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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403721 matches for " Alicia M. Fry "
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Asthma in patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection–United States, 2009
McKenna John J,Bramley Anna M,Skarbinski Jacek,Fry Alicia M
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-57
Abstract: Background Asthma was the most common co-morbidity among patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 [pH1N1] infection. The objective was to compare characteristics of hospitalized pH1N1 patients with and without asthma and assess factors associated with severity among asthma patients. Methods Patient data were derived from two 2009 pandemic case-series of U.S. pH1N1 hospitalizations. A case was defined as a person ≥ 2 years old hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed pH1N1. Asthma status was determined through chart review. Results Among 473 cases, 29% had asthma. Persons with asthma were more likely to be 2–17 years old (39% vs. 30%, p = 0.04) and black (29% vs. 18%, p < 0.01), and have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13% vs. 9%, p = 0.04) but less likely to have pneumonia (37% vs. 47%, p = 0.05), need mechanical ventilation (13% vs. 23%, p = 0.02), and die (4% vs. 10%, p = 0.04) than those without asthma. Among patients with asthma, those admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) or who died (n = 38) compared with survivors not admitted to an ICU (n = 99) were more likely to have pneumonia on admission (60% vs. 27%, p < 0.01) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (24% vs. 0%, p < 0.01) and less likely to receive influenza antiviral agents ≤ 2 days of admission (73% vs. 92%, p = 0.02). Conclusions The majority of persons with asthma had an uncomplicated course; however, severe disease, including ICU admission and death, occurred in asthma patients who presented with pneumonia. Influenza antiviral agents should be started early in hospitalized patients with suspected influenza, including those with asthma.
A Comparison of Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Fatal Human Infections with H5N1 and Human Influenza Viruses in Thailand, 2004–2006
Vivek Shinde,Wanna Hanshaoworakul,James M. Simmerman,Ubolrat Narueponjirakul,Wiwan Sanasuttipun,Suchada Kaewchana,Darin Areechokechai,Kumnuan Ungchusak,Alicia M. Fry
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014809
Abstract: The National Avian Influenza Surveillance (NAIS) system detected human H5N1 cases in Thailand from 2004–2006. Using NAIS data, we identified risk factors for death among H5N1 cases and described differences between H5N1 and human (seasonal) influenza cases.
Prevalence of Seropositivity to Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 Virus in the United States following the 2009 Pandemic
Carrie Reed, Jacqueline M. Katz, Kathy Hancock, Amanda Balish, Alicia M. Fry, H1N1 Serosurvey Working Group
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048187
Abstract: Background 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) was first detected in the United States in April 2009 and resulted in a global pandemic. We conducted a serologic survey to estimate the cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 through the end of 2009 when pandemic activity had waned in the United States. Methods We conducted a pair of cross sectional serologic surveys before and after the spring/fall waves of the pandemic for evidence of seropositivity (titer ≥40) using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We tested a baseline sample of 1,142 serum specimens from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and 2,759 serum specimens submitted for routine screening to clinical diagnostic laboratories from ten representative sites. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of seropositivity to A(H1N1)pdm09 by year-end 2009 was 36.9% (95%CI: 31.7–42.2%). After adjusting for baseline cross-reactive antibody, pandemic vaccination coverage and the sensitivity/specificity of the HI assay, we estimate that 20.2% (95%CI: 10.1–28.3%) of the population was infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 by December 2009, including 53.3% (95%CI: 39.0–67.1%) of children aged 5–17 years. Conclusions By December 2009, approximately one-fifth of the US population, or 61.9 million persons, may have been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09, including around half of school-aged children.
Human Rhinovirus Infections in Rural Thailand: Epidemiological Evidence for Rhinovirus as Both Pathogen and Bystander
Alicia M. Fry,Xiaoyan Lu,Sonja J. Olsen,Malinee Chittaganpitch,Pongpun Sawatwong,Somrak Chantra,Henry C. Baggett,Dean Erdman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017780
Abstract: We describe human rhinovirus (HRV) detections in SaKaeo province, Thailand.
Development of the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) Score among Young Children with Respiratory Infections in South Africa
Carrie Reed, Shabir A. Madhi, Keith P. Klugman, Locadiah Kuwanda, Justin R. Ortiz, Lyn Finelli, Alicia M. Fry
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027793
Abstract: Objective Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in children worldwide. A simple clinical score predicting the probability of death in a young child with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) could aid clinicians in case management and provide a standardized severity measure during epidemiologic studies. Methods We analyzed 4,148 LRTI hospitalizations in children <24 months enrolled in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in South Africa from 1998–2001, to develop the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC). Using clinical data at admission, a multivariable logistic regression model for mortality was developed and statistically evaluated using bootstrap resampling techniques. Points were assigned to risk factors based on their coefficients in the multivariable model. A child's RISC score is the sum of points for each risk factor present. Separate models were developed for HIV-infected and non-infected children. Results Significant risk factors for HIV-infected and non-infected children included low oxygen saturation, chest indrawing, wheezing, and refusal to feed. The models also included age and HIV clinical classification (for HIV-infected children) or weight-for-age (for non-infected children). RISC scores ranged up to 7 points for HIV-infected or 6 points for non-infected children and correlated with probability of death (0–47%, HIV-infected; 0–14%, non-infected). Final models showed good discrimination (area under the ROC curve) and calibration (goodness-of-fit). Conclusion The RISC score incorporates a simple set of risk factors that accurately discriminate between young children based on their risk of death from LRTI, and may provide an objective means to quantify severity based on the risk of mortality.
