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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 140307 matches for " Amal K. Mitra "
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Effect of smoking on vitamin A, vitamin E, and other trace elements in patients with cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study
Sam K Bashar, Amal K Mitra
Nutrition Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-3-18
Abstract: This cross-sectional study included 100 adults hospitalized with heart disease in Bangladesh. The major variables of interest included mean serum concentrations of trace elements and proportion of subjects with bacterial growth on throat swab culture.Smokers had significantly lower serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and zinc and increased concentrations of copper. Throat swab cultures were more often positive for Streptococcus β-hemolyticus in smokers than controls.Smoking decreases serum concentrations of trace elements. Smoking control programs are needed in Bangladesh to improve health and nutrition of the people who are already nutritionally deficient.Smoking is a widely accepted practice in Bangladeshi men and is associated with socialising, sharing, and male identity [1]. According to an earlier cross-sectional study, approximately 50% of males and 3% of females are tobacco smokers in Bangladesh [2]. Although smoking is a recognized risk factor for several diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer [3-5], very little is known about the nutritional consequences of smoking. In animal models, administration of benzo(a)pyrene, a constituent present in cigarette smoke induced vitamin A depletion [6]. Vitamin A deficiency per se causes emphysema. Some other trace elements, such as iron, zinc, and vitamin E were found to be deficient among healthy smokers compared to non-smokers. However, the available data are inconsistent regarding the effect of smoking on trace elements. In this study, we documented the effect of different doses of smoking on trace elements among hospitalized patients with heart disease in Bangladesh.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 male patients admitted to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January through December 1998, after obtaining informed consent from the participants. The study protocol was reviewed and approv
Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals
Amal K. Mitra,Gisela Rodriguez-Fernandez
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7052238
Abstract: To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.
Assessment of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Health Problems in Bangladesh
Md. Khalequzzaman,Fazlay S. Faruque,Amal K. Mitra
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2005020002
Abstract: Excessive amounts of arsenic (As) in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several bio-geochemical processes are active among the region’s various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings.
Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh
Amal K. Mitra,Akhlaque Haque,Manirul Islam,S. A. M. K. Bashar
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6010084
Abstract: To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs ≥10 μg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 μg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 μg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.
Occurrence and Evaluation of Chromium Reducing Bacteria in Seepage Water from Chromite Mine Quarries of Orissa, India  [PDF]
Satarupa Dey, Amal K. Paul
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.24044
Abstract: Chromium pollution due to leaching and weathering of chromite mine overburden in mine seepage water is a serious environmental problem. In an attempt to explore the indigenous chromate resistant and reducing bacteria from chromite mine quarry seepage, 145 aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from 14 mine seepage samples derived from chromite mines of Sukinda valley and Baula-Nuasahi belt in Orissa, India. A total of 109 isolates which were tolerant to 2 mM Cr(VI) showed different degrees of Cr(VI) reducing activ-ity in complex KSC medium and synthetic Vogel Bonner (VB) broth. Ten isolates belonging to genera like Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Cupriavidus and Corynebacterium were selected on the basis of their chromate reducing efficiency and it was found that they could reduce more than 50 and 75% of Cr(VI) in VB broth and KSC medium respectively. The sole Gram-positive isolate, Corynebacterium paurometabo-lum SKPD 1204 (MTCC 8730) showed maximum chromate reducing capacity in both VB broth (63.7%) and KSC medium (92%) and was capable of reducing nearly 95% of the total Cr(VI) in the mine seepage when it was grown in the mine seepage supplemented with 2% VB concentrate.
Optimization of Chromate Reduction by Whole Cells of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1205 Isolated from Metalliferous Chromite Mine Environment  [PDF]
Satarupa Dey, Amal K. Paul
Geomaterials (GM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2012.24012
Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1205 isolated from metalliferous chromite mine environment of Orissa, India showed wide degree of tolerance to heavy metals including Cr(VI), variety of antibiotics and was also capable of reducing Cr(VI) during growth. Freshly grown whole cells of this bacterium were evaluated for chromate reduction under batch culture using Vogel Bonner (V. B.) broth as the base. Cells of SUK 1205 were capable of completely reducing 100 μM Cr(VI) in V. B. broth within 48 h of incubation. Reduction of chromate increased with increase in cell density which attained maximum at 1010 cells/ml, however, reverse was the phenomenon when the concentration of Cr(VI) increased gradually. Glycerol, glycine and glucose promoted chromate reduction efficiency of the cells when used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature were found to be 7.0 and 35°C respectively. The process of reduction was inhibited by Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and Co(II), but Cu(II) and Fe(III) was promotive in nature. On the other hand, 2, 4-dinitrophenol was found to be neither promotive nor inhibitory for the reduction process, but carbonyl cyanide-m-chloro phenyl hydrazone, sodium azide, sodium fluoride and N,N,-dicyclohexyl carboiimide were inhibitory. Cells of SUK 1205 when permeabilized with toluene, triton X-100 and tween 80 showed an enhancement of the process and thereby indicated that reduction of Cr(VI) was mainly associated with soluble component of the cells. Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1205, therefore, showed great promise for use in Cr(VI) detoxification under a wide range of environmental conditions.
