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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144552 matches for " Allyn F. Tennant "
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Ultraluminous X-ray Source Correlations with Star-Forming Regions
Douglas A. Swartz,Allyn F. Tennant,Roberto Soria
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/703/1/159
Abstract: Maps of low-inclination nearby galaxies in Sloan Digitized Sky Survey u-g, g-r and r-i colors are used to determine whether Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are predominantly associated with star-forming regions of their host galaxies. An empirical selection criterion is derived from colors of HII regions in M81 and M101 that differentiates between the young, blue stellar component and the older disk and bulge population. This criterion is applied to a sample of 58 galaxies of Hubble type S0 and later and verified through an application of Fisher's linear discriminant analysis. It is found that 60% (49%) of ULXs in optically-bright environments are within regions blueward of their host galaxy's HII regions compared to only 27% (0%) of a control sample according to the empirical (Fisher) criterion. This is an excess of 3-sigma above the 32% (27%) expected if the ULXs were randomly distributed within their galactic hosts. This indicates a ULX preference for young, approximately <10 Myr, OB associations. However, none of the ULX environments have the morphology and optical brightness suggestive of a massive young super star cluster though several are in extended or crowded star-forming (blue) environments that may contain clusters unresolved by Sloan imaging. Ten of the 12 ULX candidates with estimated X-ray luminosities in excess of 3e39 erg/s are equally divided among the group of ULX environments redward of HII regions and the group of optically faint regions. This likely indicates that the brightest ULXs turn on at a time somewhat later than typical of HII regions; say 10-20 Myr after star formation has ended. This would be consistent with the onset of an accretion phase as the donor star ascends the giant branch if the donor is a <20 solar-mass star.
An X-ray View of Star Formation in the Central 3 kpc of NGC 2403
Mihoko Yukita,Douglas A. Swartz,Allyn F. Tennant,Roberto Soria
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/139/3/1066
Abstract: Archival Chandra observations are used to study the X-ray emission associated with star formation in the central region of the nearby SAB(s)cd galaxy NGC 2403. The distribution of X-ray emission is compared to the morphology visible at other wavelengths using complementary Spitzer, GALEX, and ground-based Halpha imagery. In general, the brightest extended X-ray emission is associated with HII regions and to other star-forming structures but is more pervasive; existing also in regions devoid of strong Halpha and UV emission. This X-ray emission has the spectral properties of diffuse hot gas (kT ~ 0.2keV) whose likely origin is in gas shock-heated by stellar winds and supernovae with < 20% coming from faint unresolved X-ray point sources. This hot gas may be slowly-cooling extra-planar remnants of past outflow events, or a disk component that either lingers after local star formation activity has ended or that has vented from active star-forming regions into a porous interstellar medium.
A Study of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources from the Chandra Archive of Galaxies
Douglas A. Swartz,Kajal K. Ghosh,Allyn F. Tennant
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The more than 80 nearby galaxies imaged with the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer have been analyzed in a search for Ultra-Luminous X-ray (ULX) sources. The sample of galaxies span the range of Hubble morphological types and include galaxies of various mass, gas content, and dynamical state. X-ray characteristics of the resulting ensemble of ULX candidates are reported and correlations with properties of the host galaxies are presented.
A Complete Sample of ULX Host Galaxies
Douglas A. Swartz,Roberto Soria,Allyn F. Tennant,Mihoko Yukita
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/1/49
Abstract: One hundred seven ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) sources with 0.3-10.0 keV luminosities in excess of 1e39 erg/s are identified in a complete sample of 127 nearby galaxies. The sample includes all galaxies within 14.5 Mpc above the completeness limits of both the Uppsala Galaxy Catalog and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite survey. The galaxy sample spans all Hubble types, a four decade range in mass and in star-formation rate. ULXs are detected in this sample at rates of one per 3.2e10 solar mass, one per 0.5 solar mass/year star-formation rate, and one per 57 cubic Mpc corresponding to a luminosity density of ~2e37 erg/s/Mpc3. At these rates we estimate as many as 19 additional ULXs remain undetected in fainter dwarf galaxies within the survey volume. An estimated 14 or 13%, of the 107 ULX candidates are expected to be background sources. The differential ULX luminosity function shows a power law slope of -1.2 to -2.0 with an exponential cutoff at 2e40 erg/s with precise values depending on the model and on whether the ULX luminosities are estimated from their observed numbers of counts or, for a subset of candidates, from their spectral shapes. Extrapolating the observed luminosity function predicts at most one very luminous ULX, L~1e41 erg/s, within a distance as small as 100 Mpc. The luminosity distribution of ULXs within the local universe cannot account for the recent claims of luminosities in excess of 2e41 erg/s requiring a new population class to explain these extreme objects.