Estimating the Disease Burden of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Hunter New England, Northern New South Wales, Australia, 2009
Fatimah S. Dawood,Kirsty G. Hope,David N. Durrheim,Rodney Givney,Alicia M. Fry,Craig B. Dalton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009880
Abstract: On May 26, 2009, the first confirmed case of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (pH1N1) infection in Hunter New England (HNE), New South Wales (NSW), Australia (population 866,000) was identified. We used local surveillance data to estimate pH1N1-associated disease burden during the first wave of pH1N1 circulation in HNE.
Low usage of government healthcare facilities for acute respiratory infections in guatemala: implications for influenza surveillance
Kim A Lindblade, April J Johnson, Wences Arvelo, Xingyou Zhang, Hannah T Jordan, Lissette Reyes, Alicia M Fry, Norma Padilla
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-885
Abstract: We used a stratified, two-stage cluster survey sample to select 1200 households from the Department of Santa Rosa. Trained interviewers screened household residents for self-reported pneumonia in the last year and influenza-like illness (ILI) in the last month and asked about healthcare utilization for each illness episode.We surveyed 1131 (94%) households and 5449 residents between October and December 2006 and identified 323 (6%) cases of pneumonia and 628 (13%) cases of ILI. Treatment for pneumonia outside the home was sought by 92% of the children <5 years old and 73% of the persons aged five years and older. For both children <5 years old (53%) and persons aged five years and older (31%) who reported pneumonia, private clinics were the most frequently reported source of care. For ILI, treatment was sought outside the home by 81% of children <5 years old and 65% of persons aged five years and older. Government ambulatory clinics were the most frequently sought source of care for ILI both for children <5 years old (41%) and persons aged five years and older (36%).Sentinel surveillance for influenza and other respiratory infections based in government health facilities in Guatemala will significantly underestimate the burden of disease. Adjustment for healthcare utilization practices will permit more accurate estimation of the incidence of influenza and other respiratory pathogens in the community.As the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic highlighted, surveillance for influenza is now a worldwide priority.[1,2] At the 58th World Assembly in 2005, The World Health Organization adopted a resolution calling for Member States to fortify and coordinate national strategies to prepare for an influenza pandemic, including establishment of surveillance systems for human influenza.[3] To assist with the development of standardized influenza surveillance systems in the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the United States Centers for Disease Control and P
A Comparison of the Epidemiology and Clinical Presentation of Seasonal Influenza A and 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Guatemala
Kim A. Lindblade,Wences Arvelo,Jennifer Gray,Alejandra Estevez,Gal Frenkel,Lissette Reyes,Fabiola Moscoso,Juan Carlos Moir,Alicia M. Fry,Sonja J. Olsen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015826
Abstract: A new influenza A (H1N1) virus was first found in April 2009 and proceeded to cause a global pandemic. We compare the epidemiology and clinical presentation of seasonal influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) using a prospective surveillance system for acute respiratory disease in Guatemala.
Prevalence of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Antibodies, Tampa Bay Florida — November–December, 2009
Chad M. Cox, Kate Goodin, Emily Fisher, Fatimah S. Dawood, Janet J. Hamilton, German F. Leparc, Monica Gray, Linda Nelson, Rebekah H. Borse, James A. Singleton, Carrie Reed, Amanda L. Balish, Jacqueline M. Katz, Richard S. Hopkins, Alicia M. Fry
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029301
Abstract: Background In 2009, a novel influenza virus (2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1)) caused significant disease in the United States. Most states, including Florida, experienced a large fall wave of disease from September through November, after which disease activity decreased substantially. We determined the prevalence of antibodies due to the pH1N1 virus in Florida after influenza activity had peaked and estimated the proportion of the population infected with pH1N1 virus during the pandemic. Methods During November-December 2009, we collected leftover serum from a blood bank, a pediatric children's hospital and a pediatric outpatient clinic in Tampa Bay Florida. Serum was tested for pH1N1 virus antibodies using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. HI titers ≥40 were considered seropositive. We adjusted seroprevalence results to account for previously established HI assay specificity and sensitivity and employed a simple statistical model to estimate the proportion of seropositivity due to pH1N1 virus infection and vaccination. Results During the study time period, the overall seroprevalence in Tampa Bay, Florida was 25%, increasing to 30% after adjusting for HI assay sensitivity and specificity. We estimated that 5.9% of the population had vaccine-induced seropositivity while 25% had seropositivity secondary to pH1N1 virus infection. The highest cumulative incidence of pH1N1 virus infection was among children aged 5–17 years (53%) and young adults aged 18–24 years (47%), while adults aged ≥50 years had the lowest cumulative incidence (11–13%) of pH1N1 virus infection. Conclusions After the peak of the fall wave of the pandemic, an estimated one quarter of the Tampa Bay population had been infected with the pH1N1 virus. Consistent with epidemiologic trends observed during the pandemic, the highest burdens of disease were among school-aged children and young adults.
Fermionic Determinant of the Massive Schwinger Model
M. P. Fry
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.47.2629
Abstract: A representation for the fermionic determinant of the massive Schwinger model, or $QED_2$, is obtained that makes a clean separation between the Schwinger model and its massive counterpart. From this it is shown that the index theorem for $QED_2$ follows from gauge invariance, that the Schwinger model's contribution to the determinant is canceled in the weak field limit, and that the determinant vanishes when the field strength is sufficiently strong to form a zero-energy bound state.
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