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Growth Response of a Selected Bacterial Population (Pseudomonas) Exposed to Malathion
Hashmi Imran,Khan M. Altaf,Jong-Guk Kim
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Growth kinetics of Pseudomonas in sterile nutrient broth was studied using nutrient broth alone and broth supplemented with malathion (8.55 mg/ml malathion). The percent biodegradation of malathion by Pseudomonas was determined under sterile and unsterile conditions. The mean percentage biodegradation of malathion under unsterile conditions varied from 88.57 per cent for 0.00285 μg/ml, 70.49 percent for 0.0057 μg/ml and 78.52 for 0.00855 μg/ml whereas in sterile conditions the fate of microorganisms capable of biodegrading malathion showed the following percentage mean values which varied from 53.26 percent for 0.00285 μg/ml, 53.95 percent for 0.0057 μg/ml and 80.61 percent for 0.00855 μg/ml. The study determined that inoculation of bacterial culture under laboratory scale conditions can be used in bioremediation of environmental pollution caused by xenobiotics.
Renal Tumors in Young Adults A Single-Center Experience From a Developing Country
Rehan Mohsin,Altaf Hashmi,Gohar Sultan,Asad Shehzad
Urology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the pattern and outcome of renal tumors in young adults in a large surgical series in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 133 young adults (age: ≥ 16 to ≤ 40 years) with 136 renal tumors, who underwent surgical treatment for suspected renal cancer from 1994 till 2010. The clinical and pathological parameters were determined and their impact on final outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.3 ± 6.2 years. Of 136, 121 (88.9%) renal tumors were malignant and 15 (11%) were benign. Among malignancies, 76 (62.7%) patients had stage I or II tumors, 22 (18.1%) stage III, and 23 (19%) stage IV at surgery. The overall cancer-specific survival for malignant tumors at 1, 5, and 10 years was 97%, 83%, and 83%, whereas the cancer-free survival (CFS) was 80%, 63%, and 37%, respectively. Patients with age ≤ 35 years had 1 and 5-year CFS of 83% and 71%, respectively, as compared with 76% and 49% for patients > 35 years (P = .02; odds ratio = 2.3; P = .03). Regarding tumor size, 1 and 5-year CFS for tumors ≤ 10 cm was 93% and 75%, while tumors > 10 cm showed CFS of 56% and 41%, respectively (P = .0001; odds ratio = 4.2; P = .0001). For stage I tumors, CFS at 1 and 5 years was 98% and 84%; for stage II, 82% and 63%; and for stage III, 62% and 50%, respectively. One-year survival for stage IV was 48% only (P = .0001). Conclusion: A wide heterogeneity of renal tumors is seen in young adults with delayed presentation.
Malathion Degradation by Pseudomonas Using Activated Sludge Treatment System (Biosimulator)
Hashmi Imran,Khan Mohammed Altaf,Jong B. Guk Kim
Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: This study was aimed at determining the growth kinetics and degradation potential of malathion by inoculation of the bacterial culture. Growth kinetics studies of Pseudomonas were determined by SPC technique using 4.0 mg L 1 dissolved oxygen (DO) in sterile undiluted nutrient broth and sterile diluted (1:10) nutrient broth, whereas the degradation studies were determined using high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) techniques, which were conducted using continuous cultivation technique with similar DO level as that of growth kinetic studies using biosimulator, with two different set of conditions (with-culture; using pure culture of Pseudomonas and without-culture; indigenous microorganisms). A critical comparison of data revealed that at each sampling hour the viable population density was greater in the presence of undiluted nutrient broth than in the presence of diluted nutrient broth. Similarly the mean of degradation studies revealed that malathion degradation was more pronounced in studies with inoculation (with-culture) as compared with indigenous bacteria (without-culture). The study demonstrated that inoculation of bacterial culture studied under laboratory conditions can be used in bioremediation of environmental pollution caused by pesticides.
