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Torture in Honduras: Therapeutic Experiences of 2007-2008 and the Aftermath of the Coup  [PDF]
Arely Alvarado
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.22011
Abstract: Background: The Center for Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation for Torture Victims and their Family (CPTRT) participated in the “Professionalization facilitated through training in key healthcare services for torture victims” project coordinated by the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT). Centers like CPTRT are typically created and run by small groups of healthcare professionals and human rights activists, often at great personal cost and risk [1]. The purpose of the project was to document the physical and psychological damage caused by torture as well as the results of the medical and psychological therapy. It also addresses: the socio-demographic profile of the victims, methods of torture and/or cruel, inhuman and degrading (CID), treatment, causal factors, and treatment effect. Material and Method: Psychometric and non-psychometric techniques were applied in order to obtain a baseline of the victims’ state of mental health, socio-demographic background, clinical and torture exposure, as well as evaluating the impact of the medical-psychological therapy at three and six months, respectively. The sample of torture victims is presented by the use of descriptive statistics and the effects during the study are presented with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The victims mostly experienced depression and anxiety and to a lesser extent, post-traumatic stress and somatizations as a response to the traumatic events they endured. The analysis demonstrates a significant drop in symptoms over the six months of the study in those victims who participated in the entire project. Conclusion: Although the several limitations and unforeseen situations arose in a study of this type, a holistic, multidisciplinary and systematic approach is able to decrease disorders moderately, but not without taking into account the sociopolitical contexts and the obstacles appearing therein, which should also be considered and studied through triangulated methodologies that provide a broader perspective for exploring a complex phenomenon like torture. Therefore, a standard rehabilitation program is neither possible nor desirable in the field of torture treatment (this is amplified in a political context of a coup).
Four New Species and Additional Distributions of Elaphoglossum Section Elaphoglossum (Dryopteridaceae) from the Neotropics  [PDF]
Alexander Francisco Rojas-Alvarado
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.86082
Abstract: Four new species of Elaphoglossum sect. Elaphoglossum are described: E. Amparoanum A. Rojas, E. Chocoense A. Rojas, E. Fayorum A. Rojas and E. Luciae A. Rojas. The first species is related to E. Variolatum Mickel, but differs from it by having rhizome scales bicolorous and long ciliate margin. The second species is different to E. moranii Mickel by having narrower rhizome, shorter stipe, elliptic blade, attenuate blade base, shorter fertile fronds with blackish costa and present at lower altitudinal distribution. After
Three New Species of Ferns (Pteridophyta) from Mesoamerica  [PDF]
Alexander Francisco Rojas-Alvarado
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.86089
Abstract: In this research three new species of ferns of the Polypodiales Order are described: Ctenitis leonii A. Rojas, Elaphoglossum karinae A. Rojas and Pecluma celaquensis A. Rojas. Ctenitis leonii is characterized by its apical stipe scales marginally erose to ciliate, blade surfaces with two types of hairs present in both surfaces, ones 0.7 - 1.5 mm long and not glandular, the others 0.3 - 0.5 mm long and glandular and indusia are absent. Elaphoglossum karinae differs from Elaphoglossum dissitifrons Mickel by shorter rhizome, longer and relatively narrower rhizome scales, they lanceolate to linear-lanceolate and blackish costal scales. Pecluma celaquensis is similar to Polypodium martensii Mett., but differs by its thinner rhizome, smaller rhizome scales and these with a crown of brown cilia at the attaching point, relatively shorter stipe with longer hairs and these commonly no glandular, scaly rachis and it with longer and denser hairs, inframedial sori and glabrous sporangia.
The Difficult Airway: A New Simplified Approach to an Old Complex Problem  [PDF]
Iván Mauricio Alvarado Arteaga
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2017.78023
Abstract: Difficult airway situations are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and malpractice claims in anesthetic practice and other critical care settings. Although infrequent, they are serious and complex situations where many variables interact. Among these variables, quick and accurate rescuer decision-making is a major outcome determinant. Emerging evidence, recent advances in technology and development of new devices have provided new tools to deal with the problem, but still, basic underlying principles of management remain. Based on the available evidence and expert consensus, multiple guidelines and algorithms have been published, but they may have limited applicability, contain confusing and ambiguous recommendations or address very specific clinical situations. This narrative review attempts to summarize, organize and consolidate current trends and supported recommendations of the updated guidelines in one practical, concise and unified guide, proposing a simple, intuitive and novel algorithm.
