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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3336 matches for " Amanda Otsuka "
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Relationships among Risk Assessment, Risk Perception and Acceptance Model of the Residents near Nuclear Power Plants in Japan  [PDF]
Yuichi Otsuka
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.52005
Abstract: This study aims at revealing the relationships among risk assessment result, risk perception model and risk acceptance model of the residents near nuclear power plants in Japan. Risk acceptance model is based on the trust of resident to nuclear power plants (NPPs) companies. The risk perception of the residents is very fragile and is not always based on objective technical knowledge. In addition, there are two models of risk acceptance: traditional trust model and salient value similarity model. In order to discuss the risk communication framework between NPPs with residents, applicability of two modes on the perception of the residents should be investigated. The author collected questionnaire from local resident near Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP in Niigata, Japan. Severity of risk is significantly affected by the extents of risks, not by amount of knowledge. Radiation relating hazard is normally evaluated higher risk. Risk acceptance level is significantly related to the factors of social benefits and trust to the NPPs company, not by regional interest nor amount of knowledge. Furthermore, value similarity model was not significant in this study. The results demonstrated that risk acceptance model of local residents near NPPs could be arranged by traditional trust model. In order to establish mutual trustworthy relationships between local residents and NPPs engineer, expert knowledge in nuclear power, communication skills, and expertise in safety are necessary to the engineers.
The Negative Entropy in Organisms; Its Maintenance and Extension  [PDF]
Jinya Otsuka
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.912136
Abstract: Life has been a mystery for most physicists since the question of Maxwell’s demon. In the present paper, the self-reproduction, which is characteristic of the organism, is shown to be essential in resolving the paradox of Maxwell’s demon. For this purpose, a new thermodynamic quantity of biological activity is introduced to represent the molecular events in an organism recently revealed by molecular biology. This quantity gives a measure that the entropy production arising from the difference between acquired energy and stored energy compensates for the negative entropy of systematizing the organism, and is considered to be proportional to the self-reproducing rate of the organism as the first approximation. The equation of replicator dynamics consisting of self-reproducing rate, death rate and mutation terms contains all known types of evolution of unicellular organisms. When the mutation term is restricted to the point mutation mainly due to the nucleotide base changes in genes, this equation automatically leads to Darwinian evolution that the mutant with the higher increase rate is selected to become prevailing in the population. Throughout this evolution, the nucleotide bases in genes are converged to the special arrangement exhibiting the optimal increase rate of the organism. Moreover, the mutants having experienced gene duplication first decline to the minor members in the population but some of the descendants recover as a new style of organisms by generating new gene(s) from the counterpart of duplicated genes. This evolutionary process to expand the repertoire of genes is mathematically formulated by solving the equation of replicator dynamics up to the higher order of mutation terms. The present theoretical approach can be not only extended to the multicellular diploid eukaryotes but also applied to explain the origin of genes in the self-reproducing proto-cells formed anciently.
Dynamics of Primary Productivity and Oceanographic Parameters under Influence of the Amazon River Plume  [PDF]
Amanda Otsuka, Fernando Feitosa, Moacyr Araújo, Dóris Veleda, Maria da Gloria Silva Cunha, Nathalie Lefévre, Felipe Gaspar, Manuel Flores Montes, Gislayne Borges, Carlos Noriega
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.811035
Abstract: The watershed of the Amazon River discharges about 120,000 m3·s-1of freshwater into the adjacent platform and oceanic region. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of oceanographic parameters, chlorophyll a and primary productivity under the influence of the Amazon River plume, during the period of greatest extension of the Amazon plume. Collections were carried out in September 14 in 16 stations including continental platform and oceanic region. It was possible to observe superficial currents along the coast in the northwest direction, but with less intensity and currents with greater speeds towards the east due to the North Brazil Current retroflexion at this time of the year, transporting the plume to the central Atlantic Ocean. The spatial influence of the plume was observed in the salinity, which ranged from 28 to 36.75, although the high precipitation in the region may also have contributed as a source of freshwater. However, the sampled region showed strong negative linear correlation of silicate, chlorophyll a and primary productivity with salinity. The primary productivity values ranged from 0.04 to 18.81 mg C m-3?day-1, whereas chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.15 mg·m-3?to 1.83 mg·m-3, decreasing their values as they move away from the coast. The Amazon River plume can reach and influence the oceanographic and biological parameters in a large area of this oligotrophic region. However, the results also suggest that the export of material from the adjacent coastal region is another determinant of the region’s productivity.