Degradation of malathion by Pseudomonas during activated sludge treatment system using principal component analysis (PCA)
Hashmi Imran,Khan M Altaf,Kim Jong-Guk,
Hashmi Imran
,Khan M Altaf,Kim Jong-Guk

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2006,
An Application of Principal Component Analysis to The Study of Activated Sludge Treatment System Performance Efficiency For the Degradation of Malathion
Imran Hashmi,S. Shahid Shaukat,Moazzam Ali Khan,M. Altaf Khan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: The biosimulator system (activated sludge system) have proved to be very effective in the treatment of wastewater containing high content of pesticide and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in terms of organic load and the quality of effluent being obtained after treatment was acceptable for landscape irrigation and for growing plants of ornamental value for commercial use. The biosimulator can be operated without being an aesthetic nuisance at a considerably low Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The efficiency of the biosimulator at high organic load (pesticide inoculated) and the inoculation of strain of Pseudomonas capable of degrading malathion, could be used to minimize time for treating wastewater containing high content of hazardous pesticide.The principal component analysis exposed the groups of correlated variables and their importance in the data structure. Malin -MalOUT, TMC, MalOUT/MalIN and CODOUT/CODIN were highly correlated with each other and emerged as the variables controlling the first component. DO, pH and retention time governed the second component. The third component of PCA essentially repeated the trend exhibited by the first two components. The presence of pesticides or their metabolites, emphasizes the need for conducting monitoring studies, in order to draw a national picture for overall assessment of the situation.
Chemical processing of Pharmaceutical wastewater for Pollution control
Imran Hashmi,S. Nazrul Hasnain,Moazzam Ali Khan,M. Altaf Khan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: The present research investigation was aimed at determining the behavior of TSS, BOD5, COD, Oil and grease, phenols and ammonia of pharmaceutical wastewater under varied concentrations of polymers (alum and chlorine), in order to determine the effectiveness of polymers as coagulant aids. Wastewater samples were collected from the holding tank in plastic containers. Total suspended solids were removed from the wastewater by alum treatment and it was found that alum dose of 200 mgL -1 was sufficient to remove TSS from 458 to 23 mgL -1 (95 % removal). Similarly BOD5 was also readily removed by the alum treatment, showing that alum dose of 300 mgL -1 was optimum, in achieving 89 per cent removal. Although removal of COD was not easily obtained due to the complex chemical composition of the wastewater. Therefore, variable results in terms of COD removal were obtained. It was observed that COD removal efficiency was as low as 13-46 per cent for 100 mgL -1 and for 200 mgL -1 it was between 26-77 per cent and for 300 mgL -1 it was found out to be 28-88 per cent. Different volumes of chlorine (diluted bleach, 50:50, 25:75 and 15:85) were used in order to find out the optimum chlorine dose for further reduction of COD. The residual COD removal efficiency of 15 per cent bleach at 30 ml/100 ml dose was found to be 71 per cent. Similarly for 25 per cent and 50 per cent bleach it was found out to be 89 per cent and 86 per cent respectively (Based on average of six results). Similarly alum dose of 300 mgL -1 was sufficient to remove 65 per cent phenol within a contact time of 30 minutes depending upon the phenol concentration in the original sample. Similarly the effect of chlorine on alum treated wastewater was observed for residual phenol and ammonia removal and it was found that 25 per cent bleach at 10 ml, 20 ml and 30 ml was effective in bringing phenol level down to acceptable level of 0.1 mgL -1 or less.