Unraveling the Geometry of the Crab Nebula's "Inner Ring"
Martin C. Weisskopf,Ronald F. Elsner,Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak,Stephen L. O'Dell,Allyn F. Tennant
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/41
Abstract: Chandra images of the Crab Nebula resolve the detailed structure of its "inner ring", possibly a termination shock where pulsar-accelerated relativistic particles begin to emit X radiation. Analysis of these images finds that the center of the ellipse-presumably a circular ring in projection-lies about 0.9" (10 light-days at 2 kpc) from the pulsar's image, at a position angle of about 300{\deg} (East of North). This analysis also measures properties of the ellipse: The position angle of the semi-major axis is about 210{\deg} (East of North); the aspect ratio, 0.49. In a simple-albeit, not unique-de-projection of the observed geometry, a circular ring is centered on the axis of symmetry of the pulsar wind nebula. This ring is not equatorial but rather lies near +4.5{\deg} latitude in pulsar-centered coordinates. Alternative geometries are briefly discussed.
Hot Diffuse Emission in the Nuclear Starburst Region of NGC 2903
Mihoko Yukita,Douglas A. Swartz,Allyn F. Tennant,Roberto Soria,Jimmy A. Irwin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/758/2/105
Abstract: (Abridged) We present a deep Chandra observation of the late-type barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903. The Chandra data reveal soft (kT_e ~ 0.2-0.5keV) diffuse emission in the nuclear starburst region and extending ~5kpc to the north and west of the nucleus. Much of this soft hot gas is likely to be from local active star-forming regions; however, besides the nuclear region, the morphology of hot gas does not strongly correlate with sites of active star formation. The central ~650 pc radius starburst zone exhibits much higher surface brightness diffuse emission than the surrounding regions and a harder spectral component in addition to its soft component. We interpret the hard component as being of thermal origin with kT_e~3.6keV and to be directly associated with a wind fluid produced by supernovae and massive star winds. The inferred terminal velocity for this hard component, ~1100 km/s, exceeds the local galaxy escape velocity suggesting a potential outflow. The softer extended emission does not display an obvious outflow geometry. However, the column density through which the X-rays are transmitted is lower to the west of the nucleus compared to the east and the surface brightness is higher there suggesting some soft hot gas originates from above the disk; viewed directly from the western zone but through the intervening galaxy disk from the eastern zone. There are several point-like sources in the nuclear region with X-ray spectra typical of compact binaries. None of these are coincident with the mass center of the galaxy and we place an upper limit luminosity from any point-like nuclear source to be < 2x10^38 ergs/s in the 0.5-8.0keV band which indicates that NGC 2903 lacks an active galactic nucleus. Heating from the nuclear starburst and a galactic wind may be responsible for preventing cold gas from accreting onto the galactic center.
