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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403099 matches for " Alison M. Elliott "
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Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study
Deborah A Leiper, Alison M Elliott, Philip C Hannaford
BMC Family Practice , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-7-27
Abstract: A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis.Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged.Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.Headaches are common, with almost everyone experiencing at least one during their lifetime [1]. The lifetime prevalence of headache has been estimated to be up to 96% in the adult population [1], and one-year prevalence estimates range from 38% [2] to 68% [3]. Many people experience headaches on a frequent basis: a recent UK survey found that 18% of respondents had experienced headaches one to three times a week during the previous three months, with 6% experiencing them more often [4]. Headaches have been shown to have an ad
Revisiting the symptom iceberg in today's primary care: results from a UK population survey
Alison M Elliott, Anne McAteer, Philip C Hannaford
BMC Family Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-16
Abstract: An age and sex stratified random sample of 8,000 adults (aged 18-60), drawn from twenty general practices across the UK, were sent a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire collected detailed information on 25 physical and psychological symptoms ranging from those usually indicative of minor illness to those which could be indicative of serious conditions. Information on symptom characteristics, actions taken to manage the symptoms and demographic/socio-economic details were also collected.Just under half of all symptoms reported resulted in respondents doing nothing at all. Lay-care was used for 35% of symptoms and primary care health professionals were consulted for 12% of symptoms. OTC medicine use was the most common lay-care strategy (used for 25% of all symptom episodes). The GP was the most common health professional consulted (consulted for 8% of all symptom episodes) while use of other primary care health professionals was very small (each consulted for less than 2% of symptom episodes). The actions taken for individual symptoms varied substantially although some broad patterns emerged. Symptom characteristics (in particular severity, duration and interference with daily life) were more commonly associated with actions taken than demographic or socio-economic characteristics.While the use of lay-care was widespread, use of the primary care team other than the GP was low. Further research is needed to examine the public's knowledge and opinions of different primary care services to investigate why certain services are not being used to inform the future development of primary care services in the UK.Symptoms are powerful drivers of healthcare utilisation. Although many symptoms are managed without the input of healthcare professionals, symptoms such as cough, headache and fatigue remain common reasons for seeking medical care [1,2]. The development in the UK of primary care teams (including practice nurses and community pharmacists) and new services (includi
Incongruous consultation behaviour: results from a UK-wide population survey
Alison M Elliott, Anne McAteer, Philip C Hannaford
BMC Family Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-21
Abstract: An age and sex stratified random sample of 8,000 adults was drawn from twenty UK general practices. A postal questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on the presence and characteristics of 25 physical and psychological symptoms, actions taken to manage the symptoms, general health, attitudes to symptom management and demographic/socio-economic details. Two types of incongruous consultation behaviour were examined: i) consultation with a GP for symptoms self-rated as low impact and ii) no consultation with a GP for symptoms self-rated as high impact.A fifth of all symptoms experienced resulted in consultation behaviour which was incongruous based on respondents' own rating of the symptoms' impact. Low impact consultations were not common, although symptoms indicative of a potentially serious condition resulted in a higher proportion of low impact consultations. High impact non-consultations were more common, although there was no clear pattern in the type of associated symptoms. Just under half of those experiencing symptoms in the previous two weeks were categorised as an incongruous consulter (low impact consulter: 8.3%, high impact non-consulter: 37.1%). Employment status, having a chronic condition, poor health, and feeling that reassurance or advice from a health professional is important were associated with being a low impact consulter. Younger age, employment status, being an ex-smoker, poor health and feeling that not wasting the GPs time is important were associated with being a high impact non-consulter.This is one of the first studies to examine incongruous consultation behaviour for a range of symptoms. High impact non-consultations were common and may have important health implications, particularly for symptoms indicative of serious disease. More research is now needed to examine incongruous consultation behaviour and its impact on both the public's health and health service use.Symptoms are both common and powerful drivers of healthcare
