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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 195889 matches for " Alishia D. Williams "
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Evaluation of the mood repair hypothesis of compulsive buying  [PDF]
Alishia D. Williams
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.22012
Abstract: Compulsive buying (CB) is a proposed disorder of dysregulated buying behaviour that is associated with high rates of Axis I comorbidity, particularly depression and anxiety. It has been proposed that purchasing behaviours may serve as a maladaptive means of alleviating negative affect in vulnerable individuals. The aim of the current study was to experimentally manipulate affect to test this mood repair hypothesis. Compulsive buyers (n = 26) and pathological gamblers (n = 23) diagnosed using structured clinical interviews (SCID) and healthy controls (n = 24) were randomly assigned to either a negative or positive mood-induction procedure (MIP) and participated in an experimental buying task. Results revealed that, irrespective of mood induction condition, compulsive buyers reported a greater urge to acquire items, purchased more items, and spent a greater total amount of money during the buying task when compared to the healthy control group. Compulsive buyers were also faster than pathological gamblers in making decisions to purchase, even after controlling for motor impulsivity (BIS). There was, however, no main effect of mood-induction condition or group by condition interaction. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
The Effectiveness of Internet Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (iCBT) for Depression in Primary Care: A Quality Assurance Study
Alishia D Williams, Gavin Andrews
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057447
Abstract: Background Depression is a common, recurrent, and debilitating problem and Internet delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) could offer one solution. There are at least 25 controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy of iCBT. The aim of the current paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT Program in primary care that had been demonstrated to be efficacious in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Method Quality assurance data from 359 patients prescribed the Sadness Program in Australia from October 2010 to November 2011 were included. Results Intent-to-treat marginal model analyses demonstrated significant reductions in depressive symptoms (PHQ9), distress (K10), and impairment (WHODAS-II) with medium-large effect sizes (Cohen's d = .51–1.13.), even in severe and/or suicidal patients (Cohen's d = .50–1.49.) Secondary analyses on patients who completed all 6 lessons showed levels of clinically significant change as indexed by established criteria for remission, recovery, and reliable change. Conclusions The Sadness Program is effective when prescribed by primary care practitioners and is consistent with a cost-effective stepped-care framework.
CBT for depression: a pilot RCT comparing mobile phone vs. computer
Sarah Watts, Anna Mackenzie, Cherian Thomas, Al Griskaitis, Louise Mewton, Alishia Williams, Gavin Andrews
BMC Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-13-49
Abstract: 35 participants were recruited with Major Depression (80% female) and randomly allocated to access the program using a mobile app (on either a mobile phone or iPad) or a computer. Participants completed 6 lessons, weekly homework assignments, and received weekly email contact from a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist until completion of lesson 2. After lesson 2 email contact was only provided in response to participant request, or in response to a deterioration in psychological distress scores. The primary outcome measure was the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). Of the 35 participants recruited, 68.6% completed 6 lessons and 65.7% completed the 3-months follow up. Attrition was handled using mixed-model repeated-measures ANOVA.Both the Mobile and Computer Groups were associated with statistically significantly benefits in the PHQ-9 at post-test. At 3?months follow up, the reduction seen for both groups remained significant.These results provide evidence to indicate that delivering a CBT program using a mobile application, can result in clinically significant improvements in outcomes for patients with depression.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12611001257954Depression is a commonly occurring, disabling mental disorder [1-3]. Worldwide it is currently the fourth leading cause of disability and is expected to become the second leading cause of disease burden by the year 2020 [4]. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of depression [5,6]. However, a number of barriers prevent patients from accessing treatment. For example, three–quarters of people in the UK with depression received no treatment, with cost being the major barrier [7,8]. Treatments that are more affordable and accessible are necessary.CBT via the internet (iCBT) has been shown to be as effective as face to face treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and more cost effective [9,10]. Johanssen and Andersson (2012) reviewed 25 c
Alteration of Major Insulin Signaling Molecules by Chronic Ethanol in Hypertensive Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells of Rats  [PDF]
Sparkle D. Williams, Benny Washington
CellBio (CellBio) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2013.24021

Insulin resistance is an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, despite its importance, the specific role of insulin resistance in the etiology of these diseases is poorly understood. At the same time, ethanol (ETOH) is a potent vasoconstrictor that primarily induces down regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) which could exacerbate insulin resistance and possibly lead to cardiovascular diseases. This article describes how chronic ETOH exposure interferes with insulin signaling in hypertensive vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs) which leads to the alteration of MAPKs, the major signaling molecules. Elevated (50 - 800 mM) chronic exposure (24 hr) of HVSMCS to ETOH prior to insulin stimulation decreased insulin-induced ERK 1/2 (MAPKs) and AKT expression. Similar experiments were conducted using normotensive cells from rat. These cells showed reductions in insulin-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation as well, but only at higher concentrations of ETOH (400 - 800 mM). These alterations in insulin signaling could provide an alternative molecular mechanism that may increase the risk of insulin resistance, thus increasing the possibility of cardiovascular diseases.

