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Sensitivity of Solar Photovoltaic Panel Efficiency to Weather and Dust over West Africa: Comparative Experimental Study between Niamey (Niger) and Abidjan (C?te d’Ivoire)  [PDF]
Alima Dajuma, Saleye Yahaya, Siaka Touré, Arona Diedhiou, Rabani Adamou, Abdourahamane Konaré, Mariama Sido, Michel Golba
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2016.54012
Abstract: Energy demand is increasing while we are facing a depletion of fossils fuels, the main source of energy production in the world. These last years, photovoltaic (PV) system technologies are growing rapidly among alternative sources of energy to contribute to mitigation of climate change. However, PV system efficiency researches operating under West African weather conditions are nascent. The first objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of common monocrystalline PV efficiency to local meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, solar radiation) in two contrasted cities over West Africa: Niamey (Niger) in a Sahelian arid area and Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire) in atropical humid area. The second objective is to quantify the effect of dust accumulation on PV efficiency in Niamey (Niger). The preliminary results show that PV efficiency is more sensitive to high temperature change especially under Niamey climate conditions (warmer than Abidjan) where high ambient temperatures above 33°C lead to an important decrease of PV efficiency. Increase of relative humidity induces a decrease of PV efficiency in both areas (Niamey and Abidjan). A power loss up to 12.46% is observed in Niamey after 21 days of dust accumulation.
Maternal and Perinatal Complications of Severe Preeclampsia in Three Referral Hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon  [PDF]
Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Marie Kasia, Jean Alima, Joel Fokom Domgue, Anny Ngassam, Jean Baptiste Bogne, Sebastien Mba
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.512101
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine maternal and perinatal complications of pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia in three tertiary care centers in Cameroon. Methods: We carried out a descriptive cross sectional study from the 1st of June 2012 to the 31th of June 2014, among pregnant women with severe preeclampsia followed up in three tertiary level hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon: the Yaoundé General Hospital, the Yaoundé Central Hospital, and the Yaoundé University Hospital. Statistical analysis was performed using EPI 3.5.5. Data were described as means ± standard deviation, percentages and numbers. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used where appropriate. Results: Of the 2500 deliveries registered during the study period, 111 cases (8.49%) were managed as severe preeclampsia. Four patients refused to participate and were excluded from the study. Most of these patients were non workers (58.0%), pauciparous (61.7%) and young (median age of 27.47 years ± 6.46). Eclampsia (12.14%), abruptio placentae (11.21%) and hypertensive retinopathy (7.47%) were the most frequent maternal complications. Two cases (1.86%) of maternal deaths occurred in patients who had eclampsia. Prematurity (48.6%), intra uterine fetal death (13.1%) and oligoamnios (11.2%) were the most frequent fetal complications. All four neonatal deaths occurred in women in whom the diagnosis of severe preeclampsia was done between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia had significantly high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Cameroon. The complications of severe preeclampsia can be prevented by more widespread use of antenatal care, education of primary medical care personnel, prompt diagnosis of high-risk patients and timely referral to tertiary medical centers.
Pulse Mode Neural Network Implementation for Handwritten Digit Recognition
Alima Damak Masmoudi,Mohamed Krid,Dorra Sellami Masmoudi
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This study describes a new pulse mode artificial neural network (PNN) implementation based on floating point number format. For on-chip learning operations, the back-propagation algorithm is modified to have pulse mode operations for effective hardware implementation. By using floating point number system for synapse weight value representation, any function can be approximated by the network. The convergence rate of the learning and generalization capability is improved. The proposed network is applied for digit recognition application. The recognition approach is based on a series of features, which are at most independent of orientation and position. The most important featurea are based on Zernike moments. However, an exclusive use of Zernike moments in digit recognition increases tremendously the neural network size, since higher orders are needed to ensure best recognition rates. Moreover, given their geometrical invariance, Zernike moments give the same description to some different digits such as 6 and 9. Thus, we make use of other features based on structural descriptors witch are the terminating point number and the terminating location number which is orientation dependent. This features based presentation of the digits reduces the required Zernike order and the number of hidden layers and adds a great simplicity to the design, making possible the on-chip learning implementation for online operations. The proposed PNN is implemented on a Virtex II FPGA platform. Various experiments are carried on for design evaluation.
Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV Co-Infected Patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia: Nested Case-Control Study
Alima Hassen Ali, Tefera Belachew, Alemeshet Yami, Wubeante Yenet Ayen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064622
Abstract: Background This study was carried out to determine the incidence and predictors of anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods/Principal Findings A nested case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of all TB/HIV co-infected patients who commenced anti-TB treatment from January 2008 to December 2011 at Jimma University Hospital. Patients who had developed hepatotoxicity after at least 5 days of standard doses of anti-TB drug therapy were labeled as “cases” and those without hepatotoxicity were “controls”. Each case with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was compared with 3 controls selected randomly from the cohort. From a cohort of 296 TB/HIV co-infected patients 8 were excluded from the study as the causality between anti-TB drugs and hepatotoxicity was not confirmed, 33 had developed hepatotoxicity. On bivariate logistic regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 Kg/m2 [P = 0.01; OR (95%CI): 3.6 (1.4–9.5)], disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.00; OR (95%CI): 5.6 (2.2–14.6)], CD4 count ≤50 [P = 0.016; OR (95%CI): 3.6(1.27–10.23)] and WHO stage 4 [P = 0.004, OR (95%CI): 3.8 (1.68–8.77)] were significantly associated with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. Predictor variables with p-value <0.05 by bivariate analysis were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and identified disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.001; AOR (95%CI) = 5.6 (2.1–15.0)] and BMI <18.5 [P = 0.014; AOR (95%CI) = 3.6 (1.3–10.1)] as independent predictors of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusions The incidence of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was 11.5%. The results suggest that in the presence of disseminated pulmonary TB and/or BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, TB/HIV co-infected patients should be closely followed for the occurrence of hepatotoxicity during the intensive phase of TB treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality.
Evaluation of the Opuntia dillenii as Natural Coagulant in Water Clarification: Case of Treatment of Highly Turbid Surface Water  [PDF]
Yéwêgnon Alima Esther Irma Nougbodé, Cokou Pascal Agbangnan, Alain Yaya Koudoro, Comlan Achille Dèdjiho, Martin Pépin A?na, Daouda Mama, Dominique Codjo Koko Sohounhloué
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512133

This study was performed in laboratory scale and consisted of the using of aqueous Opuntia dillenii solution for the clarification of very turbid surface water (Turbidities varying between 186 NTU and 418 NTU). This plant from Cactaceae family was used as a natural coagulant for the different clarification tests. The preliminary phytochemical Screening of the powder of this plant showed that it contains tanins, saponins and mucilages. Flocculation and coagulation tests showed that Opuntia dillenii can be used in highly turbid water treatment. The removal efficiency varied from 89% to 93% for the turbidity and suspended solids, and from 4% to 15% for the obvious color in water when we used the optimum values of this natural coagulant (1 mL to 10 mL). The successive addition of this natural coagulant and the lime, gave a better elimination of turbidity and suspended solids, and a good reduction for the color. The removal efficiency of the turbidity and suspended solids became more than 95% and the one of the color between 67% and 94%.

Effects of Mango Wastes-Based Diets on the Growing Parameters of Laying Hens and Biometric Parameters of the Eggs  [PDF]
Drissa Barry, Timbilfou Kiendrebeogo, Modou Sere, Alima Combari, Youssouf Mopaté Logténé, Chantal Yvette Kaboré-Zoungrana
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105868
Introduction: Poultry production has increased during the past half century throughout the world. In Burkina Faso modern poultry farming is becoming a necessity in view of the growing demand for eggs. Intensive poultry farming is developing rapidly, given that the productivity of local poultry remains very low Because of the low availability and high cost of food. Therefore, it becomes imperative to develop strategies to make modern poultry farming more productive, by finding alternative solutions for feeds. Objective: The study aims to evaluate the effects of diets incorporating mango waste-based feed on the growth parameters of laying hens and biometric parameters of first eggs. Methods: Two hundred and ten (10) hens of the Isa Brown breed were divided into 3 batches (70 chicks per set) and feed with three diets namely mango and maize diet (MMD = lot1), control maize diet (CMD = lot2) and absolute control diet (ACD = lot3) in a feed experiment at INERA research station in Farako-ba, Bobo Dioulasso. Results: The final average weight (FW) gained by the lot1 and lot3 using the diet CMD (1364 ± 114 g) and ACD (1364 ± 115 g), respectively was significantly higher than the lot 2 feed with the MMD diet (1265 ± 117 g) (p < 0.05). The average daily weight gain (ADG) of CMD and ACD was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of the MMD ration. The feed intake (FI) and consumption index (CI) of the MMD ration were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of CMD and ACD (p > 0.05). Average weight and egg density were similar (p > 0.05) for the three diets. The eggs on the MMD diet were larger (p < 0.05) than those in the ration’s CMD and ACD, but the two later were similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Maize can be substituted with mango feed in growing layer diets. Mango waste-based feed is predisposed for better preparation of growing layers for good laying performances. It is an alternative to increase the availability of feed for farm animals including the laying hen.
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