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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 96 matches for " Alja Oblak "
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Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation in Cancer Progression and Therapy
Alja Oblak,Roman Jerala
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/609579
Abstract: Cancer immunotherapy has been the focus of intense research since the late 19th century when Coley observed that bacterial components can contribute to cancer regression by eliciting an antitumor immune response. Successful activation and maturation of tumor-specific immune cells is now known to be mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4 is expressed on a variety of immune as well as tumor cells, but its activation can have opposing effects. While TLR4 activation can promote antitumor immunity, it can also result in increased tumor growth and immunosuppression. Nevertheless, TLR4 engagement by endotoxin as well as by endogenous ligands represents notable contribution to the outcome of different cancer treatments, such as radiation or chemotherapy. Further research of the role and mechanisms of TLR4 activation in cancer may provide novel antitumor vaccine adjuvants as well as TLR4 inhibitors that could prevent inflammation-induced carcinogenesis.
Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation in Cancer Progression and Therapy
Alja Oblak,Roman Jerala
Journal of Immunology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/609579
Abstract: Cancer immunotherapy has been the focus of intense research since the late 19th century when Coley observed that bacterial components can contribute to cancer regression by eliciting an antitumor immune response. Successful activation and maturation of tumor-specific immune cells is now known to be mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4 is expressed on a variety of immune as well as tumor cells, but its activation can have opposing effects. While TLR4 activation can promote antitumor immunity, it can also result in increased tumor growth and immunosuppression. Nevertheless, TLR4 engagement by endotoxin as well as by endogenous ligands represents notable contribution to the outcome of different cancer treatments, such as radiation or chemotherapy. Further research of the role and mechanisms of TLR4 activation in cancer may provide novel antitumor vaccine adjuvants as well as TLR4 inhibitors that could prevent inflammation-induced carcinogenesis. 1. Introduction Immune system plays a crucial role not only in defense against microbial infection but also in control and surveillance of malignant neoplasms. Immune cells scan tissues with the objective to remove newlyformed malignant cells before they turn into fully formed tumors. Malignant cells developed intricate mechanisms that enable them to inhibit immune cells through secretion of specific cytokines that create an immunosuppressive environment [1]. Tumors can even directly kill tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which are CD95 sensitive, by expressing the CD95L (Fas ligand) [2]. Innate immunity is the first line of defense against microbial infection. Innate immune cells recognize the intruding pathogen and trigger appropriate immune response with the help of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), arguably the most important vertebrate innate immune receptors. TLRs recognize different molecules of microbial origin, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. TLRs are located on the cell surface (TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 6) or in the endosomal compartments (TLR3, 7, 8, 9), where they safeguard the organism against infection. After recognition of their respective ligands, TLRs dimerize and trigger a cytoplasmic signaling pathway that leads to activation of several nuclear factors (e.g., NFκB, IRF) responsible for transcription of immune genes [3]. Toll-like receptor signaling in immune cells is critical for regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, such as DC maturation and antigen presentation as well as CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity, all of which are important factors in
Comprehensive management of project changes
Alja? Stare
Economic and Business Review , 2010,
Abstract: The goal of this research was to examine how project changes can be prevented, and how to reduce their negative impact. Theoretical research examined risk management, project control and change management. Based on the study a “Comprehensive Change Management Model” was developed and verified after conducting empirical research in Slovenian enterprises. The research confirmed that risk management identifies possible changes and reduces their impact; project control ensures the timely detection of changes and an efficient response, while formal change management ensures the effective implementation of changes. The combined functioning of all three areas ensures effective project execution.
Komunikacija v virtualni u ilnici = Communication in a Virtual Classroom
Alja Sulcic
Management , 2007,
Abstract: The Internet is a communication information technology that can be used for different activities, including online learning. As with traditional learning, communication is an important aspect of the interaction between teachers and students. In this paper we present the communicational view of online learning and the unique issues that must be taken into account when using the Internet for pedagogical activities. Our research has shown that differences in relationships, communication comfort and forms of communication emerge in online learning. We also found that the Internet can be used for successful learning-based communication, provided that the participants have sufficiently developed skills for online communication.
