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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 585 matches for " Alyaa Amal Kotby "
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Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance
Alyaa Amal Kotby,Nevin Mamdouh Habeeb,Sahar Ezz El Arab
Pediatric Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/pr.2012.e8
Abstract: Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT) is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years) were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children), G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack), G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF), G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) on long acting penicillin (LAP)), G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis), and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year). Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN) ASOT (80th percentile) was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05). Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent
Therapeutic Evaluation of L-Carnitine in Egyptian Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Alyaa Amal Kotby,Gamal Abd El Nasser Yamamah,Abeer M. Nour El Din Abd El Baky,Ghada Mahmoud El Kassas
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents a large subset of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) cases. It is characterized by depressed systolic function, cardiomegaly and ventricular dilatation. Carnitine is indispensable for β-oxidation of long chain fatty acid in the mitochondria but also regulates the concentration and removal of the produced acyl groups. The aim of this study was to estimate the L-Carnitine levels in dilated cardiomyopathic patients on conventional treatment for heart failure both pre and post L-carnitine therapy and to study the effect of L-carnitine as an adjuvant therapy on clinical status, ECG and echocardiographic parameters. Fourteen patients were included in the study with dilated cardiomyopathy (7 males and 7 females) on conventional treatment for heart failure with mean age of 43.64±24.06 ms. Patients included in the study were subjected to full medical history, thorough clinical examination, plain chest X- ray PA view, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Serum carnitine level were measured to all patients at the beginning of the study and repeated three months after L-carnitine therapy. Results proved that mean serum carnitine level showed a significant increase after therapy (p<0.01). Clinically, there was significant increase in effort tolerance (p<0.01) and decrease of dyspnea (p<0.05). Ventricular systolic functions were improved as assessed by EF and FS (p<0.01), in addition to reduction of the LV dimensions (p>0.05). R wave of lead V6 was also significantly reduced (p<0.05). After therapy serum carnitine level correlated significantly with the FS, LVEF and body weight (p<0.05), no other significant correlation could be detected. The study conclude that adding L-carnitine to conventional therapy in dilated cardiomyopathic children with congestive heart failure improves cardiac systolic function, increase LVEF, FS and reduce ventricular size without any recorded health hazard.
Genetic Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene in Egyptian Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects and their Mothers
Alyaa Kotby,Mona Anwar,Ola Abd El-Aziz El-Masry,Mostafa Awady
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Aim: This study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors in conotruncal heart defects (CTDs).Material and Methods: Thirty cases with CTDs and their mothers and thirty control children and their mothers were studied. Medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with emphasis on folate intake. The mutations in MTHFR gene are a C to T substitution at base pair 677 and a A to C at base pair1298 were investigated by polymerase-chain reaction, followed by restriction enzyme digestion and detection by electrophoresis.Results: Folic acid intake was below the recommended daily allowance in case mothers compared to control mothers. No significant difference between patients and control group or their mothers regarding MTHFR gene polymorphisms at exon 4. Significant difference between case and control groups and between their mothers regarding MTHFR gene polymorphisms at exon 7. Homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 1298 was significantly higher in cases and their mothers with an odds ratio 56 (95% confidence interval 10.3-303.7).Conclusion: Egyptian population may have high incidence of MTHFR polymorphism at exon 7 rather than at exon 4. Preconception folate intake might decrease MTHFR polymorphism at exon 7 and decrease risk of CTD.
Can Serum Tenascin-C Be Used as a Marker of Inflammation in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
Alyaa A. Kotby,Manal M. Abdel Aziz,Waleed M. El Guindy,Amira N. Moneer
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/608563
Abstract: Background. Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that appears at sites of inflammation in cardiac pathologies. Aim of the Work. To evaluate the role of TN-C as a marker for active inflammation in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Subjects and Methods. 24 consecutive patients with primary nonfamilial DCM aged 6–72 months (mean ) were divided into group I, twelve patients with acute onset DCM (<6 months duration), and group II, twelve patients with chronic DCM (>6 months duration), and compared to 20 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Investigations included estimation of serum TN-C and echocardiographic evaluation using M-mode and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Results. Serum TN-C showed a higher significant statistical elevation among patients than controls ( ) and in group I than group II ( ). EF was significantly decreased, and LVEDD and EDV increased in patients than controls and in GI than GII. STE showed a statistically significant difference in global peak strain longitudinal (GPSL) average in patients than controls ( ) and between GI and GII ( ). STE wall motion scoring showed normokinesia (33.5%), hypokinesia (8.33%), and akinesia (50%) in GI and hypokinesia (100%) in GII. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum TN-C and GPSL average. Conclusions. Increased serum TN-C can be used as a marker of inflammation in DCM and is associated with the severity of heart failure and LV dysfunction as detected by STE. 1. Introduction Myocardial inflammatory diseases are an important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in children. Epidemics of viral myocarditis have been reported, particularly Coxsackie B virus, and the enteroviruses which are considered to be the most common cause of viral myocarditis [1]. Thus infants and young children may be more prone to develop myocarditis, due to the higher rate of enteroviral and adenoviral infections in this age group [2]. Although myocarditis has previously been speculated to account for most instances of DCM, it is now clear that 20–30% may be due to familial or genetic forms of DCM [3]; yet myocarditis might still be implicated in the initiation of the process. There are few biomarkers for myocarditis. Full blood count and erythrocytic sedimentation rate are not usually helpful. Troponin I has a high specificity for diagnosing myocarditis but a sensitivity of only 34%, and creatine kinase and its cardiac isoform CK-MB are less sensitive and specific than troponin [4]. Increased levels of autoantibodies against myocardial proteins
