Ismail, Mohd Radzani Abd Razak, Tajul Arifin Muhamad, Azlan Ahmad Kamal, Mohd Aras Khamis, Ibrahim Elsalhin Hassan Maizi
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.914152
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the nature and magnitude of the relationship between self-reported physical activity and fitness and the extent to which the association varies with Muslim and Non-Muslim group. Fitness was assessed by use of sub-maximal bicycle ergometer test to predict maximal aerobic capacity, an assessment of body composition and the measurement of upper and lower body strength. Activity pattern and health status will be assessed by questionnaire. A total of 112 subjects focused on male of the staff, postgraduate, and undergraduate student of Birmingham University undergone fitness testing by bicycle ergometer, body composition and self-reported health questionnaire. The inter-relation of the physical characteristics, self-reported exercise behavior, fitness measures, health risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption?is?discussed. Age has the strongest association with fitness measures. Involvement in strenuous exercise as well as exhausting exercise appears to be related to fitness. Percentage body fat is also associated, inversely, with fitness. The difference between the younger and older participants in % body fat undoubtedly reflects the much greater time spent in vigorous exercise by the Muslim and Non-Muslim participants. However, the differences in BMI between the Muslim and Non-Muslim, for the Muslim and Non-Muslim cohorts respectively, reflect additional mechanisms, as they are largely driven by differences in height rather than mass. These data emphasize the importance of not relying solely on BMI as a measure of size.
Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent
Hayssam M. Ali,Mohamed H. Khamis,Fatma A. Hassan
Applied Water Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13201-012-0027-4
Abstract: This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.
Deleterious Nonsynonymous SNP Found within HLA-DRB1 Gene Involved in Allograft Rejection in Sudanese Family: Using DNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics Methods  [PDF]
Mohamed M. Hassan, Sofia B. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Hussain, Amar A. Dowd
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2015.54018
Abstract: Renal transplantation provides the best long-term treatment for chronic renal failure. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a major role in the understanding of the genetic basis of many complex human diseases. Also, the genetics of human phenotype variation could be understood by knowing the functions of these SNPs. It is still a major challenge to identify the functional SNPs in a disease-related gene. This work explored how SNPs mutations in HLA-DRB1 gene could affect renal transplantation rejection. This study was carried out in Ahmed Gasim Hospital, Renal Dialysis Center during the period, from September 2012 to November 2013. Blood samples from five Sudanese patients (different families) with known renal transplantation rejection were collected before hemodialysis, furthermore one blood sample for control. DNA sequences results and detected SNPs were analyzed using bioinformatics tools (BLAST, SIFT, nsSNP Analyzer, PolyPhen, I-mutant, BioEdit, CPH, Chimera, Box shade and Project Hope). In addition, international databases were used for datasets [NCBI, Uniprot]. Results showed that, three SNPs were detected; two of three SNPs were predicted as tolerant or benign (rs1059575, novel) and one was deleterious (rs17885437). This study concluded that the identification of pathological SNPs could be an answer to unknown causes for a lot of organ transplantation rejection cases.
