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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10925 matches for " Amanda Young "
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Spectral Gap and Edge Excitations of $d$-dimensional PVBS models on half-spaces
Michael Bishop,Bruno Nachtergaele,Amanda Young
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We analyze a class of quantum spin models defined on half-spaces in the $d$-dimensional hypercubic lattice bounded by a hyperplane with inward unit normal vector $m\in\mathbb{R}^d$. The family of models was previously introduced as the single species Product Vacua with Boundary States (PVBS) model, which is a spin-$1/2$ model with a XXZ-type nearest neighbor interactions depending on parameters $\lambda_j\in (0,\infty)$, one for each coordinate direction. For any given values of the parameters, we prove an upper bound for the spectral gap above the unique ground state of these models, which vanishes for exactly one direction of the normal vector $m$. For all other choices of $m$ we derive a positive lower bound of the spectral gap, except for the case $\lambda_1 =\cdots =\lambda_d=1$, which is known to have gapless excitations in the bulk.
Self monitoring of blood glucose - a survey of diabetes UK members with type 2 diabetes who use SMBG
Katharine D Barnard, Amanda J Young, Norman R Waugh
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-318
Abstract: 554 participants completed the survey, of whom 289 (52.2%) were male. 20% of respondents were recently diagnosed (< 6 months). Frequency of SMBG varied, with 43% of participants testing between once and four times a day and 22% testing less than once a month or for occasional periods.80% of respondents reported high satisfaction with SMBG, and reported feeling more 'in control' of their diabetes management using it. The most frequently reported use of SMBG was to make adjustments to food intake or confirm a hyperglycaemic episode.Women were significantly more likely to report feelings of guilt or self-chastisement associated with out of range readings (p = < .001).SMBG was clearly of benefit to this group of confirmed users, who used the results to adjust diet, physical activity or medications. However many individuals (particularly women) reported feelings of anxiety and depression associated with its use.A recent review of evidence on self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in Type 2 diabetes, done to inform the deliberations of a Department of Health (England) working group on SMBG, found that the published evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness was weak, and its value not proven [1]. However the working group had heard from Diabetes UK that many people with type 2 diabetes are convinced that SMBG is of value. The report of the working group is published http://www.diabetes.nhs.uk/document.php?o=1023 webcite[2]. Some individuals with Type 2 diabetes report the ability to self-monitor blood glucose levels to be empowering, enabling them to feel more 'in control' of their diabetes and able to react to readings quickly, rather than having to wait for their routine HbA1c test [3] Possible benefits of SMBG include immediate confirmation of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia; an increase in motivation to stimulate greater self-care; and data with which patients or healthcare teams could adjust treatment regimens [3]. However, a recurring theme in the recent rev
PD5: A General Purpose Library for Primer Design Software
Michael C. Riley, Wayne Aubrey, Michael Young, Amanda Clare
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080156
Abstract: Background Complex PCR applications for large genome-scale projects require fast, reliable and often highly sophisticated primer design software applications. Presently, such applications use pipelining methods to utilise many third party applications and this involves file parsing, interfacing and data conversion, which is slow and prone to error. A fully integrated suite of software tools for primer design would considerably improve the development time, the processing speed, and the reliability of bespoke primer design software applications. Results The PD5 software library is an open-source collection of classes and utilities, providing a complete collection of software building blocks for primer design and analysis. It is written in object-oriented C++ with an emphasis on classes suitable for efficient and rapid development of bespoke primer design programs. The modular design of the software library simplifies the development of specific applications and also integration with existing third party software where necessary. We demonstrate several applications created using this software library that have already proved to be effective, but we view the project as a dynamic environment for building primer design software and it is open for future development by the bioinformatics community. Therefore, the PD5 software library is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License, which guarantee access to source-code and allow redistribution and modification. Conclusions The PD5 software library is downloadable from Google Code and the accompanying Wiki includes instructions and examples: http://code.google.com/p/primer-design
Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets on Visceral Sensory Pathways
L. Ashley Blackshaw,Amanda J. Page,Richard L. Young
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2011.00040
Abstract: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) have a diverse range of structures and molecular coupling mechanisms. There are eight mGluR subtypes divided into three major groups. Group I (mGluR1 and 5) is excitatory; groups II (mGluR2 and 3) and III (mGluR 4, 6, and 7) are inhibitory. All mGluR are found in the mammalian nervous system but some are absent from sensory neurons. The focus here is on mGluR in sensory pathways from the viscera, where they have been explored as therapeutic targets. Group I mGluR are activated by endogenous glutamate or constitutively active without agonist. Constitutive activity can be exploited by inverse agonists to reduce neuronal excitability without synaptic input. This is promising for reducing activation of nociceptive afferents and pain using mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators. Many inhibitory mGluR are also expressed in visceral afferents, many of which markedly reduce excitability. Their role in visceral pain remains to be determined, but they have shown promise in inhibition of the triggering of gastro-esophageal reflux, via an action on mechanosensory gastric afferents. The extent of reflux inhibition is limited, however, and may not reach a clinically useful level. On the other hand, negative modulation of mGluR5 has very potent actions on reflux inhibition, which has produced the most likely candidates so far as therapeutic drugs. These act probably outside the central nervous system, and may therefore provide a generous therapeutic window. There are many unanswered questions about mGluR along visceral afferent pathways, the answers to which may reveal many more therapeutic candidates.