N-Terminal proBNP Levels and Tissue Doppler Echocardiography in Acute Rheumatic Carditis
Alyaa A. Kotby,Ghada S. El-Shahed,Ola A. Elmasry,Iman S. El-Hadidi,Rowaida N. S. El Shafey
ISRN Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/970394
Abstract: Background. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a leading cause of heart failure in children and young adults worldwide. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a useful marker of critical pediatric heart disease, and its N-terminal peptide, NT-proBNP, is elevated in congenital and acquired heart disease in children. Aim. To measure NT-proBNP levels as a marker of carditis in children with acute rheumatic carditis, as compared to children with quiescent RHD and healthy controls. Methods. 16 children with acute rheumatic carditis, 33 children with quiescent RHD, and a cohort of 30 healthy children were studied. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to assess valve and cardiac function. Tissue Doppler echocardiography was performed for E/E′ (ratio between mitral inflow E wave and lateral mitral annulus E′ wave) and systolic strain. Results. NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in children with acute rheumatic carditis and dropped with its resolution. Strain and E/E′ values were comparable among the three groups. Conclusion. NT-proBNP is significantly elevated in children with acute rheumatic carditis in the acute stage compared to children with quiescent RHD and healthy subjects, in the presence of comparable echocardiographic indices of LV systolic and diastolic function. 1. Introduction Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continue to be a major health problem in developing countries, and RHD is the leading cause of heart failure in children and young adults worldwide, resulting in disability and premature death [1]; 80–85% of children younger than 15 years live in areas where rheumatic heart disease is endemic [2]. Late diagnosis is prejudicial since a bout of ARF is a therapeutic emergency. While polyarthritis is the initial and most common major manifestation, carditis is the most serious manifestation of ARF [3] and occurs in around a half of patients [4–9] within 3 weeks of onset of ARF [3]. Although the initial attack can lead to severe valvular disease, ARF might be insidious at onset, and RHD most often results from cumulative valve damage due to recurrent episodes of ARF with a paucity of clinical symptoms [1, 10, 11]. Given that the efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis are well established and should lead to near complete eradication of advanced RHD when combined with broader changes such as improved living conditions, education, and awareness [12–14], early detection of acute rheumatic carditis will allow appropriate initiation of secondary prophylaxis. No diagnostic method exists that detects onset of
Synthesis and Antibacterial Studies of Metal Complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with Tetradentate Ligand  [PDF]
Alyaa Abdulhasan Abdulkarem
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2017.82002
Abstract: The new metal complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with the new ligand derived from isatine and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane were synthesized and biologically screened. The synthesized complexes and ligand were characterized by spectroscopic FT-IR, UV-VIS, 1H-NMR and elemental analyses. The ligand and complexes were screened for their antibacterial activities against three different strains, namely E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. In particular, the Co(II) and Cu-complexes exhibited excellent antibacterial activities compared to the reference compound.
On the Maximum Likelihood and Least Squares Estimation for the Inverse Weibull Parameters with Progressively First-Failure Censoring  [PDF]
Amal Helu
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.51010
Abstract: In this article, we consider a new life test scheme called a progressively first-failure censoring scheme introduced by Wu and Kus [1]. Based on this type of censoring, the maximum likelihood, approximate maximum likelihood and the least squares method estimators for the unknown parameters of the inverse Weibull distribution are derived. A comparison between these estimators is provided by using extensive simulation and two criteria, namely, absolute bias and mean squared error. It is concluded that the estimators based on the least squares method are superior compared to the maximum likelihood and the approximate maximum likelihood estimators. Real life data example is provided to illustrate our proposed estimators.
Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development
Alyaa Mousa,Moiz Bakhiet
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140713931
Abstract: Cytokines are signaling proteins that were first characterized as components of the immune response, but have been found to have pleiotropic effects in diverse aspects of body function in health and disease. They are secreted by numerous cells and are used extensively in intercellular communications to produce different activities, including intricate processes engaged in the ontogenetic development of the brain. This review discusses factors involved in brain growth regulation and recent findings exploring cytokine signaling pathways during development of the central nervous system. In view of existing data suggesting roles for neurotropic cytokines in promoting brain growth and repair, these molecules and their signaling pathways might become targets for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative processes due to diseases, toxicity, or trauma.
The Effect of the pH of Ammonum Nitrate Solution on the Susceptability of Mild Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and General Corrosion  [PDF]
Fathia S. Mohammed, Alyaa G. Elramady, Salheddin E. Abu Yahya
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.14030
Abstract: This work investigates the relative aggressiveness of nitrate solutions at different pH values on mild steel towards stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and general corrosion. Electrochemical behavior and stress corrosion cracking sus-ceptibility measurements were carried out in 52 Wt% ammonium nitrate solutions at 368° K and various pH values ranging from 0.77 to 9.64. Constant load stress corrosion test at 90% yield stress was conducted. Tested specimens were prepared and examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The potentiodynamic polarization curves for different pH values again emphasized the validity of the gravimetric measurements and hence the mechanism of cracking was attributed to the stress that assisted the dissolution process.
Acute Cerebellar Ataxia—Uncommon Manifestation of Typhoid Fever  [PDF]
Kiran Kumar, Mohammed Khalid, Shaikh Altaf Basha, Alyaa Fadhil
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2015.62008
Abstract:
Enteric fever is widely prevalent in the tropics. Central nervous system involvement is not rare and reported incidence varies from 5% to 35% [1]. Various well-known neuropsychiatric manifestations include confusional state, encephalopathy, meningism, convulsions and focal neurological deficits. Acute cerebellar ataxia as an isolated neurological complication of enteric fever is very rare and limited to only a few case reports [2]. Here we report a case of enteric fever who presents Acute Cerebellar Ataxia.
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