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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 326082 matches for " Allison S. Rhines "
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Model of the Effects of Improving TB Diagnosis on Infection Dynamics in Differing Demographic and HIV-Prevalence Scenarios  [PDF]
Allison S. Rhines, Midori Kato-Maeda, Marcus W. Feldman
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2015.31001
Abstract: This paper seeks to examine the sensitivity of tuberculosis transmission (TB) dynamics to the rate at which infectious individuals with active TB begin a TB treatment course, and therefore cease to be infectious to others. We model this by varying both the rate at which individuals are diagnosed and begin treatment, and the demographic conditions in which the epidemic occurs. An agestructured deterministic ordinary differential equation model is used to study the sensitivity of TB transmission dynamics to the implementation of a more effective diagnostic such as Xpert MTB/ RIF in a high HIV prevalence setting. Sensitivity analysis of the effectiveness of the diagnostic (λ) shows the interim disease dynamics in three demographic scenarios defined by differences in HIV prevalence and age structure at a constant transmission rate. In the near future, we expect the diagnostic to have the most effect in areas of high HIV prevalence. In the long term, we expect the diagnostic to have the most significant impact at high transmission rates regardless of HIV prevalence and age structure.
What Happens after the Puerperium? Analysis of “Late” Postpartum Readmissions in California  [PDF]
Brett C. Young, Erin Madden, Allison S. Bryant
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.53016
Abstract:

Objective: Admissions to acute care hospitals represent a significant portion of healthcare utilization. Little is known regarding hospitalization in the first postpartum year beyond the traditional 6 weeks of the puerperium. We sought to investigate whether there are identifiable risk factors for hospital readmission during this time period. Study Design: We conducted a retrospective population-based study using all California birth records between 1999 and 2003. These records were linked with hospital discharge data for all admissions to California hospitals in the first 365 days after delivery. For women with a first birth during the study period, we assessed the likelihood of readmission to an acute care hospital between 42 and 365 days post-delivery. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine risk factors for these “late postpartum” admissions. Results: Of 951,570 maternal birth admissions during the time period, 15,727 (1.7%) women were admitted in the late postpartum period. Women with an early postpartum readmission, antepartum admission, extremes of maternal age, black race, diabetes, hypertension, early preterm delivery and cesarean delivery had higher rates of late postpartum readmission. Of women with an antepartum admission for gestational diabetes or pre-existing diabetes, 6.6% and 18.5% of these women experienced a late postpartum admission for a diabetes-related diagnosis. Conclusion: Hospital readmission rates in the first year postpartum, remote from delivery, are significant. Women are at a higher risk of requiring hospital admission in the first year postpartum with select demographics and pregnancy-related diagnoses.

Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches
Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO
Current Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio). In the field, they consume much detritus and sediment, which is not nutritious. They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation. They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels, which may underlie altered behaviors. Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months, although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment. Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish. Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries. We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity, schooling, and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site. They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels. Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs, which is rare in this species. In the fall, when they migrate back out to the ocean, they are smaller, slower, and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1): 9-20, 2012].
An Essential Nonredundant Role for Mycobacterial DnaK in Native Protein Folding
Allison Fay,Michael S. Glickman
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004516
Abstract: Protein chaperones are essential in all domains of life to prevent and resolve protein misfolding during translation and proteotoxic stress. HSP70 family chaperones, including E. coli DnaK, function in stress induced protein refolding and degradation, but are dispensable for cellular viability due to redundant chaperone systems that prevent global nascent peptide insolubility. However, the function of HSP70 chaperones in mycobacteria, a genus that includes multiple human pathogens, has not been examined. We find that mycobacterial DnaK is essential for cell growth and required for native protein folding in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Loss of DnaK is accompanied by proteotoxic collapse characterized by the accumulation of insoluble newly synthesized proteins. DnaK is required for solubility of large multimodular lipid synthases, including the essential lipid synthase FASI, and DnaK loss is accompanied by disruption of membrane structure and increased cell permeability. Trigger Factor is nonessential and has a minor role in native protein folding that is only evident in the absence of DnaK. In unstressed cells, DnaK localizes to multiple, dynamic foci, but relocalizes to focal protein aggregates during stationary phase or upon expression of aggregating peptides. Mycobacterial cells restart cell growth after proteotoxic stress by isolating persistent DnaK containing protein aggregates away from daughter cells. These results reveal unanticipated essential nonredunant roles for mycobacterial DnaK in mycobacteria and indicate that DnaK defines a unique susceptibility point in the mycobacterial proteostasis network.