Product Vacua and Boundary State Models in d Dimensions
Sven Bachmann,Eman Hamza,Bruno Nachtergaele,Amanda Young
Statistics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s10955-015-1260-7
Abstract: We introduce and analyze a class of quantum spin models defined on d-dimensional lattices Lambda subset of Z^d, which we call `Product Vacua with Boundary States' (PVBS). We characterize their ground state spaces on arbitrary finite volumes and study the thermodynamic limit. Using the martingale method, we prove that the models have a gapped excitation spectrum on Z^d except for critical values of the parameters. For special values of the parameters we show that the excitation spectrum is gapless. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the spectrum to the existence and orientation of boundaries. This sensitivity can be explained by the presence or absence of edge excitations. In particular, we study a PVBS models on a slanted half-plane and show that it has gapless edge states but a gapped excitation spectrum in the bulk.
The Role of Maternalism in Contemporary Paid Domestic Work  [PDF]
Amanda Moras
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.33033

Various studies of domestic work have identified close personal relationships between domestic workers and employers as a key instrument in the exploitation of domestic workers, allowing employers to solicit unpaid services as well as a sense of superiority (Rollins, 1985; Romero, 2002; Glenn, 1992; Hondagneu-Sotelo, 2001). Likewise, other scholars have pointed out that close employee-employer relationships may actually empower domestic workers, increasing job leverage (Thorton-Dill, 1994). Ultimately, these lines are blurry and ever changing as employers continuously redefine employee expectations. Drawing from a larger study involving thirty interviews with white upper middle class women who currently employ domestic workers (mostly housecleaners) this paper explores employers’ interactions with domestic workers. Through these interviews this research elaborates on how employers and employees interact, how employers feel about these interactions, and explores to what extent these interactions are informed by the widely reported maternalistic tendencies of the past, while also considering the consequences of this.

Epistemological Limits to Scientific Prediction: The Problem of Uncertainty  [PDF]
Amanda Guillan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.44053
Abstract: A key issue regarding the reliability of scientific prediction is uncertainty, which also affects its possibility as scientific knowledge. Thus, uncertainty is directly related to the epistemological limits of prediction in science. Within this context, this paper considers the obstacles to scientific predictions that are related to uncertainty. The analysis is made according to the twofold character of the limits of science, which is characterized in terms of the “barriers” and the “confines.” In addition, the study takes into account the presence of internal and external factors related to the epistemological limits of science. Following these lines of research, the analysis is focused on two steps. First, there is a characterization of the coordinates of Nicholas Rescher’s approach, which is particularly important regarding the epistemological limits to scientific prediction. Second, there is a study of uncertainty as an epistemological obstacle to predictability. Thereafter, the consequences for the future are pointed out.