Electrical, Structural and Morphological Properties of Sb-Doped Bi-Based Superconductors  [PDF]
Ghazala Y. Hermiz, Amal K. Jassim, Saad F. Oboudi
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.56022
Abstract: In this paper, samples of antimony doped Bi-based superconductor with stoichiometric composition Bi1.7Pb0.2Sb0.1Sr2Ca2Ca3O10 were prepared by a solid state reaction method. The effect of sintering time on the superconducting properties was studied; all samples were sintered in air at 850°C for different sintering time (80, 100, 120, 140, and 160) h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were performed for determination of the crystal structure and surface morphology of samples, respectively. All samples showed an orthorhombic structure with two phases, high-Tc phase (2223) and low-Tc phase (2212) in addition to an impure phase. It has been observed that the critical temperature and the high-Tc phase increases and appears to be the dominant phase when the sintering time is increased to 140 h, while with increasing sintering time to 160 h, both Tc and the high phase started to decrease. (SEM) results show that increasing sintering time enhances the growing of superconducting phase unidirectional and suppresses the high phase intrusion which leads to the production of nearly single Bi-2223 phase with higher Tc.
Inequalities in Infant Immunization Coverage in Bangladesh
Amal K Halder and M Kabir
Health Services Insights , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Although, health status of Bangladeshis has improved, levels of child mortality in Bangladesh remain unacceptably high. This paper reviews household wealth inequalities in immunization coverage in Bangladesh. The objective of the study is to examine how household wealth status and socio-demographic characteristics relate to immunization status of children. Methods: Using data from the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), this paper investigated the inequalities and implications of infant immunization coverage in Bangladesh. To prepare the proxy variable of household wealth status we applied principal component analysis (PCA) technique based on variables such as assets, utilities and services available at household level. And then scores of the proxy variable was transferred into quintiles. Results: The difference in immunization status between the richest and the poorest quintiles was significant (crude OR 5.2, p<0.001). The addition of education to the multivariate model lowered the impact of wealth index by almost half. Increasing education levels were positively associated with achieving full vaccination status. Sex of children and age of mothers were not associated with the child’s immunization status. Conclusions: Despite free immunizations, use is not uniform throughout the population. Access to wealth and education may contribute to disparities in achieving full immunization. Minimizing indirect costs of immunizations may reduce disparities. Health education needs to be intensified for parents with minimal education.
Usefulness of Moving Average Based Trading Rules in India
S K Mitra
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n7p199
Abstract: The paper analyzes benefits of moving average based trading rules in India for the period December 2000 to November 2010 covering a period of ten years. We used two stock indices namely Nifty and Junior nifty, jointly they cover top 100 stocks traded in Indian market. It is found that many trading rules offer profit opportunity without trading costs, but the profit vanishes when trading costs are accounted. We therefore estimated breakeven trading cost for each trading rules and found that it is very difficult to trade below breakeven trading cost and accordingly, small investors need to keep an eye on trading cost before selecting trading rule.
Is Hurst Exponent Value Useful in Forecasting Financial Time Series?
S. K. Mitra
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n8p111
Abstract: We estimated Hurst exponent of twelve stock index series from across the glove using daily values of for past ten years and found that the Hurst exponent value of the full series is around 0.50 confirming market efficiency. But the Hurst exponent value is found to vary widely when the full series is split into smaller series of 60 trading days. Later, we tried to find relationship between Hurst exponent value and profitable trading opportunity from these smaller series and found that periods displaying high Hurst exponent have potential to yield better trading profits from a moving average trading rule.
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