Use of antenatal services and delivery care in Entebbe, Uganda: a community survey
Carolyn J Tann, Moses Kizza, Linda Morison, David Mabey, Moses Muwanga, Heiner Grosskurth, Alison M Elliott
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-7-23
Abstract: We conducted a retrospective community survey among women using structured questionnaires to describe the use of antenatal services and delivery care.In total 413 women reported on their most recent pregnancy. Antenatal care attendance was high with 96% attending once, and 69% the recommended four times. Blood pressure monitoring (95%) and tetanus vaccination (91%) were the services most frequently reported and HIV testing (47%), haematinics (58%) and presumptive treatment for malaria (66%) least frequently. Hospital clinics significantly outperformed public clinics in the quality of antenatal service. A significant improvement in the reported quality of antenatal services received was observed by year (p < 0.001). Improvement in the range and consistency of services at Entebbe Hospital over time was associated with an increase in the numbers who sought care there (p = 0.038). Although 63% delivered their newborn at a local hospital, 11% still delivered at home with no skilled assistance and just under half of these women reported financial/transportation difficulties as the primary reason. Less educated, poorer mothers were more likely to have unskilled/no assistance. Simple newborn care practices were commonly neglected. Only 35% of newborns were breastfed within the first hour and delayed wrapping of newborn infants occurred after 27% of deliveries.Although antenatal services were well utilised, the quality of services varied. Women were able and willing to travel to a facility providing a good service. Access to essential skilled birth attendants remains difficult especially for less educated, poorer women, commonly mediated by financial and transport difficulties and several simple post delivery practices were commonly neglected. These factors need to be addressed to ensure that high quality care reaches the most vulnerable women and infants.Great disparities in perinatal health occur worldwide [1]. Between 7 and 8 million perinatal deaths occur globally each y
Study protocol: Home-based physical rehabilitation for survivors of a critical illness [ACTRN12605000166673]
Doug Elliott, Sharon McKinley, Jennifer A Alison, Leanne M Aitken, Madeleine T King
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc4949
Abstract: Participants are survivors of a critical illness discharged from nine intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia, who are aged 18 years or older, in an ICU longer than 48 hours, discharged home to self-care or carer (non-institutional care), able to participate in physical rehabilitation, and within the hospitals' local geographical areas for home visits. The study is based in participants' home environments. Blinded assessments at weeks 1, 8 and 26 after hospital discharge examine physical functioning, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and psychological well being. The intervention is graded, individualized endurance and strength training prescribed by a pulmonary rehabilitation physiotherapist over an 8-week period, with three home visits, five follow-up phone calls, and a printed exercise manual supporting the training. Initial focus is on lower limb exercises and walking, with warm-up stretches, and progresses to the addition of core stabilization and upper limb exercises.The burden of a critical illness is well documented. This novel study will determine whether a home-based physical rehabilitation programme improves the recovery trajectory for survivors of critical illness. The projected sample size of 200 patients aims to detect a clinically important 10% improvement in physical functioning. The study will also examine whether other important physical and psychological measures are improved.This multicentre, randomized controlled trial will examine outcomes that are meaningful to patients, their family and society, namely functional ability and well being. The study will also target a health problem that is likely to increase as the population ages. If the programme is effective, it will provide a model that can be easily adapted and adopted by existing primary care or community services to improve the recovery of individuals following critical illness.Examination of patient outcomes following a critical illness, over and above survival, has bec
Symptom experience and subsequent mortality: results from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study
Alison M Elliott, Philip C Hannaford, Blair H Smith, Sally Wyke, Kate Hunt
BMC Health Services Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-158
