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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2023 matches for " Alvaro Whittembury "
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Construcción de la agenda de investigación en desnutrición infantil en el Perú, periodo 2012-2016
Martín Yagui,Alvaro Whittembury,Franco Romaní,Wilfredo Salinas
Revista Peruana de Epidemiologia , 2012,
Abstract: Objetivo: Describir el proceso de elaboración de la agenda nacional de investigación en desnutrición infantil en el Perú. Métodos: Dicho proceso fue realizado en tres fases: revisión de evidencia e información relevante sobre desnutrición infantil en el Perú, consulta a líderes de opinión y expertos temáticos, y el taller participativo para la priorización temática. Resultados: Producto de la revisión de evidencia fueron identificados 232 artículos originales entre 1954 y 2010. Identificamos 29 investigadores clave de gran producción y contribución en desnutrición infantil para el Perú. En las mesas temáticas se discutieron 53 temas de investigación, de los cuales luego de la aplicación de los criterios establecidos se obtuvieron 22 temas de investigación que conforman la agenda nacional de investigación de desnutrición infantil. Conclusiones: Siendo la desnutrición infantil una prioridad sanitaria, planteamos 22 temas de investigación específicos en dicho campo. El proceso de priorización participativa intenta optimizar el uso de recursos humanos y financieros hacia investigación que tenga impacto en las políticas públicas e intervenciones sobre el estado nutricional infantil.
Report of an intervention against an imported case of measles in Peru, May 2008
Alvaro Whittembury,María Ticona,Luisa Sanguinetti,María Vargas
Revista Peruana de Epidemiologia , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Measles is an infectious disease of worldwide distribution, except in those countries and regions in which successful vaccination interventions are maintained, as in the American Region, where this strategy has managed to eliminate this disease. However, there is still the risk of the virus reintroduction from imported cases. Objective: To describe the actions taken by the Ministry of Health of Peru in order to avoid the presentation of secondary cases after the report to the epidemiological surveillance system of a suspected case of measles. Methods: Clinical, epidemiological, and serological assessment ofthe measles case was carried out; contacts census, vaccination and monitoring was performed as well as the active institutional case finding of suspected cases for measles in the compromised areas. Results: The confirmed case was a male patient of 19 years old from India that worked in a gas tanker ship. The patient had left India by airplane on April 19 2008, with final destination Guayaquil, arriving on April 21 and then moved to Port Bolivar where he boarded the tanker the same day, reaching Callao on April 30. On April 28 thepatient presented general discomfort and sore throat, on April 30 the sensation of thermal raise was added and on May 1 maculopapular skin eruption appeared. He was then transferred to a private clinic. Upon receiving the report, the personnel of the EpidemiologyDepartment of the Ministry of Health (Dirección General de Epidemiología) recommended, as first measures, to place the patient in private room with closed door, the use of N95-N100 mask by the patient, and his attention by personnel with proven immunity to measles. The patient was evaluated clinically and the serological results were positive for measles (serotype D4). Follow up of the contacts was performed: 199 people were vaccinated in the first 72 hours and 264 people were monitored until May 22 (date maximum in that one expected the emergence of secondary cases). Between the 19th and 23th of May an active institucional case-finding searching for suspects of measles in the last month in all the health facilities of Lima City and Callao was carried out, identifying 47 suspected cases of which 22 had not been identified by the regular surveillance system. A blood sample was obtained from these patients and they were followed, without the presentation of secondary cases of measles. The patient was discharged on May 5, returning to his ship and sailing on the same day, after the lifting of the quarantine order due to the confirmation of immunity of the ship
A rubella serosurvey in postpartum women in the three regions of Peru
Suárez-Ognio,Luis; Adrianzén,Ana; Ortiz,Ana; Martínez,Carlos; Whittembury,Alvaro; Cabezudo,Edwin; Oliveira,Lucia de; Siqueira,Marilda M.; Castillo-Solórzano,Carlos;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892007000700005
Abstract: objective: to determine the proportion of postpartum women aged 15-49 in peru who are susceptible to rubella, in order to help address strategies to eliminate rubella and to prevent congenital rubella syndrome (crs) in the country. methods: a cross-sectional survey was conducted during march and april 2003 in six main regional hospitals, in the three geographic regions (coast, mountain, and jungle) of peru. for the postpartum women who provided written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered and a blood specimen was collected. sera were tested for rubella immunoglobulin g (igg) antibody, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (elisa) kit. univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess risk factors for susceptibility. results: in total, 1 236 postpartum women were enrolled. the overall proportion of igg-antibody negative women was 12.8% (95% confidence interval (ci): 10.9%-14.6%). bivariate analysis found the following variables associated with susceptibility: living in the jungle region (odds ratio (or) = 1.65; 95% ci: 1.13-2.42); age < 19 years (or = 2.02; 95% ci: 1.35-3.03); being a housewife (or = 1.69; 95% ci: 1.12-2.55); and having < 11 years of education (or = 2.12; 95% ci :1.20-3.75). multivariate analysis found the following variables were associated with susceptibility: living in the jungle region (or = 1.67; 95% ci: 1.13-2.46); age < 19 years (or = 1.62; 95% ci: 1.07-2.47); having < 4 children born alive (or = 1.85; 95% ci: 1.00- 3.40); and having < 11 years of education (or = 2.07; 95% ci: 1.16-3.71). conclusions: the proportion of postpartum women at the study sites who were found to be susceptible to rubella was 12.8%, placing peru among the countries facing a moderate level of risk for the occurrence of crs cases. the findings suggest the need to also provide the rubella vaccine to other population groups, especially women of childbearing age.
