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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 299767 matches for " Amanda J Daley "
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Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT): A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112]
Amanda J Daley, Robert J Copeland, Neil P Wright, Jerry KH Wales
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-113
Abstract: SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1) exercise therapy, (2) attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity), or (3) usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1) clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard) (2) no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3) not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint) and eight weeks (end of intervention) from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI.The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming levels in Britain with several studies [1] reporting that the number of young people who are overweight and obese has increased notably over the past decade. This dramatic increase in overweight has not been confined to British children and adolescents; pediatric overweight is also increasing in other western countries [2,3]. While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Overweight children have increased odds of experiencing poor health related quality of life, particularly in the domains of psychosocial health, self-esteem and ph
What advice are oncologists and surgeons in the United Kingdom giving to breast cancer patients about physical activity?
Amanda J Daley, Sarah J Bowden, Daniel W Rea, Lucinda Billingham, Amtul R Carmicheal
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-46
Abstract: Evidence from RCTs has shown that physical activity may attenuate the negative effects of cancer treatment in women diagnosed with breast cancer [1,2]. Rates of physical activity decline substantially during cancer treatment and may not return to pre-diagnosis levels after treatment has been completed [3]. Recent epidemiological studies [4] have also demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical activity after diagnosis and risk of recurrence and breast cancer specific mortality, so the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle after diagnosis of breast cancer may have even greater health consequences.Oncologists and surgeons may serve as an important source of motivation by encouraging patients to be physically active and by conveying the importance of a healthy lifestyle after cancer diagnosis. Oncologists have also been found to have a favourable attitude towards promoting exercise with cancer patients [5,6]. In addition, a recent well conducted RCT [7] demonstrated that a brief oncologist prompt to exercise during treatment consultations increased physical activity in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, further highlighting the instrumental 'gatekeeper' role that cancer clinicians can have in facilitating changes in cancer patients' health behaviours.Studies [5,6] conducted in North America have investigated whether oncologists provide physical activity advice to their patients, although little is known about which speciality of cancer clinician are likely to provide advice or the nature of the information provided. The primary aims of the present study were to investigate whether oncologists and surgeons in the UK routinely discussed physical activity with their breast cancer patients, to explore the nature of this advice and to investigate whether oncologists and surgeons who were physically active themselves, were more likely to discuss physical activity with their patients.As part of the development procedures for a RCT of the effec
The effectiveness of exercise as a treatment for postnatal depression: study protocol
Amanda J Daley, Kate Jolly, Debbie J Sharp, Katrina M Turner, Ruth V Blamey, Sarah Coleman, Mary McGuinness, Andrea K Roalfe, Ian Jones, Christine MacArthur
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-45
Abstract: We aim to recruit 208 women with postnatal depression in the West Midlands. Recently delivered women who meet the ICD-10 diagnosis for depression will be randomised to usual care plus exercise or usual care only. The exercise intervention will be delivered over 6?months. The primary outcome measure is difference in mean Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score between the groups at six month follow-up. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and at six and 12?month post randomisation.Findings from the research will inform future clinical guidance on antenatal and postnatal mental health, as well as inform practitioners working with postnatal depression.ISRCTN84245563It is estimated that depression will be the second most common cause of disability worldwide by 2020 [1]. Postnatal depression (PND) is a serious problem across cultures and affects about 10-15% of women some time in the year after giving birth [2,3]. Women with postnatal depression can experience disabling symptoms of low mood, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, changes in appetite, anxiety, guilt, inability to cope, feelings of worthlessness and thoughts of suicide. Frequently exacerbating these symptoms are low self-esteem, lack of confidence, and unrealistic expectations of motherhood. Women who have PND are twice as likely to experience subsequent episodes of depression in later life [4]. PND has health consequences not only for the mother but also for the child and family as a whole. Cognitive and emotional development and social behaviour have been shown to be adversely affected in children whose mothers have PND [5]. PND can cause impaired maternal-infant interactions and negative perceptions of infant behaviour [6]. Marital difficulties are not uncommon and the partner may also become depressed [7]. Suicide is a rare but devastating consequence of PND.After giving birth, many women have excess weight and decreased fitness levels [8,9]. New mothers have reported weight gain to be a signific
