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Estratégias de pesquisa em contextos de diversidade cultural: entrevistas de listagem livre, entrevistas com informantes-chave e grupos focais
Bisol, Cláudia Alquati;
Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-166X2012000500008
Abstract: the objective of this article is to present and discuss three research strategies which, when used separately or combined in qualitative or quantiqualitative studies, may facilitate the researcher's understanding of the cultural universe of study participants, especially in contexts of cultural diversity. one understands that there is cultural diversity when the life experience, concepts, values and theoretical presuppositions of the researcher are not the same as those of the participants of a study. the three methods that are presented, as well as their possible combinations, are: free-listing interviews, key-informant and focus group interviews. examples of empirical research in the field of public health and psychology are also presented to demonstrate the applicability of these research strategies.
Análise dos processos cognitivos e autopoiéticos em um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem
Valentini, Carla Beatris;Bisol, Claudia Alquati;
Educar em Revista , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-40602008000200013
Abstract: the multimedia support in learning environments can be a facilitator element for changes in the epistemological conceptions on the part of educators and apprentices. this article consists in a case study. the corpus of analysis is composed by the statements of an apprentice that interacted in the virtual learning environment of a mandatory course in a psychology undergraduate program. piaget's theory of equilibration and maturana's biology of knowledge are the theories that support the analysis and that give support to the construction of the cognitive and autopoietic indications. the analysis shows how the subject interacts before the exchanges made in the different scenarios of the virtual environment. the autopoietic and cognitive indications show a process of learning supported by the interaction with the other and by the interaction with the object of knowledge itself. the subject's contributions indicate a movement of authorship and construction of knowledge, assuming a participative and responsible role in the exchanges realized with the other apprentices.
Sinalizando a adolescência: narrativas de adolescentes surdos
Bremm, Eduardo Scarantti;Bisol, Cláudia Alquati;
Psicologia: Ciência e Profiss?o , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-98932008000200005
Abstract: this study aims at understanding the meanings attributed to adolescence and to life experiences in the context of deafness, analyzing deaf adolescents’ narratives. narrative interviews were made with three deaf adolescents whose parents are hearing, fluent users of brazilian sign language, who have attended an elementary special school for the deaf. the interviews were made in sign language by a deaf mediator in a room with a one-way mirror, with simultaneous translation made by an interpreter. data were analyzed using ricoeur’s hermeneutics and discussed with contributions from psychology and psychoanalysis. results indicate that many conflicts experienced by the deaf adolescents are similar to those experienced by the hearing adolescents. specificities regarding deafness refer to reevaluations of the decisions made by their parents and to levels of dependence from hearing people. differences among teenagers and their family contexts could also be noticed regarding communication, emotional development and participation in the deaf community.
Blogs de adolescentes surdos: escrita e constru??o de sentido
Bisol, Cláudia Alquati;Bremm, Eduardo Scarantti;Valentini, Carla Beatris;
Psicologia Escolar e Educacional , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-85572010000200011
Abstract: the learning and the meaningful appropriation of the written language by the deaf can be promoted by means of the use of widely spread and available communication technologies. this work presents the analysis of the narrative resources used by three deaf adolescents fluent in libras to organize their lived experience through written productions in weblogs (using the portuguese language, their second language). it is a qualitative exploratory study. a hermeneutic analysis of the narratives based on paul ricoeur was proposed. although there were mistakes in the written language, the productions could be considered narratives because they express attempts to weave stories. however, the transmission of meaning was not always successful, indicating difficulties in the learning of the written language and in the understanding that it can be a means of communicating with the other. the need of creating strategies that strengthen the notion of the written language as a means of production of meaning is emphasized.
Noradrenalina na terapêutica do choque: recomenda es atuais e novas perspectivas
Alquati, Tamila,Piva, Jefferson Pedro,Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos
Scientia Medica , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivos: revisar os principais aspectos do uso de noradrenalina no tratamento do choque, em especial nos pacientes pediátricos. Fonte de dados: revis o bibliográfica no banco de dados MEDLINE, utilizando os termos norepinefrina/ noradrenalina, sepse, choque e uso precoce. Síntese dos dados: a noradrenalina vem sendo utilizada como tratamento adjuvante do choque em pacientes nos quais a resposta à ressuscita o volumétrica n o seja satisfatória. Estudos experimentais da última década apontaram para o uso precoce dessa droga no tratamento do choque, com resultados satisfatórios no que diz respeito à melhor perfus o de órg os e menor necessidade de volume para manter a fun o renal. Conclus es: restam muitas dúvidas acerca da repercuss o clínica do uso precoce de noradrenalina no choque, principalmente na popula o pediátrica. S o necessários mais estudos sobre o assunto, em especial prospectivos e randomizados. Contudo, já há evidências sobre a seguran a do uso dessa droga, que n o aumenta o risco de isquemia renal. Objectives: To review the main aspects of the use of norepinephrine for treatment of shock, especially in children. Source of data: Bibliographic review in the database MEDLINE using the terms norepinephrine, shock, sepsis and early use. Summary of the findings: Norepinephrine has been used as complementary treatment of shock, in patients in whom the response to the volumetric expansion was not satisfactory. Experimental studies from the last decade have encouraged the early use of this drug for shock treatment, with satisfactory results concerning the best perfusion of organs and lesser need of fluids to maintain renal function. Conclusions: Many doubts remain about the clinical utility of the early use of norepinephrine in shock, especially in the pediatric population. More studies are requested, in special prospective and randomized trials. Nevertheless, there is already evidence about the security of the use of norepinephrine, which do not increase the risk of renal ischemia.
Chernobyl Birds Have Smaller Brains
Anders Pape M?ller,Andea Bonisoli-Alquati,Geir Rudolfsen,Timothy A. Mousseau
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016862
Abstract: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.
Elevated Mortality among Birds in Chernobyl as Judged from Skewed Age and Sex Ratios
Anders Pape M?ller, Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati, Geir Rudolfsen, Timothy A. Mousseau
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035223
Abstract: Background Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. Methodology/Principal Finding We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. Conclusions/Significance These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km2 in Chernobyl’s surroundings constitutes an ecological trap that causes dramatic excess mortality.
Estudantes surdos no ensino superior: reflex?es sobre a inclus?o
Bisol, Cláudia Alquati;Valentini, Carla Beatris;Simioni, Janaína Lazzarotto;Zanchin, Jaqueline;
Cadernos de Pesquisa , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-15742010000100008
Abstract: the objective of this study is to understand the experiences of deaf students who attended bilingual schools and identify with the deaf culture. the starting point was field research with three young women and two young men, between 21 and 27 years old, who were enrolled in undergraduate courses for at least three semesters. the work consisted in semi-structured individual interviews, conducted by a deaf female scholarship-holder and recorded on video, which were later translated into portuguese and analyzed for their content. the results show how challenging it is to adapt to a world of people who for the most part have normal hearing, the difficulties of moving between sign language and portuguese, the need to maintain identity's points of reference that are valued for those who hear normally, as well as the importance of reorganizing the teaching strategies and evaluating the involvement of the libras [brazilian sign language] interpreter.
Aspermy, Sperm Quality and Radiation in Chernobyl Birds
Anders Pape M?ller, Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati, Timothy A. Mousseau, Geir Rudolfsen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100296
Abstract: Background Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.
Antioxidant Defenses Predict Long-Term Survival in a Passerine Bird
Nicola Saino,Manuela Caprioli,Maria Romano,Giuseppe Boncoraglio,Diego Rubolini,Roberto Ambrosini,Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati,Andrea Romano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019593
Abstract: Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), as a model.
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