Artful Deception, Languaging, and Learning—The Brain on Seeing Itself  [PDF]
Amanda Preston
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.57049

Despite having named ourselves Homo sapiens—a designation contingent on word/reason (logos) as our chosen identifier—recent evidence suggests language is only a small fraction of the story. Human beings would be more aptly named Homo videns—seeing man—if percentage of cortex area per modality determined the labeling of an organism. Instead, the sentential ontology of language philosophers and linguists persists in spite of the growing body of cognitive research challenging the language instinct as our most defining characteristic. What is becoming clearer is that language is palimpsestic. It is like a marked transparency over visuospatial maps, which are wired to sensorimotor maps. The left lateralized interpreter uses language to communicably narrativize an apparent unity, but people are not the only fictionalizing animals. This examination looks to cognitive and psychological studies to suggest that a prelinguistic instinct to make sense of unrelated information is a biological consequence of intersections among pattern matching, symbolic thinking, aesthetics, and emotive tagging, which is accessible by language, but not a product thereof. Language, rather, is just an outer surface. Rather than thinking man, playing man, or tool-making man, we would be better described as storytelling animals (narrativism). Like other social mammals, we run simulation heuristics to predict causal chains, object/event frequency, value association, and problem solving. The post hoc product is episodic fiction. Language merely serves to magnify what Friederich Nietzsche is rightfully identified as an art of dissimulation—lying. In short, the moral of the story is that we are making it all up as we go along.

Developing a matrix to identify and prioritise research recommendations in HIV Prevention
Sydney Anstee, Alison Price, Amanda Young, Katharine Barnard, Bob Coates, Simon Fraser, Rebecca Moran
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-381
Abstract: Categories for prevention and risk groups were developed for HIV prevention in consultation with external experts. These were used as axes on a matrix tool to map evidence. Systematic searches for publications on HIV prevention were undertaken using electronic databases for primary and secondary research undertaken mainly in UK, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2006-9. Each publication was screened for inclusion then coded. The risk groups and prevention areas in each paper were counted: several publications addressed multiple risk groups. The counts were exported to the matrix and clearly illustrate the concentrations and gaps of literature in HIV prevention.716 systematic reviews, randomised control trials and other primary research met the inclusion criteria for HIV prevention. The matrix identified several under researched areas in HIV prevention.This is the first categorisation system for HIV prevention and the matrix is a novel tool for evidence mapping. Some important yet under-researched areas have been identified in HIV prevention evidence: identifying the undiagnosed population; international adaptation; education; intervention combinations; transgender; sex-workers; heterosexuals and older age groups.Other research recommendations: develop the classification system further and investigate transferability of the matrix to other prevention areas; evidence syntheses may be appropriate in areas dense with research; have studies with positive findings been translated to practice?The authors of this study invite research suggestions relating to the evidence gaps identified within remits of Public Health or any appropriate NETSCC programme.Follow the 'Suggest Research' links from:http://www.netscc.ac.uk/ webcite. Enter - HIVProject - in optional ID for HTA or in first information box for other programmes.HIV/AIDS persists as a major global health priority with the number of people living with HIV continuing to increase[1]. A report from the Global HIV Pre
Can color vision variation explain sex differences in invertebrate foraging by capuchin monkeys?
Amanda D. MELIN, Linda M. FEDIGAN, Hilary C. YOUNG, Shoji KAWAMURA
Current Zoology , 2010,
Abstract: Invertebrates are the main source of protein for many small-bodied monkeys. Prey vary in size, mobility, degree of protective covering, and use of the forest, i.e. canopy height, and whether they are exposed or embed themselves in substrates. Sex-differentiation in foraging patterns is well documented for some monkey species and recent studies find that color vision phenotype can also affect invertebrate foraging. Since vision phenotype is polymorphic and sex-linked in most New World monkeys - males have dichromatic vision and females have either dichromatic or trichromatic vision - this raises the possibility that sex differences are linked to visual ecology. We tested predicted sex differences for invertebrate foraging in white-faced capuchins Cebus capucinus and conducted 12 months of study on four free-ranging groups between January 2007 and September 2008. We found both sex and color vision effects. Sex: Males spent more time foraging for invertebrates on the ground. Females spent more time consuming embedded, colonial invertebrates, ate relatively more “soft” sedentary invertebrates, and devoted more of their activity budget to invertebrate foraging. Color Vision: Dichromatic monkeys had a higher capture efficiency of exposed invertebrates and spent less time visually foraging. Trichromats ate relatively more “hard” sedentary invertebrates. We conclude that some variation in invertebrate foraging reflects differences between the sexes that may be due to disparities in size, strength, reproductive demands or niche preferences. However, other intraspecific variation in invertebrate foraging that might be mistakenly attributed to sex differences actually reflects differences in color vision [Current Zoology 56 (3): 300–312, 2010].
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