Effect of Growth Morphology on the Electronic Structure of Epitaxial Graphene on SiC  [PDF]
Michael D. Williams, Dennis W. Hess
Graphene (Graphene) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2013.21008
Abstract: Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy is used to investigate the electronic structure of epitaxial graphene grown by the thermal decomposition of the carbon face of 4H SiC. We find that the growth of the film on the chemical mechanically polished and hydrogen etched surface enhances spectral features in the valence band structure compared to the film grown on an unpolished hydrogen etched substrate. This result is indicative of a more highly ordered surface structure compared to the morphologically rough material and shows that substrate preparation plays an important role in the quality of the film. The work function of the smooth surface film is found to be 0.4 eV higher than that for graphite and 0.1 eV less than for the rough surface growth.
Phytoaccumulation of Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead by Brassica juncea Parents and Their F1 Hybrids  [PDF]
Moupia Rahman, Nazmul Haq, Ian D. Williams
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.75055

Although Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) is reported to be a good accumulator of metals, little is known of the selected varieties of B. juncea (cvs. Rai and BARI-11). This paper investigates the phytoaccumulation of arsenic, cadmium and lead by B. juncea (cvs. Rai and BARI-11) parents and F1 hybrids. The experiment was conducted in the hydroponic media in the greenhouse of University of Southampton under a Randomised Block Design. Sodium arsenite, cadmium sulphate and lead nitrate with 0 ppm, 0.5 ppm and 1 ppm were used. The cadmium treated plants were analysed by Varian Atomic absorption spectrophotometer-200. The samples of arsenic and lead were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer. The results suggest that arsenic was detected only in the root systems while cadmium and lead were detected both in the root and shoot systems. Significant differences in the uptake were observed for different concentrations. Accumulation of arsenic was detected only in the root systems of B. juncea (cvs. Rai and BARI-11) at lower concentrations. Hence, this can be used as an agriculturally viable and efficient phytoaccumulator in the arsenic affected areas where contamination level is low and the contamination occurs at the rooting level.

Praying Through Kenosis
D T Williams
Acta Theologica , 2007,
Abstract: From the very beginning, the practice of intercessory prayer has been an accepted part of Christian life, yet it has often been felt to be in conflict with the Christian view of God. Even though prayer has been understood as part of a relationship with God, ascribing omniscience to him has been felt to render intercession superfluous. However, understanding God as limiting himself in kenosis for the sake of relating to people, on the one hand, means that prayer is a reality as it really affects God, and changes the future, and, on the other hand, retains the traditional view of God as totally sovereign, which includes his omniscience. Then, if God's approach to people is kenotic, the response of people to God, especially in prayer, should likewise be in the humility of kenosis. Acta Theologica Vol. 2 2007: pp. 221-233
Opening the trinity: developing the “open theism” debate
D.T Williams
Acta Theologica , 2005,
Abstract: The reconciliation of the omniscience of God with the free choices of humanity is a problem which has taxed Christian thinkers for centuries. Recently the issue has become prominent with the emergence of support for “open theism”, the belief that free will is such that God cannot know the future, simply because it has not yet happened. This idea has produced considerable opposition largely based on the perceived insecurity with which it leaves Christians, and the feeling that it diminishes God. A further solution to the problem can be based on the concept of God’s kenosis, that God has freely chosen to limit himself, specifically his knowledge. As this is a freely chosen action of God, so not an inherent limitation, and is temporary, it meets the fundamental objections to open theism. At the same time, kenosis was done for the sake of enabling a relationship with God, in which Christians do find ultimate security.
A kenotic response to secularity
D.T. Williams
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2008, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v73i1.155
Abstract: The church must be concerned to make the correct response to its increasing impotence and marginalisation in Western society due to secularisation. Past reaction has been to accommodate to the changed worldview, even to identify with it. A more appropriate response is to be Christocentric, so as to reflect the action of God himself in the sending of Christ for salvation. This involved his kenosis . In this case the response of the church is its own kenosis. This is also appropriate as secularisation was possible through the kenosis of God. The kenosis of the church is not an acceptance of defeat, but on the contrary, just as the kenosis of Christ, it aims at a positive result, the transformation of society.
Secularisation from kenosis
D.T. Williams
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2007, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v72i1.194
Abstract: Recent decades have witnessed the acceleration of the process of secularisation, along with related effects in society such as a decline in morals. Christians must wonder why God allows this to happen. The suggestion is that this is a result of God’s selflimitation, kenosis, allowing a process of which He does not approve for the sake of human free will. Kenosis follows as a possible result of a distinction between the divine and the created world, which permits secularisation. This is generally seen as a result of the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment, with effects in industrialisation and urbanisation; all of these can be linked with God’s kenosis. However, secularisation must not be seen as inevitable, but as having been exacerbated by the state of the church. If the result is a refining of the church, it could eventually lead to a resacralising of society.
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