Abstract:
The fermionic and bosonic electron-hole low lying excitations in a semiconductor are analyzed at finite temperature in a unified way following Nambu's quasi-supersymmetric approach for the BCS model of superconductivity. The effective lagrangian for the fermionic modes and for the bosonic low lying collective excitations in the semiconductor is no longer supersymmetric in a conventional finite temperature treatment. However the bosonic excitations don't couple directly to the heat bath and as a result, quasisupersymmetry is restored to the effective lagrangian when a redefinition of the coupling constant associated with the collective excitations is performed. Our result shows that although the mass and coupling parameters are now temperature dependent, the fermion and boson excited states pair together and can still be transmuted into one another.

Abstract:
We address the problem of the Fermi surface renormalization and the quantum confinement regime (QCR) in the two coupled chains model(TCCM) of spinless fermions. We perform a self-consistent calculation of the renormalization group(RG) flows of the renormalized TCCM couplings and quasiparticle weight. On top of that we take explicitly into account the renormalization of the Fermi surface. The flow of the difference of the renormalized Fermi wave vectors associated with the bonding and antibonding bands has a dramatic effect on the single particle spectrum. Although the quasiparticle amplitude is nullified already at intermediate coupling the QCR is only observed at strong coupling. The state associated with this regime has a charge gap and it is not a Luttinger liquid. In contrast, the Fermi liquid regime is stabilized by the umklapp "$g_2$--like" interactions at very weak coupling regime.

Abstract:
A precursor effect on the Fermi surface in the two-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures near the antiferromagnetic instability is studied using three different itinerant approaches: the second order perturbation theory, the paramagnon theory (PT), and the two-particle self-consistent (TPSC) approach. In general, at finite temperature, the Fermi surface of the interacting electron systems is not sharply defined due to the broadening effects of the self-energy. In order to take account of those effects we consider the single-particle spectral function $A({\bf k},0)$ at the Fermi level, to describe the counterpart of the Fermi surface at T=0. We find that the Fermi surface is destroyed close to the pseudogap regime due to the spin-fluctuation effects in both PT and TPSC approaches. Moreover, the top of the effective valence band is located around ${\bf k}=(\pi/2,\pi/2)$ in agreement with earlier investigations on the single-hole motion in the antiferromagnetic background. A crossover behavior from the Fermi-liquid regime to the pseudogap regime is observed in the electron concentration dependence of the spectral function and the self-energy.

Abstract:
We discuss the application of the two-band spin-dopon representation of the t-J model to address the issue of the Fermi surface reconstruction observed in the cuprates. We show that the electron no double occupancy (NDO) constraint plays a key role in this formulation. In particular, the auxiliary lattice spin and itinerant dopon degrees of freedom of the spin-dopon formulation of the t-J model are shown to be confined in the emergent U(1) gauge theory generated by the NDO constraint. This constraint is enforced by the requirement of an infinitely large spin-dopon coupling. As a result, the t-J model is equivalent to a Kondo-Heisenberg lattice model of itinerant dopons and localized lattice spins at in?nite Kondo coupling at all dopings. We show that mean-?eld treatment of the large vs small Fermi surface crossing in the cuprates which leaves out the NDO constraint, leads to inconsistencies and it is automatically excluded form the t - J model framework.

Abstract:
We use the functional renormalization group approach with partial bosonization in the particle-particle channel to study the effect of order parameter fluctuations on the BCS-BEC crossover of superfluid fermions in three dimensions. Our approach is based on a new truncation of the vertex expansion where the renormalization group flow of bosonic two-point functions is closed by means of Dyson-Schwinger equations and the superfluid order parameter is related to the single particle gap via a Ward identity. We explicitly calculate the chemical potential, the single-particle gap, and the superfluid order parameter at the unitary point and compare our results with experiments and previous calculations.

Abstract:
We show that the recently proposed doped carrier Hamiltonian formulation of the t-J model should be complemented with the constraint that projects out the unphysical states. With this new important ingredient, the previously used and seemingly different spin-fermion representations of the t-J model are shown to be gauge related to each other. This new constraint can be treated in a controlled way close to half-filling suggesting that the doped carrier representation provides an appropriate theoretical framework to address the t-J model in this region. This constraint also suggests that the t-J model can be mapped onto a Kondo-Heisenberg lattice model. Such a mapping highlights important physical similarities between the quasi two-dimensional heavy fermions and the high-T$_c$ superconductors. Finally we discuss the physical implications of our model representation relating in particular the small versus large Fermi surface crossover to the closure of the lattice spin gap.

Abstract:
We discuss the relevance of the improved mean-field slave-fermion theory to describe the Nagaoka ($U=\infty$) limit of the Hubbard model. In this theory the crucial on-site constraint of no double electron occupancy is taken into account rigorously prior to the mean-field approximation. At one-loop approximation the effective mean-field action shows a long-range ferromagnetic order over the whole doping range. This indicates that the slave-fermion mean-field theory does not constitute an appropriate framework to describe the physics of the Nagaoka phase. We discuss the drawbacks of this mean-field theory and present some results on the derivation of a low-energy effective spin action to describe the Nagaoka phase beyond the mean-field approximation.

Abstract:
We analyze the particle-hole symmetric two-dimensional Hubbard model on a square lattice starting from weak-to-moderate couplings by means of the field-theoretical renormalization group (RG) approach up to two-loop order. This method is essential in order to evaluate the effect of the momentum-resolved anomalous dimension $\eta(\textbf{p})$ which arises in the normal phase of this model on the corresponding low-energy single-particle excitations. As a result, we find important indications pointing to the existence of a non-Fermi liquid (NFL) regime at temperature $T\to 0$ displaying a truncated Fermi surface (FS) for a doping range exactly in between the well-known antiferromagnetic insulating and the $d_{x^2-y^2}$-wave singlet superconducting phases. This NFL evolves as a function of doping into a correlated metal with a large FS before the $d_{x^2-y^2}$-wave pairing susceptibility finally produces the dominant instability in the low-energy limit.

Abstract:
We study the ground-state properties of electrons confined to a quantum wire and subject to a smoothly modulated Rashba spin-orbit coupling. When the period of the modulation becomes commensurate with the band filling, the Rashba coupling drives a quantum phase transition to a nonmagnetic insulating state. Using bosonization and a perturbative renormalization group approach, we find that this state is robust against electron-electron interactions. The gaps to charge- and spin excitations scale with the amplitude of the Rashba modulation with a common interaction-dependent exponent. An estimate of the expected size of the charge gap, using data for a gated InAs heterostructure, suggests that the effect can be put to practical use in a future spin transistor design.