Quantum trajectories and open many-body quantum systems
Andrew J. Daley
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1080/00018732.2014.933502
Abstract: The study of open quantum systems has become increasingly important in the past years, as the ability to control quantum coherence on a single particle level has been developed in a wide variety of physical systems. In quantum optics, the study of open systems goes well beyond understanding the breakdown of quantum coherence. There, the coupling to the environment is sufficiently well understood that it can be manipulated to drive the system into desired quantum states, or to project the system onto known states via feedback in quantum measurements. Many mathematical frameworks have been developed to describe such systems, which for atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) systems generally provide a very accurate description of the open quantum system on a microscopic level. In recent years, AMO systems including cold atomic and molecular gases and trapped ions have been applied heavily to the study of many-body physics, and it has become important to extend previous understanding of open system dynamics in single- and few-body systems to this many-body context. A key formalism that has already proven very useful in this context is the quantum trajectories technique. This was developed as a numerical tool for studying dynamics in open quantum systems, and falls within a broader framework of continuous measurement theory as a way to understand the dynamics of large classes of open quantum systems. We review the progress that has been made in studying open many-body systems in the AMO context, focussing on the application of ideas from quantum optics, and on the implementation and applications of quantum trajectories methods. Control over dissipative processes promises many further tools to prepare interesting and important states in strongly interacting systems, including the realisation of parameter regimes in quantum simulators that are inaccessible via current techniques.
Effective three-body interactions via photon-assisted tunneling in an optical lattice
Andrew J. Daley,Jonathan Simon
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.053619
Abstract: We present a simple, experimentally realizable method to make coherent three-body interactions dominate the physics of an ultracold lattice gas. Our scheme employs either lattice modulation or laser-induced tunneling to reduce or turn off two-body interactions in a rotating frame, promoting three-body interactions arising from multi-orbital physics to leading-order processes. This approach provides a route to strongly-correlated phases of lattice gases that are beyond the reach of previously proposed dissipative three-body interactions. In particular, we study the mean-field phase diagram for spinless bosons with three- and two- body interactions, and provide a roadmap to dimer states of varying character in 1D. This new toolset should be immediately applicable in state-of-the-art cold atom experiments.
Sri Lankan tsunami refugees: a cross sectional study of the relationships between housing conditions and self-reported health
Alex Turner, Sameera Pathirana, Amanda Daley, Paramjit S Gill
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-9-16
Abstract: This study was conducted in seven transitional camps and five permanent housing projects in the south west of Sri Lanka. Using an interviewer-led questionnaire, data on the IDPs' self-reported health and housing conditions were collected from 154 participants from transitional camps and 147 participants from permanent housing projects. Simple tabulation with non-parametric tests and logistic regression were used to identify and analyse relationships between housing conditions and the reported prevalence of specific symptoms.Analysis showed that living conditions were significantly worse in transitional camps than in permanent housing projects for all factors investigated, except 'having a leaking roof'. Transitional camp participants scored significantly lower on self-perceived overall health scores than those living in housing projects. After controlling for gender, age and marital status, living in a transitional camp compared to a housing project was found to be a significant risk factor for the following symptoms; coughs OR: 3.53 (CI: 2.11–5.89), stomach ache 4.82 (2.19–10.82), headache 5.20 (3.09–8.76), general aches and pains 6.44 (3.67–11.33) and feeling generally unwell 2.28 (2.51–7.29). Within transitional camp data, the only condition shown to be a significant risk factor for any symptom was household population density, which increased the risk of stomach aches 1.40 (1.09–1.79) and headaches 1.33 (1.01–1.77).Internally displaced people living in transitional camps are a vulnerable population and specific interventions need to be targeted at this population to address the health inequalities that they report to be experiencing. Further studies need to be conducted to establish which aspects of their housing environment predispose them to poorer health.On the 26th December 2004 an earthquake off the coast of Sumatra triggered a tsunami that caused destruction on an unprecedented scale, affecting countries in two continents and an estimated five million peop