High-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy during preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancers
Mutahir Ali Tunio, Mansoor Rafi, Altaf Hashmi, Rehan Mohsin, Abdul Qayyum, Mujahid Hasan, Amjad Sattar, Muhammad Mubarak
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of high dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy (HDR-ILBT) boost during preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer.METHODS: Between 2008 and 2009, thirty-six patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (≥ T3 or N+), were treated initially with concurrent capecitabine (825 mg/m2 oral twice daily) and pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (45 Gy in 25 fractions), then were randomized to group A; HDR-ILBT group (n = 17) to receive 5.5-7 Gy × 2 to gross tumor volume (GTV) and group B; EBRT group (n = 19) to receive 5.4 Gy × 3 fractions to GTV with EBRT. All patients underwent total mesorectal excision.RESULTS: Grade 3 acute toxicities were registered in 12 patients (70.6%) in group A and in 8 (42.1%) in group B. Complete pathologic response of T stage (ypT0) in group A was registered in 10 patients (58.8%) and in group B, 3 patients (15.8%) had ypT0 (P < 0.0001). Sphincter preservation was reported in 6/9 patients (66.7%) in group A and in 5/10 patients (50%) in group B (P < 0.01). Overall radiological response was 68.15% and 66.04% in Group A and B, respectively. During a median follow up of 18 mo, late grade 1 and 2 sequelae were registered in 3 patients (17.6%) and 4 patients (21.1%) in the groups A and B, respectively.CONCLUSION: HDR-ILBT was found to be effective dose escalation technique in preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancers, with higher response rates, downstaging and with manageable acute toxicities.
Recurrent Support and Relevance Vector Machines Based Model with Application to Forecasting Volatility of Financial Returns  [PDF]
Altaf Hossain, Mohammed Nasser
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2011.34026
Abstract: In the recent years, the use of GARCH type (especially, ARMA-GARCH) models and computational-intelligence-based techniques—Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) have been successfully used for financial forecasting. This paper deals with the application of ARMA-GARCH, recurrent SVM (RSVM) and recurrent RVM (RRVM) in volatility forecasting. Based on RSVM and RRVM, two GARCH methods are used and are compared with parametric GARCHs (Pure and ARMA-GARCH) in terms of their ability to forecast multi-periodically. These models are evaluated on four performance metrics: MSE, MAE, DS, and linear regression R squared. The real data in this study uses two Asian stock market composite indices of BSE SENSEX and NIKKEI225. This paper also examines the effects of outliers on modeling and forecasting volatility. Our experiment shows that both the RSVM and RRVM perform almost equally, but better than the GARCH type models in forecasting. The ARMA-GARCH model is superior to the pure GARCH and only the RRVM with RSVM hold the robustness properties in forecasting.
Acquired Complete Heart Block with Long QT Interval and Recurrent Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia: A Case Report  [PDF]
Hosam Zaky, Jassem Al Hashmi
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2016.62008
Abstract: We are reporting a case of acquired complete heart block and long QT interval (a dispersion of repolarization that leads to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) that has presented with loss of conscious and proved to be due to torsade de pointes. The patient responded well to cardiac pacing and beta blocker therapy. The association of complete acquired heart block and long QT interval is quite rare.
Riwan Hashmi
The Professional Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and reflects serious renaldisease specific to diabetes. It is one of the common causes of end stage renal disease. A cross sectionalstudy was carried out to find the incidence of proteinuria, microalbuminuria and transferrinuria in knowdiabetics of Rawalpindi. One hundred and forty six consecutive diabetics were included in the study (68 menand 78 women) for detection of diabetic nephropathy. Thirty age and sec matched, healthy controls were alsoincluded in the study. Urine protein, microalbumin and transferrin concentration were analysed in the 24hours urine samples submitted by all diabetics and healthy controls. The screening of protein in urine wasdone by dipstick method using Uristix Ames (UK). Quantitative urine total protein was estimated by Biuretmethod; the dipstick negative samples were analysed for microalbuminuria by using Pyrogallol-molybdatetest technique and urinary transferrin was estimated by immunoturbidimetry method. The transferrinexcretion in diabetic subjects significantly (P<0.01) exceeded that in healthy subject. The 65% of diabeticshad an abnormally high urinary transferrin excretion and 40% had high urinary protein excretion(proteinuria: 14%: microalbuminuria: 26%). It is concluded that microalbuminuria proteinuria andtransferrinuria is common in our diabetics reflecting poor metabolic control.
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