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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208651 matches for " Alisa L. Gallant "
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Mapping Large-Area Landscape Suitability for Honey Bees to Assess the Influence of Land-Use Change on Sustainability of National Pollination Services
Alisa L. Gallant, Ned H. Euliss, Zac Browning
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099268
Abstract: Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1) an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2) a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.
Influence of Multi-Source and Multi-Temporal Remotely Sensed and Ancillary Data on the Accuracy of Random Forest Classification of Wetlands in Northern Minnesota
Jennifer M. Corcoran,Joseph F. Knight,Alisa L. Gallant
Remote Sensing , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rs5073212
Abstract: Wetland mapping at the landscape scale using remotely sensed data requires both affordable data and an efficient accurate classification method. Random forest classification offers several advantages over traditional land cover classification techniques, including a bootstrapping technique to generate robust estimations of outliers in the training data, as well as the capability of measuring classification confidence. Though the random forest classifier can generate complex decision trees with a multitude of input data and still not run a high risk of over fitting, there is a great need to reduce computational and operational costs by including only key input data sets without sacrificing a significant level of accuracy. Our main questions for this study site in Northern Minnesota were: (1) how does classification accuracy and confidence of mapping wetlands compare using different remote sensing platforms and sets of input data; (2) what are the key input variables for accurate differentiation of upland, water, and wetlands, including wetland type; and (3) which datasets and seasonal imagery yield the best accuracy for wetland classification. Our results show the key input variables include terrain (elevation and curvature) and soils descriptors (hydric), along with an assortment of remotely sensed data collected in the spring (satellite visible, near infrared, and thermal bands; satellite normalized vegetation index and Tasseled Cap greenness and wetness; and horizontal-horizontal (HH) and horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization using L-band satellite radar). We undertook this exploratory analysis to inform decisions by natural resource managers charged with monitoring wetland ecosystems and to aid in designing a system for consistent operational mapping of wetlands across landscapes similar to those found in Northern Minnesota.
Mine Spoil Prairies Expand Critical Habitat for Endangered and Threatened Amphibian and Reptile Species
Michael J. Lannoo,Vanessa C. Kinney,Jennifer L. Heemeyer,Nathan J. Engbrecht,Alisa L. Gallant,Robert W. Klaver
Diversity , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/d1020118
Abstract: Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.
Heritability Estimates of Karen Horney’s Core Neurotic Trends in a Young Adult Twin Sample  [PDF]
Frederick L. Coolidge, Daniel L. Segal, Alisa J. Estey, Frank M. Spinath, Elisabeth Hahn, Juliana Gottschling
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615199
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore the heritability of psychoanalyst Karen Horney’s three core neurotic trends (i.e., compliance, aggression, and detachment) in a twin paradigm to evaluate the validity of her theoretically assumed origins of neuroses. Method: Data were collected from 168 adult participants (M age = 21.54 years; range = 18 - 25 years) including 60 monozygotic twin pairs (10 male pairs and 50 female pairs) and 24 dizygotic twin pairs (4 male pairs and 20 female pairs). Participants completed the 57-item Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI). Results: The best fitting model for compliance and detachment included additive genetic and nonshared environmental influences. For aggression, phenotypic variance was completely traced back to shared and nonshared environmental influences. Conclusions: The results are discussed in light of Horney’s hypotheses for the genesis of neurotic trends as well as findings from behavioral genetic research.
Working Memory and Decision Processes in Visual Area V4
Benjamin Y. Hayden,Jack L. Gallant
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00018
Abstract: Recognizing and responding to a remembered stimulus requires the coordination of perception, working memory, and decision-making. To investigate the role of visual cortex in these processes, we recorded responses of single V4 neurons during performance of a delayed match-to-sample task that incorporates rapid serial visual presentation of natural images. We found that neuronal activity during the delay period after the cue but before the images depends on the identity of the remembered image and that this change persists while distractors appear. This persistent response modulation has been identified as a diagnostic criterion for putative working memory signals; our data thus suggest that working memory may involve reactivation of sensory neurons. When the remembered image reappears in the neuron’s receptive field, visually evoked responses are enhanced; this match enhancement is a diagnostic criterion for decision. One model that predicts these data is the matched filter hypothesis, which holds that during search V4 neurons change their tuning so as to match the remembered cue, and thus become detectors for that image. More generally, these results suggest that V4 neurons participate in the perceptual, working memory, and decision processes that are needed to perform memory-guided decision-making.
Pyrcca: regularized kernel canonical correlation analysis in Python and its applications to neuroimaging
Natalia Y. Bilenko,Jack L. Gallant
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a valuable method for interpreting cross-covariance across related datasets of different dimensionality. There are many potential applications of CCA to neuroimaging data analysis. For instance, CCA can be used for finding functional similarities across fMRI datasets collected from multiple subjects without resampling individual datasets to a template anatomy. In this paper, we introduce Pyrcca, an open-source Python module for executing CCA between two or more datasets. Pyrcca can be used to implement CCA with or without regularization, and with or without linear or a Gaussian kernelization of the datasets. We demonstrate an application of CCA implemented with Pyrcca to neuroimaging data analysis. We use CCA to find a data-driven set of functional response patterns that are similar across individual subjects in a natural movie experiment. We then demonstrate how this set of response patterns discovered by CCA can be used to accurately predict subject responses to novel natural movie stimuli.
Biological therapies for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Lessons from the adult and pediatric experiences
Matthew L Stoll,Alisa C Gotte
Biologics: Targets and Therapy , 2008,
Abstract: Matthew L Stoll, Alisa C GotteDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Biologics have advanced the therapy of adult and pediatric arthritis. They have been linked to rare serious adverse outcomes, but the actual risk of these events is controversial in adults, and largely unknown in pediatrics. Because of the paucity of safety and efficacy data in children, pediatric rheumatologists often rely on the adult literature. Herein, we reviewed the adult and pediatric literature on five classes of medicines: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, anakinra, rituximab, abatacept, and tocilizumab. For efficacy, we reviewed randomized controlled studies in adults, but did include lesser qualities of evidence for pediatrics. For safety, we utilized prospective and retrospective studies, rarely including reports from other inflammatory conditions. The review included studies on rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis, as well as juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Overall, we found that the TNF inhibitors have generally been found safe and effective in adult and pediatric use, although risks of infections and other adverse events are discussed. Anakinra, rituximab, abatacept, and tocilizumab have also shown positive results in adult trials, but there is minimal pediatric data published with the exception of small studies involving the subgroup of children with systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, in whom anakinra and tocilizumab may be effective therapies.Keywords: juvenile idiopathic arthritis, biologics, rheumatoid arthritis
The Use of Hypothermically Stored Amniotic Membrane for Cartilage Repair: A Sheep Study  [PDF]
Samuel K. Tabet, Alisa L. Clark, Eric B. Chapman, Doug Thal
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2015.54007
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the use of hypothermically stored human amniotic membrane for cartilage repair in adult sheep. Studies show that human amniotic membrane contains pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells that can be influenced to produce chondrocytes. It is unknown if human amniotic cells can produce hyaline-like cartilage. This study evaluates the use of hypothermically stored amniotic membrane (HSAM) to fill chondral defects in a sheep model. We hypothesized HSAM would fill defects with hyaline-like cartilage with chondrocytes populating the matrix. One sheep was used as a control, and four sheep received amniotic membrane. Two of these sheep were used as a normal control comparison. A 1 cm2 defect was created on the trochlear grove in all specimens. Each membrane was sized and laid over with the stromal layer facing the subchondral bone and covered with Fibrin sealant. The knees were harvested at five months and underwent morphological, histological, and immunohistological evaluation based on the original validated scoring system by O’Driscoll. The control defect didn’t fill in with hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. The defects that successfully retained the graft had evidence of diffuse chondrocyte cell proliferation and showed a stromal matrix similar to hyaline cartilage. The graft samples showed a near 100% morphological fill in the HSAM defect contrasting to <10% fill in the control defect. The retained HSAM grafts scored 2.5 on a 0 - 3 cartilage appearance scale compared with 0.5 for the control defects. HSAM is a potential source of pluripotent cells that can influence chondrogenesis in a sheep model. The implications for application in a human model are promising and warrant further study.
Lesson Planning in Primary School Using Lesson Study and Open Approach  [PDF]
Alisa Moonsri, Auijit Pattanajak
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412155