A randomised controlled trial to compare a range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with a minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: the Lighten Up trial
Kate Jolly, Amanda Daley, Peymane Adab, Amanda Lewis, John Denley, Jane Beach, Paul Aveyard
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-439
Abstract: Lighten Up is a randomised controlled trial comparing a range of 12-week commercial and NHS weight reduction programmes with a comparator group who are provided with 12 vouchers enabling free entrance to a local leisure centre. The weight reduction programmes are: (i) Weight Watchers, (ii) Slimming World, (iii) Rosemary Conley, (iv) a group-based dietetics-led programme (Size Down), (v) general practice one-to-one counselling, (vi) pharmacy-led one-to-one counselling, (vii) choice of any of the 6 programmes. People with obesity or overweight with a co-morbid disorder are invited to take part by a letter from their general practitioner. The sample size is 740 participants.The primary outcome is weight loss at programme-end (3 months). Secondary outcomes are weight-loss at one year, self-reported physical activity at 3 and 12 months follow-up and percentage weight-loss at 3 months and one year.This trial will provide evidence about the effectiveness of a range of different weight management programmes in a primary care population.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25072883In the UK the rates of obesity have more than doubled in the last 25 years, and being overweight has become the norm for adults [1]. In 2003/2004, the mean body mass index (BMI) of men and women in the UK general population was 27 kg/m2, outside the healthy range of 18.5-25 kg/m2 [2]. Health Survey for England 2008 data showed that nearly a quarter of men (24%) and women (25%) were obese [3], as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria of a BMI ≥ 30 [4]. In addition, levels of physical activity were very low with only 6% of men and 4% of women meeting the government's current recommendations for physical activity [3]. A number of chronic medical conditions are associated with overweight and obesity, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke, metabolic syndrome, osteoarthritis and various cancers [2].Health benefits have been reported with modest weight los
Exotic atom pairs: Repulsively bound states in an optical lattice
J. Hecker Denschlag,A. J. Daley
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We review a recent experiment with ultracold atoms in 3D optical lattices where we have observed a novel kind of bound state of two atoms which is based on repulsive interactions between the particles. These repulsively bound pairs exhibit long lifetimes, even under conditions when they collide with one another. Stable repulsively bound objects should be viewed as a general phenomenon and their existence will be ubiquitous in cold atoms lattice physics. Although the experiment described here is based on bosonic Rb atoms, other composites with fermions or Bose-Fermi mixtures should exist in an analogous manner. Furthermore, repulsively bound objects could also be formed with more than two particles. In the following we will first explain the theoretical background of repulsively atom pairs. Afterwards we will present the experiments which demonstrate several key properties of the pairs. Finally we give a short discussion of how these repulsively bound pairs relate to bound states in some other physical systems.
Atomic matter-wave revivals with definite atom number in an optical lattice
J. Schachenmayer,A. J. Daley,P. Zoller
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.043614
Abstract: We study the collapse and revival of interference patterns in the momentum distribution of atoms in optical lattices, using a projection technique to properly account for the fixed total number of atoms in the system. We consider the common experimental situation in which weakly interacting bosons are loaded into a shallow lattice, which is suddenly made deep. The collapse and revival of peaks in the momentum distribution is then driven by interactions in a lattice with essentially no tunnelling. The projection technique allows to us to treat inhomogeneous (trapped) systems exactly in the case that non-interacting bosons are loaded into the system initially, and we use time-dependent density matrix renormalization group techniques to study the system in the case of finite tunnelling in the lattice and finite initial interactions. For systems of more than a few sites and particles, we find good agreement with results calculated via a naive approach, in which the state at each lattice site is described by a coherent state in the particle occupation number. However, for systems on the order of 10 lattice sites, we find experimentally measurable discrepancies to the results predicted by this standard approach.
Long-Range Dependence in a Cox Process Directed by a Markov Renewal Process
D. J. Daley,T. Rolski,R. Vesilo
Advances in Decision Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/83852
Abstract: A Cox process NCox directed by a stationary random measure ξ has second moment var NCox(0,t]=E(ξ(0,t])
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