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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 170269 matches for " Alison E. Bennett "
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How can we exploit above–belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?
Peter Orrell,Alison E. Bennett
Frontiers in Plant Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00432
Abstract: Can above–belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above–belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above–belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray et al. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above–belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above–belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above–belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above–belowground interactions to contribute to food security.
Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata
Alison E. Bennett, Anna M. Macrae, Ben D. Moore, Sandra Caul, Scott N. Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066053
Abstract: Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the two affected plant growth and defensive chemistry. We exposed four week old P. lanceolata to root herbivory and AM fungi using a 2×2 factorial design (and quantified subsequent effects on plant biomass and iridoid glycosides (IGs) concentrations. Otiorhynchus sulcatus reduced root growth by c. 64%, whereas plant growth was unaffected by AM fungi. Root herbivory reduced extent of AM fungal colonization (by c. 61%). O. sulcatus did not influence overall IG concentrations, but caused qualitative shifts in root and shoot IGs, specifically increasing the proportion of the more toxic catalpol. These changes may reflect defensive allocation in the plant against further attack. This study demonstrates that very early root herbivory during plant development can shape future patterns of AM fungal colonization and influence defensive allocation in the plant.
Advances in protocolising management of high risk surgical patients
E David Bennett
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc4848
Abstract: In 1988 Shoemaker and colleagues [1] published a pivotal and rather complex paper that demonstrated for the first time that increasing cardiac output and oxygen delivery peri-operatively in high risk surgical patients led to a dramatic fall in morbidity and mortality. His group had previously shown that using simple clinical criteria, patients at high risk of dying in the post-operative period could be easily identified. He estimated that as many as 8% to 10% of patients undergoing major surgery in the USA were in this high risk group, with a hospital mortality well in excess of 20%Since these papers were published, numerous studies have by and large confirmed these original findings. Boyd and colleagues [2] and Woods and colleagues [3] found that increasing cardiac output and oxygen delivery pre-operatively to target values of 4.5 l/min/m2 and 600 ml/min/m2, respectively, which were maintained into the post-operative period, all led to a dramatic reduction in both mortality and morbidity. These studies all used the pulmonary artery catheter for monitoring cardiac output and a combination of intra-venous fluids and inotropes to achieve the hemodynamic targets.Other workers [4-6] have used oesophageal Doppler to measure cardiac output intra-operatively and achieved maximal stroke volume using frequent fluid challenges but with inotropes. Such protocols have consistently led to significant reductions in post-operative complications and hence hospital length of stay. Two further studies [8,9] demonstrated that when such protocols were used solely in the immediate postoperative period, similar benefits were still obtained.It should be stressed that these protocols have been used in a wide variety of patients, ranging from those undergoing major abdominal and vascular surgery to repair of fractured neck or femur or major cardiac surgery. Disappointingly, despite this body of evidence and meta-analyses that clearly show the overall benefit of this approach, the technique
Diacylglycerol Signaling Underlies Astrocytic ATP Release
Alison E. Mungenast
Neural Plasticity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/537659
Abstract: Astrocytes have the ability to modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission by the release of gliotransmitters. The importance of ATP released downstream of the activation of Gq-coupled receptors has been well established, but the mechanisms by which this release is regulated are unclear. The current work reveals that the elevation of diacylglycerol (DAG) in astrocytes induces vesicular ATP release. Unexpectedly, DAG-induced ATP release was found to be independent of PKC activation, but dependent upon activation of a C1 domain-containing protein. Astrocytes express the C1 domain-containing protein Munc13-1, which has been implicated in neuronal transmitter release, and RNAi-targeted downregulation of Munc13-1 inhibits astrocytic ATP release. These studies demonstrate that elevations of DAG induce the exocytotic release of ATP in astrocytes, likely via a Munc13-1-dependent mechanism. 1. Introduction The role of astrocyte gliotransmission in the modulation of neuronal signaling has been reported upon with increasing frequency within the last decade [1–3]. Astrocytes have been shown to release gliotransmitters, including glutamate and D-serine, via vesicular exocytosis [2, 4–10], which influence synaptic properties [1, 9]. In addition, astrocytic ATP release plays important roles in synaptic plasticity [1, 11–13] although the cell signaling events preceding its release are currently unclear [14]. Astrocytes express class I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which can induce gliotransmission in response to neuronal glutamate [15–17]. Previous work has shown that activation of astrocytic mGluR5 modulates neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens [18]. mGluR5 receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that signal via the Gq and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway, in which the small signaling molecules 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are produced, and IP3-stimulated calcium release is effected from internal stores. The DAG analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) has been found to induce calcium oscillations in astrocytes in a PLC-dependent manner through an undefined pathway [19]. This finding suggests that gliotransmission may be effected via activation of the DAG arm of the Gq signaling pathway, although the mechanism responsible for the observed calcium oscillations is not clear. ATP is released from astrocytes in the brain where it is rapidly converted to adenosine in the perisynaptic space through the actions of ectonucleotidases [20]. This adenosine acts to tonically inhibit synaptic transmission
A Review of 'Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering', edited by Londa Schiebinger
Alison E. Adam
International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract:
The Global Dimension of Schur Algebras for GL_2 and GL_3
Alison E. Parker
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We first define the notion of good filtration dimension and Weyl filtration dimension in a quasi-hereditary algebra. We calculate these dimensions explicitly for all irreducible modules in SL_2 and SL_3. We use these to show that the global dimension of a Schur algebra for GL_2 and GL_3 is twice the good filtration dimension. To do this for SL_3, we give an explicit filtration of the modules \nabla(\lambda) by modules of the form \nabla(\mu)^F \otimes L(\nu) where \mu is a dominant weight and \nu is p-restricted.