Supply centres in Jesenice
Alja? Plevnik
Urbani Izziv , 1994,
Abstract: While preparing the urban master plan for Jesenice, supply centres were identified as an important factor in physical positioning. When determining the character of supply centres the emphasis is on the gravitational hinterland and conditions of supply. In the proposal for locating supply centres three hierarchical ranks were identified, namely, the primary centre, centres of subunits and local centres. Because of the morphologic structure of Jesenice, linear grouping, as another type of supply centres appears.
Legal measures for achieving sustainable traffic in European cities
Alja? Plevnik
Urbani Izziv , 2000,
Abstract: The article presents the LEDA research project that dealt with legal measures needed to achieve sustainable traffic in European cities. The participants in the project gathered and analysed operational legal measures in European cities. The results showed what are the needed conditions for successful measures, which measures are often used and which are not, as well as the possibilities for their transfer to other cities and countries.
Pomen integracije urbanisti nega in prometnega na rtovanja
Alja? Plevnik
Urbani Izziv , 1997,
Abstract: Namen tega prispevka je utemeljiti integracijo ukrepov prometne in urbanisti ne politike za obvladovanje mestnega prometa. V prvem delu prispevka utemeljujemo integracijo s prikazom povezav med mestno strukturo in prometom. Naslednje poglavje je namenjeno prikazu nekaterih tujih primerov izvajanja integracije v praksi. V zadnjem delu pa predstavljamo nekatera na ela, ki so v tujini e do ivela potrditev in so primerna za vklju itev v slovensko prakso.
The importance of integrating urban and traffic planning
Alja? Plevnik
Urbani Izziv , 1997,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to prove the necessity of integrating measures of traffic and urban development policies in management of urban space. The first part of the article presents arguments for integration, shown as ties between the urban structure and traffic. The second part is a review of foreign practices of integration. In conclusion some principles, which have already been established abroad and are suitable for domestic practice, are shown.
High-speed railway connections – the next Slovene centennial infrastructure project?
Alja? Plevnik
Urbani Izziv , 2005,
Abstract: The debate about building a network of high speed railway connections on Slovene territory after full membership in the EU is becoming ever more pending. Following the Italian initiative discussions are mainly focused on the extension of the high speed railway in the 5th transport corridor from Trieste, across Slovenia, eastwards. This route has also been adopted in national strategic physical and transport development documents, although the professional public voiced its doubts about the feasibility of such a network in our territory, as well as suitability of connections in the 5th corridor. With a review of strategic and programme documents concerning development of railway infrastructure in Slovenia and the EU the article gives argumentation for necessary immediate comprehensive assessment of development possibilities of high speed connections in Slovenia and the definition of pertaining national interests.
Hitre elezni ke povezave – naslednji slovenski infrastrukturni projekt stoletja?
Alja? Plevnik
Urbani Izziv , 2005,
Abstract: Razprava o gradnji omre ja hitrih elezni kih povezav na ozemlju RS postaja po vstopu Slovenije v EU vse aktualnej a. Na pobudo Italije se razpravlja predvsem o podalj anju hitre elezni ke proge v V. prometnem koridorju iz Trsta prek Slovenije proti vzhodu. To smer povezovanja prevzemajo tudi prostorski in prometni strate ki dokumenti RS, eprav so se v strokovni javnosti pojavljali dvomi o smotrnosti izgradnje tovrstnega omre ja na na em ozemlju pa tudi o primernosti povezovanja v smeri V. koridorja. V prispevku elimo s pregledom strate kih in programskih dokumentov s podro ja razvoja elezni ke infrastrukture v RS in EU argumentirati potrebo po imprej nji celostni presoji razvojnih mo nosti hitrih elezni kih povezav na ozemlju RS in opredelitvi nacionalnega interesa na tem podro ju.
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