Engineering Management Framework to Achieve Safety of a Service of an Organization Based on Social Acceptance  [PDF]
Yuichi Otsuka, Hiroshi Noguchi
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2012.21003
Abstract: We aim at a management framework of an organization in order to achieve its safety in a limited case for a system in-volving the organization for the service, its users and the surrounding society. The proposed framework is possible to allow safety managers to specify tasks involving safety measures based on the concept of “a study of safety”. In the beginning, we discuss the definitions of safety and acceptance, which will be the target of safety management. Next, problems in which the hierarchy of components in the safety systems involves are noted. We then propose the following details of the management framework to achieve the safety of the service of the organization based on acceptance by the surrounding society. Applications of the components in the proposed framework are effectively demonstrated. The shown application can aid in visualizing a way of specification of the proposed concept in a target system.
Novas ocorrências de liquens corticícolas crostosos e microfoliosos em vegeta??o de Caatinga no semi-árido de Alagoas
Menezes, Aline Anjos de;Leite, Amanda Barreto Xavier;Otsuka, Amanda Yumi;Jesus, Luciana Santos de;Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062011000400015
Abstract: a total of 25 species are here reported for the first time for alagoas state, with one new record for the northeastern region of brazil and four new records for brazil. a list of all known species for the semi-arid region in alagoas is presented. sampling took place near the municipality of s?o josé da tapera, in the semi-arid region of alagoas, where a very rich caatinga vegetation of trees and shrubs occurs.
Seasonal and Local Time Variations of E-Region Field-Aligned Irregularities Observed with 30.8-MHz Radar at Kototabang, Indonesia
Y. Otsuka
International Journal of Geophysics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/695793
Abstract: A VHF backscatter radar with operating frequency 30.8 MHz has been operated at Kototabang (0.20°S, 100.32°E; dip latitude 10.36°S), Indonesia, since February 2006. We analyzed E-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) observed by this radar through a year of 2007 and found that the E-region FAI observed at Kototabang can be classified into two groups. One is “descending FAI”. Altitude of the FAI echo region descends with time from 102 km to 88 km altitude during 0700–1000 and 1900–0000 LT in June solstice season. The other is “low-altitude FAI”, which is observed in an altitude range from 88 to 94 km mainly during nighttime. The observed Doppler velocity show distinct local time and altitude dependence. The seasonally averaged zonal velocity above (below) approximately 94 km altitude is westward (eastward) during daytime and eastward (westward) during nighttime. Meridional/vertical velocity perpendicular to the geomagnetic fields is upward during daytime and downward during nighttime. The direction of the FAI velocity above approximately 94 km altitude is consistent with that of the background E × B plasma drifts reported previously.
Nanofabrication of Nonfouling Surfaces for Micropatterning of Cell and Microtissue
Hidenori Otsuka
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15085525
Abstract: Surface engineering techniques for cellular micropatterning are emerging as important tools to clarify the effects of the microenvironment on cellular behavior, as cells usually integrate and respond the microscale environment, such as chemical and mechanical properties of the surrounding fluid and extracellular matrix, soluble protein factors, small signal molecules, and contacts with neighboring cells. Furthermore, recent progress in cellular micropatterning has contributed to the development of cell-based biosensors for the functional characterization and detection of drugs, pathogens, toxicants, and odorants. In this regards, the ability to control shape and spreading of attached cells and cell-cell contacts through the form and dimension of the cell-adhesive patches with high precision is important. Commitment of stem cells to different specific lineages depends strongly on cell shape, implying that controlled microenvironments through engineered surfaces may not only be a valuable approach towards fundamental cell-biological studies, but also of great importance for the design of cell culture substrates for tissue engineering. To develop this kind of cellular microarray composed of a cell-resistant surface and cell attachment region, micropatterning a protein-repellent surface is important because cellular adhesion and proliferation are regulated by protein adsorption. The focus of this review is on the surface engineering aspects of biologically motivated micropatterning of two-dimensional surfaces with the aim to provide an introductory overview described in the literature. In particular, the importance of non-fouling surface chemistries is discussed.