Adsorption Studies of Lead by Enteromorpha Algae and Its Silicates Bonded Material
Hassan H. Hammud,Ali El-Shaar,Essam Khamis,El-Sayed Mansour
Advances in Chemistry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/205459
Abstract: Lead adsorption by green Enteromorpha algae was studied. Adsorption capacity was 83.8?mg/g at pH 3.0 with algae (E) and 1433.5?mg/g for silicates modified algae (EM). FTIR and thermal analysis of algae materials were studied. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson column model were best for adsorbent (E) and algae after reflux (ER) and Yan model for (EM) with capacity 76.2, 71.1, and 982.5?mg/g, respectively. (ER) and (EM) show less swelling and better flow rate control than (E). Nonlinear methods are more appropriate technique. Error function calculations proved valuable for predicting the best adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and column models. 1. Introduction The contamination of wastewater and soil with heavy metal ions is a complex problem, since these metals are toxic in both their elemental and chemically combined forms. Natural water is contaminated with several heavy metals due to their widespread use in industry and agriculture arising mostly from mining wastes and industrial discharges. From an environmental protection point of view, heavy metal ions should be removed at the source in order to avoid pollution of natural waters and subsequent metal accumulation in the food chain. In fact, removal of this contamination has received much attention in recent years [1, 2]. Lead being one of the “big three” toxic heavy metals, it is of profound concern as a toxic waste and contaminant of surface waters as it becomes concentrated throughout the food chain to humans [3]. Lead damages different body organs (central and peripheral nervous systems and kidney); also, lead has a teratogenic effect, causing stillbirth in women and affecting the fetus [4]. Conventional methods for removal are chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation, chemical reduction, ion exchange, filtration, electrochemical treatment, and evaporation [5, 6]. These methods often are very expensive. Alternative method for heavy metal removal was developed in the last past decade and known as biosorption. Marine algae, an abundant renewable natural biomass, have been used as dead nonliving materials for removal of heavy metals [7, 8]. In addition, algae were found accumulating heavy metal in their habitat and are thus used as heavy metal pollution monitors in fresh and salty water such as river, sea, and ocean. They have been also used in on-site bioremediation of polluted natural water [9, 10]. Furthermore, the search for a low-cost and easily available adsorbent has led to the investigation of materials of agricultural and biological origin (bacteria, fungi, yeast, and algae can remove heavy metals
Using a GIS to Assess the Land Movements Hazard: Application on Berhoum Area, Hodna Basin, Algeria  [PDF]
Amar Guettouche
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2019.112012
Abstract: Modeling land movements hazard by multi-criteria approach is a line of research to provide a methodological framework for risk mapping. This work is intended to establish a model for mapping “land movements hazard” by GIS approach based on multi-criteria analysis. The methodology is to create thematic maps by combining in GIS, determining factors (slope, lithology, water, …) in triggering landslides phenomena and shrinking-swelling soil, using the method of Weighted Sum Model (WSM). These maps are then combined to provide a hazard map of land movements. The application of this method allows the spatial distribution of different criteria and phenomena in Berhoum area, region of Hodna Basin, eastern Algeria. As a result, the study area has been divided into four different areas: 1) areas with no land movements hazard, 2) areas with a medium land movements hazard, 3) areas with a high land movements hazard, and 4) areas with very high land movements hazard.
Security Framework for Distributed Database System  [PDF]
Allajabu Dafalla Khamis, Saad Subair
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2019.71001
Abstract: This research aims to study various Symmetrical Algorithms, while the main objective of this study is to find out a suitable algorithm for the encryption of any specific size of text file where the experiment of each algorithm is based on encryption of different sizes of the text files, which are in “10 KB to 5 MB”, and also to calculate the time duration that each algorithm takes to encrypt or to decrypt the particular size of each text file. There are many types of encryption algorithm, which can be used to encrypt the computerized information in different Organizations, whose all algorithms can encrypt and decrypt any size of text file, but the time duration of each Algorithm during the encryption or decryption process of specific file size is not fixed. Some of the algorithms are suitable for encryption of specific ranges of the file size, or some of algorithms are functional while encryption small size of files, and others algorithms are functional for encryption of big size of text files, based on the time duration disparity among symmetric algorithms during encryption of text files. In this study five symmetrical algorithms are merged in one program using classes and concept of inheritance in the form that if encryption is needed, the program will select the file and it checks the size of the text file. After this process the program automatically will select the suitable encryption algorithm to encrypt the specific text file according to the range of the file size. Knowing that the file size before or after encryption will not change or is stable, in this case of the decryption algorithm will apply the same process of encryption while decrypting files, the program of encryption and decryption code will write using visual Studio 2013. The result will be analyzed with R program (R software), the cipher text will appear in the format of UTF8 which means Unicode Transformation Format, “8” Means “8” bits to represent a character, the size format that will apply in the program will be in format of KB (kilo Byte).
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