The first publication of the New Chemistry in America in Mercurio Peruano (1792) by Joseph Coquette
Bifano,Claudio; Whittembury,Guillermo;
Interciencia , 2007,
Abstract: joseph coquette, first director of the non-university scholarly learning center, lima?s mining tribunal in peru, published (1792) a text on chemistry in the peruvian journal mercurio peruano: "principles of physical chemistry ?.", which was the first text published in america on the new chemistry, as it appeared five years before lavoisier?s book of 1789 was printed in spanish in mexico, in 1797. it was complemented by "about the need to perfect and reform the nomenclature in chemistry?." in 1793. in addition he published "didactic dissertation on mining?..", also in 1792. the present essay examines in extenso "principles of physical chemistry ?.", and comments on the others. some scholars and institutions of advanced learning in the new continent are also mentioned. mercurio peruano is looked upon in more detail, after alexander von humboldt deemed it so important that he donated the 12 volume collection to the berlin library of king frederick william iii.
Adverse Events Following Immunization
álvaro Whittembury,María Ticona
Revista Peruana de Epidemiologia , 2009,
Abstract: Immunization at the population level has been proved a cost-effective strategy used in public health, and is the only one that has shown it can eradicate a disease. Thus, the benefits of immunizations far exceed their risks. However, to give people the maximum benefit it is neccesary to recognize the risks involved and study for its prevention and control. The objective of this paper is to review the current concept of the adverse events following immunization (AEFI), the process of investigating them and their importance in the context of safe vaccination, through a narrative review of selected literature.
The only extant manuscript of Claude Bernard?s first course on experimental physiology in collège de france during the winter of 1847-1848
Whittembury,Guillermo; Drets,Máximo; Ma?é-Garzón,Fernando;
Interciencia , 2009,
Abstract: the only extant version of the first lecture course given by claude bernard on experimental physiology during the winter period of 1847-48 in collège de france, substituting magendie, is presented herein. the prominent paris-graduated physician from uruguay, teodoro m. vilardebó, attended the 46 lectures, wrote them down and transcribed them into a manuscript that he brought back to and kept in montevideo in 1853. ma?é-garzón uncovered it in 1987. these bernard?s lectures review practically all physiology at the beginning of his career, while in later courses, he covered selected themes of experimental physiology and medicine and general scientific subjects at greater depth. comparison of bernard?s initial course with his later ones illustrates general physiology?s progress in the more than 35 years of his successful scientific life. the manuscript sheds new light into bernard?s scientific activity and personality.
Charles darwin, robert fitzroy and simón rodríguez met in concepción, chile, after the earthquake of february 20, 1835
Whittembury,Guillermo; Jaffé,Klaus; Hirshbein,Cesia; Yudilevich,David;
Interciencia , 2003,
Abstract: simón rodríguez (sr) was in concepción during the earthquake of feb 20 1835 that destroyed the city. a month later, he and two other dwellers were asked for a report on the state of the city. the report, dated aug 13, 1835 mentions: "fitzroy esq. noted that the island of santa maria was upheaved 9 feet after the earthquake". the same value appears in the reports of robert fitzroy (fr) and charles darwin (cd). cd and fr visited concepción mar 4-7, and rf mar 27-apr 17 and jun 21-jul 9, 1835. there was no possibility of communication between the three men later in 1835, as sr stayed in concepción, and cd and fr continued their voyage. the reports of rf and cd were published only in 1839. therefore, for their values of the island?s elevation to coincide, the three must have talked and exchanged ideas and views about the earthquake within the mentioned dates. this statement is supported by additional facts: fr and cd were hosted by a friend of sr during their visits. they mention having talked extensively with the inhabitants. sr was one of the most learned persons at the time in concepción. sr?s and cd?s reports converge in several aspects. in others, however, the reports differ, although this does not weaken our assertion. thus, it is quite possible they maintained conversations previous to their reports, setting their ideas in agreement, although it cannot be ruled out completely that sr got cd?s and fr?s information via another person.
