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Insulin resistance is an important risk factor in the
development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and
atherosclerosis. However, despite its importance, the specific role
of insulin resistance in the etiology of these diseases is poorly understood.
At the same time, ethanol (ETOH) is a potent vasoconstrictor that primarily
induces down regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) which could
exacerbate insulin resistance and possibly lead to cardiovascular diseases. This
article describes how chronic ETOH exposure interferes with insulin signaling
in hypertensive vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs) which leads to the
alteration of MAPKs, the major signaling molecules. Elevated (50 - 800 mM)
chronic exposure (24 hr) of HVSMCS to ETOH prior to insulin stimulation
decreased insulin-induced ERK 1/2 (MAPKs) and AKT expression. Similar
experiments were conducted using normotensive cells from rat. These cells
showed reductions in insulin-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation as well, but only
at higher concentrations of ETOH (400 - 800 mM). These alterations in insulin signaling
could provide an alternative molecular mechanism that may increase the risk of
insulin resistance, thus increasing the possibility of cardiovascular diseases.
juncea (Indian mustard) is reported to be a good accumulator of metals,
little is known of the selected varieties of B. juncea (cvs.
Rai and BARI-11). This paper investigates the phytoaccumulation of arsenic, cadmium
and lead by B. juncea (cvs. Rai and BARI-11) parents and F1 hybrids.
The experiment was conducted in the hydroponic media in the greenhouse of University
of Southampton under a Randomised Block Design. Sodium arsenite, cadmium sulphate
and lead nitrate with 0 ppm, 0.5 ppm and 1 ppm were used. The cadmium treated plants
were analysed by Varian Atomic absorption spectrophotometer-200. The samples of
arsenic and lead were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer.
The results suggest that arsenic was detected only in the root systems while cadmium
and lead were detected both in the root and shoot systems. Significant differences
in the uptake were observed for different concentrations. Accumulation of arsenic
was detected only in the root systems of B. juncea (cvs. Rai
and BARI-11) at lower concentrations. Hence, this can be used as an agriculturally
viable and efficient phytoaccumulator in the arsenic affected areas where contamination
level is low and the contamination occurs at the rooting level.