On the good filtration dimension of Weyl modules for a linear algebraic group
Alison E. Parker
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: Let G be a linear algebraic group over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p whose corresponding root system is irreducible. In this paper we calculate the Weyl filtration dimension of the induced G-modules, \nabla(\lambda) and the simple G-modules L(\lambda), for \lambda a regular weight. We use this to calculate some Ext groups of the form Ext^*(\nabla(\lambda),\Delta(\mu)), Ext^*(L(\lambda),L(\mu)), and Ext^*(\nabla(\lambda), \nabla(\mu)), where \lambda, \mu are regular and \Delta(\mu) is the Weyl module of highest weight \mu. We then deduce the projective dimensions and injective dimensions for L(\lambda), \nabla(\lambda) and \Delta(\lambda) for \lambda a regular weight in associated generalised Schur algebras. We also deduce the global dimension of the Schur algebras for GL_n, S(n,r), when p>n and for S(mp,p) with m an integer.
Higher extensions between modules for SL_2
Alison E. Parker
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We calculate Ext^*_{SL_2(k)}(\Delta(\lambda), \Delta(\mu)), Ext^*_{SL_2(k)}(L(\lambda), \Delta(\mu)), Ext^*_{SL_2(k)}(\Delta(\lambda), L(\mu)), and Ext^*_{SL_2(k)}(L(\lambda), L(\mu)), where \Delta(\lambda) is the Weyl module of highest weight \lambda, L(\lambda) is the simple SL_2(k)-module of highest weight \lambda and our field k is algebraically closed of positive characteristic. We also get analogous results for the Dipper-Donkin quantisation. To do thus we construct the Lyndon-Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence in a new way, and find a new condition for the E_2 page of any spectral sequence to be the same as the E_\infty page.
Year in review 2005: Critical Care – cardiology
Timothy Gatheral, E David Bennett
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc4983
Abstract: This review article summarizes original research papers in cardiology and critical care published in 2005 in Critical Care. The papers are grouped into topics for ease of reference.The volume of distribution of intravenous glucose can be used to estimate central extracellular fluid volume and cardiac preload. Ishihara and colleagues [1] assessed the utility of standard arterial blood gas/glucose analyzers found in the intensive care unit (ICU) in accurate calculation of this volume. Previous work by the group [2] demonstrated that injection of a small bolus of glucose (5 g) followed by serial measurements of glucose concentration from arterial samples allowed calculation of the initial distribution volume of glucose (IDVG). This calculated volume was independent of pre-injection glucose concentration and concomitant infusions of glucose and/or insulin. Animal studies by the group showed a close correlation between IDVG and intrathoracic blood volume, implying clinical utility as a marker of cardiac preload [3]. Their recent study [1] used preinjectate and 3 min glucose concentrations to derive approximated IDVG. The approximated IVDG was shown to correlate well with original IDVG (the calculated volume using their original multi-sampling methodology), although the two values are not interchangeable. This paper suggests a simple way to derive cardiac preload utilizing standard techniques and equipment. Further research is needed to assess the accuracy of haemodynamic data provided by this modified technique and its practical application in the ICU.Wiesenack and coworkers [4] examined the use of a novel pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) technique to assess fluid responsiveness. A rapid response thermistor at the tip of the modified PAC allows near continuous measurement of right ventricular ejection fraction and derivation of continuous right ventricular end-diastolic volume (CEDV). Previous studies [5-7] suggested good correlation between right ventricular end-diastoli
Health Professionals’ Alcohol-Related Professional Practices and the Relationship between Their Personal Alcohol Attitudes and Behavior and Professional Practices: A Systematic Review
Savita Bakhshi,Alison E. While
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110100218
Abstract: Health professionals’ personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals’ personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007–2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol ( n = 2), and their personal alcohol use ( n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base.
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