Intervención frente a un brote de Influenza A (H1N1) en un albergue de pacientes con VIH durante julio de 2009 en la ciudad de Lima, Perú.
Maribel Fuertes,Carlos Jaimes,álvaro Whittembury,Mónica Pun
Revista Peruana de Epidemiologia , 2011,
Abstract: En abril de 2009, en Estados Unidos de América, se identificó un nuevo virus de la InfluenzaA(H1N1). En el Perú, los primeros casos se reportaron en Lima y Callao como peque os brotes en poblaciones de ambientes cerrados (colegios, universidades, albergues, etc.). El día 08 de julio de 2009 se reportó un probable brote de influenza A (H1N1) en un albergue de ni os y adultos con VIH. Objetivo: Describir las acciones desarrolladas por el equipo de Epidemiología de la Red de Salud Lima Ciudad en la investigación e intervención frente a un brote de influenzaA(H1N1) en un albergue de pacientes con VIH. Métodos: Se realizó la evaluación clínica, epidemiológica y de laboratorio de los ni os y adultos del albergue, a través de un equipo multidisciplinario. Resultados: En el albergue vivían 35 personas (13 eran ni os y adultos con VIH). Se obtuvo muestra de hisopado nasal y faríngeo de ocho pacientes, de las cuales cuatro fueron confirmadas con PCR, representando una tasa de ataque de 11.4%. Se identificaron 20 casos sospechosos (57.1%) y se brindó tratamiento antiviral con oseltamivir. A las demás personas se les dio quimioprofilaxis. Se dispuso el aislamiento y seguimiento de todas las personas del albergue por tres periodos de incubación desde la presentación del último caso. Conclusiones: En la intervención hubo oportunidad en la toma de muestra y en el inicio de tratamiento antiviral. La Red Lima Ciudad tomó muestra a cinco pacientes con cuadro clínico y les dio tratamiento antiviral, además cinco pacientes fueron atendidos en hospitales, a tres le tomaron muestra. Se confirmaron por laboratorio cuatro casos, uno infectado con VIH. Se realizó el seguimiento y monitoreo diario de todos los residentes del albergue. Todos los casos confirmados y sospechosos evolucionaron favorablemente. Mediante la intervención fue posible controlar el brote de influenza A (H1N1) en el albergue.
Buffer Management in the Sliding-Window (SW) Packet Switch for Priority Switching  [PDF]
Alvaro Munoz, Sanjeev Kumar
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.77027

Switch and router architectures employing a shared buffer are known to provide high throughput, low delay, and high memory utilization. Superior performance of a shared-memory switch compared to switches employing other buffer strategies can be achieved by carefully implementing a buffer-management scheme. A buffer-sharing policy should allow all of the output interfaces to have fair and robust access to buffer resources. The sliding-window (SW) packet switch is a novel architecture that uses an array of parallel memory modules that are logically shared by all input and output lines to store and process data packets. The innovative aspects of the SW architecture are the approach to accomplishing parallel operation and the simplicity of the control functions. The implementation of a buffer-management scheme in a SW packet switch is dependent on how the buffer space is organized into output queues. This paper presents an efficient SW buffer-management scheme that regulates the sharing of the buffer space. We compare the proposed scheme with previous work under bursty traffic conditions. Also, we explain how the proposed buffer-management scheme can provide quality-of-service (QoS) to different traffic classes.

Canales de Agua (Aquaporinas) y Ri?ón
Hernández,CS; Gutiérrez,AM; Ruiz,V; González,E; Echevarría,M; Whittembury,G;
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica , 2002,
Abstract: this is a short overview of some aspects of water movements across kidney cells. it begins with the biophysical methods that lead to the conclusion that there are indeed water channels piercing the kidney proximal tubule cell membranes. these methods allow to calculate (a) the diameter of the selectivity filter of an "equivalent water channel" of ~ 4.5 ?, and (b) its "equivalent length" of ~ 10 - 20 ?. (c) as water molecules have a diameter of 3 ?, water molecules must line up within the selectivity filter as an indian file 4 to 6 molecules long. molecular biology studies have uncovered the aminoacid sequence of the 28 kdprotein molecules that form the water channels. they are called aquaporins (aqps). some 10 are known. aqp-1 is present in the kidney proximal tubule. the tri-dimensional aqp-1 structure is reviewed, and the relation between diabetes insipidus and genetic structural failures of aqp-2 which lead to malfunction of the urinary concentrating mechanisms. finally we review the molecular structure of a newly found aqp called rp-mip, which is present in rhodnius prolixus malpighian tubules. a philogenetic tree indicates it to be one of the oldest aqps. mammalian aqps are more recent in the biological scale.
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