VARIABILITY OF SUBPOLAR NORTH ATLANTIC CIRCULATION FROM ALTIMETRY
H?kkinen,Sirpa; Rhines,Peter B;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382004000200048
Abstract: altimeter data show that subpolar north atlantic sea surface height has underwent large variations during the last two decades. similarly the associated geostrophic velocity field exhibits large fluctutations in the strength of the subpolar gyre circulation such that the gyre was extremely strong in the early 1990's but may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. numerical model experiments suggests that the 1990s had also large coincident changes in the meridional overturning in the north atlantic ocean
VARIABILITY OF SUBPOLAR NORTH ATLANTIC CIRCULATION FROM ALTIMETRY
Sirpa H?kkinen,Peter B Rhines
Gayana (Concepción) , 2004,
Abstract: Altimeter data show that subpolar North Atlantic sea surface height has underwent large variations during the last two decades. Similarly the associated geostrophic velocity field exhibits large fluctutations in the strength of the subpolar gyre circulation such that the gyre was extremely strong in the early 1990's but may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. Numerical model experiments suggests that the 1990s had also large coincident changes in the meridional overturning in the North Atlantic Ocean
Privacy Protection Framework with Defined Policies for Service-Oriented Architecture  [PDF]
David S. Allison, Miriam A. M. Capretz, Hany F. EL Yamany, Shuying Wang
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.53026
Abstract: Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a computer systems design concept which aims to achieve reusability and integration in a distributed environment through the use of autonomous, loosely coupled, interoperable abstractions known as services. In order to interoperate, communication between services is very important due to their autonomous nature. This communication provides services with their functional strengths, but also creates the opportunity for the loss of privacy. In this paper, a Privacy Protection Framework for Service-Oriented Architecture (PPFSOA) is described. In this framework, a Privacy Service (PS) is used in combination with privacy policies to create privacy contracts that outline what can and cannot be done with a consumer’s personally identifiable information (PII). The privacy policy consists of one-to-many privacy rules, with each rule created from a set of six privacy elements: collector, what, purpose, retention, recipient and trust. The PS acts as an intermediary between the service consumer and service provider, to establish an unbiased contract before the two parties begin sending PII. It is shown how many Privacy Services work together to form the privacy protection framework. An examination of what current approaches to protecting privacy in an SOA environment is also presented. Finally, the operations the PS must perform in order to fulfill its tasks are outlined.
Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors
Allison M Churcher, John S Taylor
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-242
Abstract: We have identified 50 full-length and 11 partial ORs in Branchiostoma floridae. No ORs were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis places the B. floridae OR genes in a monophyletic clade with the vertebrate ORs. The majority of OR genes in amphioxus are intronless and many are also tandemly arrayed in the genome. By exposing conserved amino acid motifs and testing the ability of those motifs to discriminate between ORs and non-OR GPCRs, we identified three OR-specific amino acid motifs common in cephalochordate, fish and mammalian and ORs.Here, we show that amphioxus has orthologs of vertebrate ORs. This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. We have also identified highly conserved amino acid motifs that may be important for maintaining receptor conformation or regulating receptor activity. We anticipate that the identification of vertebrate OR orthologs in amphioxus will lead to an improved understanding of OR gene family evolution, OR gene function, and the mechanisms that control cell-specific expression, axonal guidance, signal transduction and signal integration.Genes encoding odorant receptors (ORs) were first identified by Linda Buck and Richard Axel in 1991 [1]. Prior to 1991, experiments from several other labs suggested that odorant receptors were seven transmembrane (TM) domain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), so Buck and Axel used PCR with degenerate primers designed from available GPCR sequences to query cDNA isolated from rat olfactory epithelium tissue. The new genes they discovered were then used as probes to search rat cDNA and genomic DNA for additional paralogs [1]. This similarity-based approach, in which query sequences are used to identify orthologs and then paralogs, is a staple of both molecular and bioinformatics research. These and subsequent studies have now uncovered over a thousand rat and mouse odorant receptors [2-5]
Identifying Struggling Readers in Middle School with ORF, Maze and Prior Year Assessment Data
Jennifer R. Allison,Evelyn S. Johnson
Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jedp.v1n1p35
Abstract: Response to Intervention (RTI) is a framework with the primary purpose of early identification and prevention of learning problems. Screening procedures identify students in need of targeted intervention, but current screening research is limited to the elementary grades. This study explored the use of screening measures: prior year assessment data, oral reading fluency (ORF), and maze, to predict performance on Georgia’s Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT-8) for 236 eighth grade students from one district in Georgia. Logistic regression analyses compared the accuracy of the predictor variables. Overall classification accuracy was 96.6% for ORF and maze and 97.1% for CRCT-7; however, this was primarily due to the low base rate of poor performance on the CRCT-8 in the sample. A combination of screens did not significantly improve classification accuracy. A screening process that used CRCT-7 data followed by fall ORF resulted in 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Implications for practice are discussed.
An XMM-Newton View of the Radio Galaxy 3C 411
Allison Bostrom,Christopher S. Reynolds,Francesco Tombesi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/119
Abstract: We present the first high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton observations of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 411. After fitting various spectral models, an absorbed double power-law continuum and a blurred relativistic disk reflection model (kdblur) are found to be equally plausible descriptions of the data. While the softer power-law component ($\Gamma$=2.11) of the double power-law model is entirely consistent with that found in Seyfert galaxies (and hence likely originates from a disk corona), the additional power law component is very hard ($\Gamma$=1.05); amongst the AGN zoo, only flat-spectrum radio quasars have such hard spectra. Together with the very flat radio-spectrum displayed by this source, we suggest that it should instead be classified as a FSRQ. This leads to potential discrepancies regarding the jet inclination angle, with the radio morphology suggesting a large jet inclination but the FSRQ classification suggesting small inclinations. The kdblur model predicts an inner disk radius of at most 20 r$_g$ and relativistic reflection.
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