Abstract: 858 people aged around 58 years were interviewed by nurses in 1990/1 as part of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. They were asked about the presence of symptoms in the last month from a checklist of 33 symptoms. Measures of morbidity included symptom type (respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, mental health, neurological, systemic) and symptom summary measures looking at the number and impact of symptoms (total number; number participants tended to have; number participants did not tend to have; number which restricted usual activities; number which led to GP consultation). Hazard ratios for thirteen-year all-cause mortality were calculated for symptom types, symptom summary measures, and self-assessed health with and without adjustment.On unadjusted analysis, and after adjusting for gender, socio-economic status and smoking, mortality was elevated in individuals reporting respiratory, systemic and mental health symptoms. After additional adjustment for chronic conditions and self-assessed health, only the association between mental health symptoms and mortality remained significant. On unadjusted analysis, and after adjusting for gender, socio-economic status and smoking, mortality was elevated in individuals with many (≥ 6) symptoms in four of the symptom summary measures examined. These relationships were no longer significant after additional adjustment for chronic conditions and self-assessed health. A clear trend of increasing mortality as self-assessed health became poorer was observed. This pattern remained statistically significant after adjustment for gender, socio-economic status, smoking, chronic conditions and the total number of symptoms experienced.Symptoms often thought of as minor may have important consequences later in life especially for those reporting mental health-related symptoms or those experiencing many symptoms. In this study however, self-assessed health appeared to be a better predictor of mortality than the type or number
Hypertension Persisting after Pre-Eclampsia: A Prospective Cohort Study at Mulago Hospital, Uganda
Annettee Nakimuli, Alison M. Elliott, Pontiano Kaleebu, Ashley Moffett, Florence Mirembe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085273
Abstract: Background Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia usually resolves after delivery but sometimes hypertension persists and cardiovascular disease develops later. Our objective was to determine the incidence and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric risk factors for persistence of hypertension in women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Methods This was a prospective cohort study conducted from July 2009 to June 2011 at Mulago Hospital labour ward and postnatal clinics. We followed up 188 women admitted with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia until 3 months after delivery. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires, examination of participants and review of medical records. Stata (version12) software was used for data analysis. Univariable analysis was used to compute the relative risk of persistent hypertension at the 95% confidence level. This was followed by multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine factors independently associated with persistence of hypertension. Results 64 (34%) out of the 188 women analysed had persistent hypertension three months after delivery. Maternal age, gestational age at delivery and parity were predictors of persistent hypertension. Conclusion The proportion of women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia at risk of persistent hypertension at three months after delivery was high, with nearly one of three mothers remaining hypertensive. Follow up of mothers who develop pre-eclampsia is important so that early diagnosis and management of chronic hypertension can be made to avoid long term morbidity and mortality.
Long-Lived Memory B-Cell Responses following BCG Vaccination
Ismail Sebina, Jacqueline M. Cliff, Steven G. Smith, Sarah Nogaro, Emily L. Webb, Eleanor M. Riley, Hazel M. Dockrell, Alison M. Elliott, Julius C. R. Hafalla, Stephen Cose
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051381
Abstract: The role of T-cells in immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection has been extensively studied, however, that of B-cells still remains comparatively unexplored. In this study, we determined the presence and frequencies of mycobacteria-specific memory B-cells (MBCs) in peripheral blood from clinically healthy, Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccinated (n = 79) and unvaccinated (n = 14) donors. Purified protein derivative (PPD)-specific MBCs were present in most donors (both vaccinated and unvaccinated) but their frequencies were significantly higher in vaccinated than in unvaccinated donors. MBCs specific for other mycobacterial antigens [antigen-85A (Ag85A), antigen-85B (Ag85B), 6 kDalton early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) and the 10 kDalton-culture filtrate protein (CFP-10)] were less prevalent than those recognising PPD. Furthermore, PPD-specific MBCs were detected in BCG vaccinated donors without ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific responses. Together, these results indicate that BCG vaccination induces long-lived MBC responses. Similar patterns of response were seen when we examined mycobacteria-specific antibody and T-cell responses in these donors. Our data show for the first time that BCG vaccination elicits long-lived mycobacteria-specific MBC responses in healthy individuals, suggesting a more substantial role of B-cells in the response to BCG and other mycobacterial infections than previously thought.
Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on immune responses to schistosome antigens among the offspring: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial
Robert Tweyongyere, Patrice A Mawa, Macklyn Kihembo, Frances M Jones, Emily L Webb, Stephen Cose, David W Dunne, Birgitte J Vennervald, Alison M Elliott
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-234
Abstract: In a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott webcite), offspring of women with Schistosoma mansoni were examined for cytokine and antibody responses to schistosome worm (SWA) and egg (SEA) antigen, in cord blood and at age one year. Relationships to maternal responses and pre-treatment infection intensities were examined, and responses were compared between the offspring of women who did, or did not receive praziquantel treatment during pregnancy.Of 388 S. mansoni-infected women studied, samples were obtained at age one year from 215 of their infants. Stool examination for S. mansoni eggs was negative for all infants. Cord and infant samples were characterised by very low cytokine production in response to schistosome antigens with the exception of cord IL-10 responses, which were substantial. Cord and infant cytokine responses showed no association with maternal responses. As expected, cord blood levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G to SWA and SEA were high and correlated with maternal antibodies. However, by age one year IgG levels had waned and were hardly detectable. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy showed no effect on cytokine responses or antibodies levels to SWA or SEA either in cord blood or at age one year, except for IgG1 to SWA, which was elevated in infants of treated mothers, reflecting maternal levels. There was some evidence that maternal infection intensity was positively associated with cord blood IL-5 and IL-13 responses to SWA, and IL-5 responses to SEA, and that this association was modified by treatment with praziquantel.Despite strong effects on maternal infection intensity and maternal immune responses, praziquantel treatment of infected women during pregnancy had no effect on anti-schistosome immune responses among offspring by age one year. Whether the treatment will impact upon the offspring's responses on exposure to primary schistosome infection
Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on intensity of infection and antibody responses to schistosome antigens: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial
Robert Tweyongyere, Patrice A Mawa, Nicholas O Emojong, Harriet Mpairwe, Frances M Jones, Trinh Duong, David W Dunne, Birgitte J Vennervald, Eli Katunguka-Rwakishaya, Alison M Elliott
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-32
Abstract: A nested cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni infected women was recruited within a larger trial of de-worming during pregnancy. Women were randomised to receive praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. All women were treated after delivery. Infection intensity after treatment was assessed by a single Kato-Katz examination of stool samples with duplicate slides and categorised as undetected, light (1–99 eggs per gram (epg)), moderate (100–399 epg) or heavy (≥400 epg). Antibodies against S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were measured by ELISA. Results were compared between women first treated during pregnancy and women first treated after delivery.At enrolment, 252 (65.1%) of the women had light infection (median (IQR) epg: 35 (11, 59)), 75 (19.3%) moderate (median (IQR) epg: 179(131, 227)) and 60 (15.5%) had heavy infection (median (IQR) epg: 749 (521, 1169)) with S. mansoni. At six weeks after praziquantel treatment during pregnancy S. mansoni infection was not detectable in 81.9% of the women and prevalence and intensity had decreased to 11.8% light, 4.7% moderate and 1.6% heavy a similar reduction when compared with those first treated after delivery (undetected (88.5%), light (10.6%), moderate (0.9%) and heavy (0%), p = 0.16). Parasite specific antibody levels were lower during pregnancy than after delivery. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosted anti-worm IgG isotypes and to a lesser extent IgE, but these boosts were less pronounced than in women whose treatment was delayed until after delivery. Praziquantel had limited effects on antibodies against egg antigens.S mansoni antigen-specific antibody levels and praziquantel-induced boosts in antibody levels were broadly suppressed during pregnancy, but this was not associated with major reduction in the efficacy of praziquantel. Long-term implications of these findings in relation to resistance to re-infection remain to be explored.International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number for the current st
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