Self-Mixing Thin-Slice Solid-State Laser Metrology
Kenju Otsuka
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110202195
Abstract: This paper reviews the dynamic effect of thin-slice solid-state lasers subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback, which led to the discovery of the self-mixing modulation effect, and its applications to quantum-noise-limited versatile laser metrology systems with extreme optical sensitivity.
Seasonal and Local Time Variations of E-Region Field-Aligned Irregularities Observed with 30.8-MHz Radar at Kototabang, Indonesia
Y. Otsuka
International Journal of Geophysics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/695793
Abstract: A VHF backscatter radar with operating frequency 30.8?MHz has been operated at Kototabang (0.20°S, 100.32°E; dip latitude 10.36°S), Indonesia, since February 2006. We analyzed E-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) observed by this radar through a year of 2007 and found that the E-region FAI observed at Kototabang can be classified into two groups. One is “descending FAI”. Altitude of the FAI echo region descends with time from 102?km to 88?km altitude during 0700–1000 and 1900–0000?LT in June solstice season. The other is “low-altitude FAI”, which is observed in an altitude range from 88 to 94?km mainly during nighttime. The observed Doppler velocity show distinct local time and altitude dependence. The seasonally averaged zonal velocity above (below) approximately 94?km altitude is westward (eastward) during daytime and eastward (westward) during nighttime. Meridional/vertical velocity perpendicular to the geomagnetic fields is upward during daytime and downward during nighttime. The direction of the FAI velocity above approximately 94?km altitude is consistent with that of the background E × B plasma drifts reported previously. 1. Introduction VHF, UHF, and L-band radars are used for observations of the Bragg scatter echo from field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) with a spatial scale of one half the radar wavelength. Regarding the E-region FAIs at mid-latitudes, using a powerful radar, middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar at Shigaraki, Japan, Yamamoto et al. [1] have discovered two types of the E-region FAI echoes: quasiperiodic (QP) and continuous echoes. The QP echoes appearing intermittently at altitudes of sporadic E (Es) layer (above 100?km) with periods of 5–20?min. Morphological features of the QP echoes have been reported by Yamamoto et al. [2]. Occurrence rate of the QP echoes shows distinct seasonal variation with a maximum in summer and rises abruptly after the local sunset and decreases after midnight. Numerous experimental and theoretical studies have been made to disclose the mechanisms generating the QP echoes (e.g.,[3–7]). On the other hand, the continuous FAI echoes appear continuously in time at low-altitude of the E-region (90–100?km), mainly around sunrise and occasionally at postmidnight [8]. However, studies of the E-region FAIs at low latitudes are limited compared to those at the mid-latitude regions. Using the Piura VHF radar in Peru (5.2°S, 80.6°W; dip latitude 7°N) and the Gadanki MST radar in India (13.5°N, 79.2°E; dip latitude 6.3°N), Chau et al. [9] and Patra et al. [10] have reported statistical characteristics
Classical dimer model with anisotropic interactions on the square lattice
Hiromi Otsuka
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.011140
Abstract: We discuss phase transitions and the phase diagram of a classical dimer model with anisotropic interactions defined on a square lattice. For the attractive region, the perturbation of the orientational order parameter introduced by the anisotropy causes the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions from a dimer-liquid to columnar phases. According to the discussion by Nomura and Okamoto for a quantum-spin chain system [J. Phys. A 27, 5773 (1994)], we proffer criteria to determine transition points and also universal level-splitting conditions. Subsequently, we perform numerical diagonalization calculations of the nonsymmetric real transfer matrices up to linear dimension specified by L=20 and determine the global phase diagram. For the repulsive region, we find the boundary between the dimer-liquid and the strong repulsion phases. Based on the dispersion relation of the one-string motion, which exhibits a two-fold ``zero-energy flat band'' in the strong repulsion limit, we give an intuitive account for the property of the strong repulsion phase.
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