Abstract:
Because certain groups at high risk for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) come together in correctional facilities, seroprevalence was high early in the epidemic. The share of the HIV/AIDS epidemic borne by inmates of and persons released from jails and prisons in the United States (US) in 1997 was estimated in a previous paper. While the number of inmates and releasees has risen, their HIV seroprevalence rates have fallen. We sought to determine if the share of HIV/AIDS borne by inmates and releasees in the US decreased between 1997 and 2006. We created a new model of population flow in and out of correctional facilities to estimate the number of persons released in 1997 and 2006. In 1997, approximately one in five of all HIV-infected Americans was among the 7.3 million who left a correctional facility that year. Nine years later, only one in seven (14%) of infected Americans was among the 9.1 million leaving, a 29.3% decline in the share. For black and Hispanic males, two demographic groups with heightened incarceration rates, recently released inmates comprise roughly one in five of those groups' total HIV-infected persons, a figure similar to the proportion borne by the correctional population as a whole in 1997. Decreasing HIV seroprevalence among those admitted to jails and prisons, prolonged survival and aging of the US population with HIV/AIDS beyond the crime-prone years, and success with discharge planning programs targeting HIV-infected prisoners could explain the declining concentration of the epidemic among correctional populations. Meanwhile, the number of persons with HIV/AIDS leaving correctional facilities remains virtually identical. Jails and prisons continue to be potent targets for public health interventions. The fluid nature of incarcerated populations ensures that effective interventions will be felt not only in correctional facilities but also in communities to which releasees return.

Abstract:
brazil is a country of a long immigration history, however its emigration experience is a recent issue. the migration transition started in the 1980s, when the first wave of migration was initiated. this process is continued in the next decades: therefore, the traditional nation of immigration was transformed in the nation of emigration. brazilian diaspora is now estimated in ca. 3,7 million and constitutes an important area of interest for the scholars and policy-makers interested in development policy. this article focuses on the relationship between migration and development from the perspective of the sending country. the author argues that in the brazilian case, the impact of migration on the national economy should be beneficial, especially when analyzing the effects of remittances on the mezzo (i.e. regional) level.

Abstract:
Purpose: The article aims at analyzing the functional form of the relation between the level of public debt and the government bond yields in both developed and developing countries. A surge in public indebtedness following the financial crisis in 2008-2010 undermined the credibility of sovereigns in the credit markets. As a result, the government bond yields have risen, thus amplifying the problem of rapidly expanding public debts. The purpose of the article is to estimate the threshold value of government debt above which its service costs rapidly increase.Methodology: The relation between the 10-year government bond real interest rate and the level of debt is investigated with the use of spline regression with cubic splines. The regression model is estimated using annual data for 66 countries that spans between the years 1980-2010. An additional analysis is conducted for the last decade and after splitting the sample into high-income and catching-up countries.Findings: In the sample that covers all countries and the whole 1980-2010 period no relation between the level of debt and interest rate has been detected. In the years 2001-2010 the threshold value of debt above which the real interest rate starts to grow rapidly is estimated to be around 150% of GDP in catching-up countries and about 110% of GDP in high-income countries.Research implications: An analysis of the impact of fiscal policy on the level of interest should take into account the likely non-linearity of the relationship.Originality: Spline regression has not yet been used in the analysis of the relation between debt and interest rate.

Abstract:
The past research on the state complexity of operations on regular languages is examined, and a new approach based on an old method (derivatives of regular expressions) is presented. Since state complexity is a property of a language, it is appropriate to define it in formal-language terms as the number of distinct quotients of the language, and to call it "quotient complexity". The problem of finding the quotient complexity of a language f(K,L) is considered, where K and L are regular languages and f is a regular operation, for example, union or concatenation. Since quotients can be represented by derivatives, one can find a formula for the typical quotient of f(K,L) in terms of the quotients of K and L. To obtain an upper bound on the number of quotients of f(K,L) all one has to do is count how many such quotients are possible, and this makes automaton constructions unnecessary. The advantages of this point of view are illustrated by many examples. Moreover, new general observations are presented to help in the estimation of the upper bounds on quotient complexity of regular operations.

Abstract:
The Cartan and Iwasawa decompositions of real reductive Lie groups play a fundamental role in the representation theory of the groups and their corresponding symmetric spaces. These decompositions are defined by an involution with a compact fixed-point group, called a Cartan involution. For an arbitrary involution, one can consider similar decompositions. We offer a generalization of the Cartan and Iwasawa decompositions for algebraic groups defined over an arbitrary field $k$ and a general involution.

Abstract:
Practical synthetic route for the formation of
enantiomeric mixture of Isopropyl 2-(4-((4-chlorophenyl)(hydroxyl)methyl)phenoxy)-2-methylpropanoate (Fibratol 2a/b) from isopropyl
2-(4-(4-chlorobenzoyl)phenoxy)-2-methylpropanoate (Fenofibrate 1) has
been developed. Method has also been established for the chiral separation of
enantiomers of Fibratol 2a/b that is synthesized using the route mentioned
above. The optical activity determined for enantiomerically separated Fibratol
(2a) and Fibratol (2b) are -5.2° and 8.0° which reflect their ability to rotate
plane polarized light counterclockwise (levo)
and clockwise (dextro), respectively.

Abstract:
Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.

Abstract:
The syntactic complexity of a regular language is the cardinality of its syntactic semigroup. The syntactic complexity of a subclass of regular languages is the maximal syntactic complexity of languages in that subclass, taken as a function of the state complexity of these languages. We study the syntactic complexity of star-free regular languages, that is, languages that can be constructed from finite languages using union, complement and concatenation. We find tight upper bounds on the syntactic complexity of languages accepted by monotonic and partially monotonic automata. We introduce "nearly monotonic" automata, which accept star-free languages, and find a tight upper bound on the syntactic complexity of languages accepted by such automata. We conjecture that this bound is also an upper bound on the syntactic complexity of star-free languages.

Abstract:
An atom of a regular language L with n (left) quotients is a non-empty intersection of uncomplemented or complemented quotients of L, where each of the n quotients appears in a term of the intersection. The quotient complexity of L, which is the same as the state complexity of L, is the number of quotients of L. We prove that, for any language L with quotient complexity n, the quotient complexity of any atom of L with r complemented quotients has an upper bound of 2^n-1 if r=0 or r=n, and 1+\sum_{k=1}^{r} \sum_{h=k+1}^{k+n-r} C_{h}^{n} \cdot C_{k}^{h} otherwise, where C_j^i is the binomial coefficient. For each n\ge 1, we exhibit a language whose atoms meet these bounds.

Abstract:
We show that every regular language defines a unique nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA), which we call "\'atomaton", whose states are the "atoms" of the language, that is, non-empty intersections of complemented or uncomplemented left quotients of the language. We describe methods of constructing the \'atomaton, and prove that it is isomorphic to the reverse automaton of the minimal deterministic finite automaton (DFA) of the reverse language. We study "atomic" NFAs in which the right language of every state is a union of atoms. We generalize Brzozowski's double-reversal method for minimizing a deterministic finite automaton (DFA), showing that the result of applying the subset construction to an NFA is a minimal DFA if and only if the reverse of the NFA is atomic. We prove that Sengoku's claim that his method always finds a minimal NFA is false.