Lesson plans are generally written in a way that helps teachers to layout and run classroom activities. Many researchers have examined how teachers go about planning. This clearly shows that instructional plans play a central role in teaching and creating effective learning environments (Clark & Dunn, 1991; Reiser & Dick, 1996; Shauelson, 1983 cited in Koszalka et al., 1999). In context of school using lesson study and open approach followed conception of Inprasitha (2010), the importance of lesson study processes is collaborative lesson planning. After that the teachers who participate in lesson study group use these lesson plans in the classroom, observe and collect students’ thought and learning processes. And in planning the lessons use problems that students encounter in everyday life, so as to stimulate students to work to achieve the objective (Fernandez & Yoshida, 2004). The data were collected by video and audio recording while the target group were planning and teaching the lessons in lesson study process, then were transcribed to the protocol and analyzed by using theoretical framework of Stigler and Hiebert (1999). The research revealed that the target group discussed during the lesson planning process detailing about exact words, problem situations, materials, the anticipated solutions, students’ thoughts and responses, time used in each part of the lesson, and how to summarize the lesson. In the lesson planning, the exact words used in the problem situations were mostly mentioned. Moreover, in lesson planning, the issue of details of introduction design was discussed a lot. There were some issues which were not discussed during the teachers-included designing of the lesson plan. However, they were discussed while the teacher was using the lesson plan in class during instructional management.

Contributing to a Healthy Older Population of the Future: Investigating the Daily Walking Steps of Working Adults in Hong Kong  [PDF]
Linda Y. K. Lee, Simon C. Lam, S. L. Wong, Alisa K. P. Wong, Cheryl C. Y. Yeung
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.39004

Developing a healthy lifestyle during adulthood is one of the essential factors to prepare for healthy aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated the daily walking steps of 893 working adults from nine occupation categories in Hong Kong. Their daily walking steps were measured using a pedometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the difference in daily walking steps between participants in different occupation category. Chi-square test was used to compare the difference in proportion of working adults in each occupation category who walked and did not walk 10,000 steps per day. Results reveal that the participants in average walked 8661 steps per day. “Plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “clerks” were the two least active groups. Participants from the nine occupation categories demonstrated a significant difference in the number of daily walking steps. Post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between “plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “service workers and shop sales workers” (p < 0.01), as well as between “plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “craft and related workers” (p < 0.01). Participants from the nine occupation categories also demonstrated a significant difference in the proportion of those who walked and did not walk 10,000 steps per day. Owing to a large difference in number of participants in the nine occupation categories and other study limitations, further systematic investigation is indicated to confirm the study results. To summarize, working adults in Hong Kong are only somewhat active. Identifying the factors that deter the working adults from walking and the ways to promote walking among working adults is necessary to prepare a healthy older population of the future.

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