Properties of the Chandra Sources in M81
Allyn F. Tennant,Kinwah Wu,Kajal K. Ghosh,Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak,Douglas A. Swartz
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/319145
Abstract: The Chandra X-ray Observatory obtained a 50-ks observation of the central region of M81 using the ACIS-S in imaging mode. The global properties of the 97 x-ray sources detected in the inner 8.3x8.3 arcmin field of M81 are examined. Roughly half the sources are concentrated within the central bulge. The remainder are distributed throughout the disk with the brightest disk sources lying preferentially along spiral arms. The average hardness ratios of both bulge and disk sources are consistent with power law spectra of index Gamma~1.6 indicative of a population of x-ray binaries. A group of much softer sources are also present. The background source-subtracted logN-logS distribution of the disk follows a power law of index ~ -0.5 with no change in slope over three decades in flux. The logN-logS distribution of the bulge follows a similar shape but with a steeper slope above ~4.0e+37 ergs/s. There is unresolved x-ray flux from the bulge with a radial profile similar to that of the bulge sources. This unresolved flux is softer than the average of the bulge sources and extrapolating the bulge logN-logS distribution towards weaker sources can only account for 20% of the unresolved flux. No strong time variability was observed for any source with the exception of one bright, soft source.
Chandra X-ray Observations of the Spiral Galaxy M81
Douglas A. Swartz,Kajal K. Ghosh,Michael L. McCollough,Thomas G. Pannuti,Allyn F. Tennant,Kinwah Wu
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345084
Abstract: A Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S imaging observation is used to study the population of X-ray sources in the nearby Sab galaxy M81 (NGC 3031). A total of 177 sources are detected with 124 located within the D25 isophote to a limiting X-ray luminosity of 3e36 ergs/cm2/s. Source positions, count rates, luminosities in the 0.3-8.0 keV band, limiting optical magnitudes, and potential counterpart identifications are tabulated. Spectral and timing analysis of the 36 brightest sources are reported including the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus, SN 1993J, and the Einstein-discovered ultra-luminous X-ray source X6.
Chandra Phase-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar II
Martin C. Weisskopf,Allyn F. Tennant,Dmitry G. Yakovlev,Alice Harding,Vyacheslav E. Zavlin,Stephen L. O'Dell,Ronald F. Elsner,Werner Becker
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/139
Abstract: We present a new study of the X-ray spectral properties of the Crab Pulsar. The superb angular resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory enables distinguishing the pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase allows the least-biased measure of interstellar X-ray extinction due primarily to photoelectric absorption and secondarily to scattering by dust grains in the direction of the Crab Nebula. We modify previous findings that the line-of-sight to the Crab is under-abundant in oxygen and provide measurements with improved accuracy and less bias. Using the abundances and cross sections from Wilms, Allen & McCray (2000) we find [O/H] = $(5.28 \pm 0.28)\times10^{-4}$ ($4.9 \times10^{-4}$ is solar abundance). We also measure for the first time the impact of scattering of flux out of the image by interstellar grains. We find $\tau_{\rm scat} = 0.147 \pm 0.043$. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase also measures the X-ray spectral index even at pulse minimum --- albeit with increasing statistical uncertainty. The spectral variations are, by and large, consistent with a sinusoidal variation. The only significant variation from the sinusoid occurs over the same phase range as some rather abrupt behavior in the optical polarization magnitude and position angle. We compare these spectral variations to those observed in Gamma-rays and conclude that our measurements are both a challenge and a guide to future modeling and will thus eventually help us understand pair cascade processes in pulsar magnetospheres. The data were also used to set new, and less biased, upper limits to the surface temperature of the neutron star for different models of the neutron star atmosphere.
Discovery of Spatial and Spectral Structure in the X-Ray Emission from the Crab Nebula
Martin C. Weisskopf,J. Jeff Hester,Allyn F. Tennant,Ronald F. Elsner,Norbert S. Schulz,Herman L. Marshall,Margarita Karovska,Joy S. Nichols,Douglas A. Swartz,Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak,Stephen L. O'Dell
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/312733
Abstract: The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and Pulsar during orbital calibration. Zeroth-order images with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) read-out by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy array (ACIS-S) show a striking richness of x-ray structure, at a resolution comparable to that of the best ground-based visible-light observations. The HETG--ACIS-S images reveal, for the first time, an x-ray inner ring within the x-ray torus, the suggestion of a hollow-tube structure for the torus, and x-ray knots along the inner ring and (perhaps) along the inward extension of the x-ray jet. Although complicated by instrumental effects and the brightness of the Crab Nebula, the spectrometric analysis shows systematic variations of the x-ray spectrum throughout the Nebula.
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