Five New Species of Diplazium Sw. (Athyriaceae) from Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Colombia  [PDF]
Alexander Francisco Rojas-Alvarado
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.95071
Abstract: Five new species are described in the genus Diplazium Sw. from Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Colombia, as results of studies in the Neotropical ferns. The new species are Diplazium chirripoense A. Rojas, Diplazium cornutum A. Rojas, Diplazium crassirhizoma A. Rojas, Diplazium lustrosum A. Rojas and Diplazium rodriguezii A. Rojas. The first species is related to D. skutchii Lellinger, but differs from it by having glabrous stipe, glabrous blade abaxially, hyaline and entire indusia, and distributed and higher elevations. The second species is different to D. diplazioides (Klotzsch et H. Karst.) Alston by having densely scaly stipe, rachis and costa, relative bigger pinnae and entire to erose indusia. After that, the third species differs from D. werckleanum Christ by thicker rhizome, bigger rhizome scales and blade with 1 - 2 buds at apex. Consecutively, the fourth species differs from D. lindbergii (Mett.) H. Christ by thinner rhizome, shorter fronds, longer stipe, smaller blade, less pinnae pairs, shiny laminar tissue and veins 3 - 5 pairs per segment. Finally, the fifth species is related to D. tungurahuae (Sodiro) C. Chr., but with abaxially glabrous rachis and costae, pinnules 4 - 5 times longer than wide and entire,
Poverty and Inequality in Mexico after NAFTA: Challenges, Setbacks and Implications
Alvarado, Emmanuel;
Estudios fronterizos , 2008,
Abstract: this article analyzes the progress obtained in diminishing poverty and inequality in mexico during the post-nafta years ranging from 1994 to 2007, and how it pertains to the broad critical debate surrounding poverty-gap reduction in the context of regional and international economic integration and trade liberalization. specifically, the article discusses the evolution of mexican rural and urban poverty, income and regional disparities, as well as the role of government spending after the enactment of nafta and within the framework of economic liberalization marked by expanded international trade and investment, particularly with the united states.
Del campo a la ciudad: experiencias sobre migración y trabajo doméstico en adolescentes rurales
Revista Venezolana de Estudios de la Mujer , 2010,
Abstract: domestic work is predominantly an urban activity performed by women in latin america. every year, these women leave their homelands to migrate to the city. countries of the region have legally regulated this work; however, domestic workers, mostly teenagers and girls, are still a vulnerable group with none or limited labor rights. this qualitative study describes the experiences of a group of teenagers as domestic workers in peru?s urban centers. findings of this study suggest the need of strengthening the social actors and national policies to ensure labor rights to this vulnerable group
Voices and Agencialities in the Education of Young Rural Andean Women: A Qualitative Look
Alvarado, Beatriz;
Revista electrónica de investigación educativa , 2010,
Abstract: this qualitative study describes the voices and agencialities of female rural andean students enrolled in high school. the study explores how educational practices and discourses in the school and family context impact these young women's voices and agencialities. also analyzed are the actions they are taking to change their existing situation. the post-structural approach and theories of resistance, voice and power inform the literature review and analysis of the study, which describes the many educational and sociocultural obstacles the young women face: an educational curriculum not adapted to their needs, untrained teachers with low expectations for their students' future, and an educational environment that silences their voices. the results show that despite of all obstacles, these women have a firm determination to seek a different future, rather than live under the oppressive patriarchal cycle their mothers and female relatives have endured.
Attitudes Toward Immigrants and Multiculturalism in Contemporary America: The Role of Foreign Language Fluency
Emanuel Alvarado
Sociation Today , 2009,
Abstract: Drawing from sociological research seeking to explain variation in attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy, it is found that knowledge and proficiency in a language other than English is associated with more favorable views towards immigrants and towards multiculturalism in contemporary America. Alvarado reviews the literature on sociological research on immigrant attitudes, explores the nexus between foreign language learning and appreciation for foreign culture(s), and presents the methodology and analysis used to test the strength of the association between knowledge in a foreign language and favorable views towards immigrants and multiculturalism in the United States.
La historiografía y el Centenario de la Independencia de las Repúblicas Sanmartinianas (Perú, Chile y Argentina)
Fausto Alvarado
Summa Humanitatis , 2010,
Abstract: Dos corrientes políticas y militares determinaron el surgimiento de las repúblicas libres en Sudamérica. La bolivariana o septentrional y la sanmartiniana o meridional. La primera se dio entre 1809 y 1830 y la segunda se verificó entre 1810 y 1821 e involucró a las repúblicas de Argentina, Chile y Perú. La historiografía de estas repúblicas en la época de las celebraciones de los centenarios de las independencias de las repúblicassanmartinianas, Perú, Chile y Argentina, es el objeto del presente trabajo
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