OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721




2016 ( 11 )

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2013 ( 198 )


匹配条件: “Alicia Lozada” ,找到相关结果约3127条。
July Segueris,Milagros Aguilar,Anais Morales,Alicia Lozada
Salud, Arte y Cuidado , 2010,
Abstract: In the twenty-first century nursing discipline humanistic trends summons to consolidate the social role of the profession led to gauge the qualitative phenomena, including self-care theory raised by Dorothea Orem (1971) (1) developed a theory care based on systems theory nursing: In this article we present the experience of school care in a male of 11 years and 11 months was admitted because of fatigue and loss of consciousness suddenly. Which the entry in the pediatric emergency ventricular fibrillation is diagnosed is a severely abnormal heart rhythm that causes death unless immediately treated. This condition is responsible for 75 to 85% of sudden deaths in people with heart problems. In any unit, the nurse must identify the precise and rapid changes that could present the child monitored to ensure prompt action, and in many cases prevent or rehabilitate a cardiac arrest.
Odor Uniformity among Tomato Individuals in Response to Herbivore Depends on Insect Species
Alicia Bautista-Lozada, Francisco Javier Espinosa-García
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077199
Abstract: Plants produce specific volatile organic compound (VOC) blends in response to herbivory. Herbivore-induced blends may prime the plant for future attack or attract carnivorous insects; these responses have been considered adaptive for plants. If herbivores differentially modify the VOC emission among individuals within a group of plants they feed upon, then plant responses to herbivores will not only produce specific blends but also variation in odor among individuals, i.e. individuals smell the same, then having a uniform odor. We investigated the VOC emission variation or uniformity among tomato individuals (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Castlemart) in response to moderate wounding by (1) nymphs of the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.) (TP); (2) Lepidoptera chewing-feeding larvae of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith) (FAW) and (3) of Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner) (CL), and (4) mechanical damage (MD). We used a ratio-based analysis to compare the fold-change in concentration from constitutive to induced VOC emission. We also used size and shape analysis to compare the emission of damaged and non-damaged individuals. Aside of finding herbivore-specific blends in line with other studies, we found patterns not described previously. We detected constitutive and induced odor variation among individuals attacked by the same herbivore, with the induced odor uniformity depending on the herbivore identity. We also showed that the fold-change of VOCs from constitutive to induced state differed among individuals independently of the uniformity of the blends before herbivore attack. We discuss our findings in the context of the ecological roles of VOCs in plant-plant and plant-carnivore insects’ interactions.
Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico
Tyson Volkmann, Remedios Lozada, Christy M Anderson, Thomas L Patterson, Alicia Vera, Steffanie A Strathdee
Harm Reduction Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-8-7
Abstract: IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing).Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug.IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.A growing body of literature about the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and other blood-borne infections among injection drug users (IDUs) has focused on the influence of risk environments that shape individual behaviors [1-4]. These approaches stem from the understanding that IDUs' behaviors are a product of individuals' behaviors and their shared environments [2-4]. Drug users' right t
?Nosotros o ellos? Representaciones sociales, polarización y espacio público en Venezuela
Cuadernos del Cendes , 2008,
Abstract: ten years after its inauguration, hugo chávez is still the central figure and the illusion of change remains. but for some sectors the one possibility of change is that he leaves office, and for others that he stays. this paradoxical illusion accounts for an acute process of polarization and sociopolitical clash that shows antagonistic mental representations of the groups in conflict. characterized by a real-symbolic establishing of territorial limits and mutually excluding proposals, this context has a severe impact on the environment. besides, although it has worked as a catalyst for political awareness, has boosted participation, reinforced the identity of different groups and resignified politics in several social sectors, the intense social confrontation has hindered dialog and agreements possibilities.
Análisis crítico de las nociones de contexto y significación: sus aportes al estudio de los fenómenos culturales de calidad folklorica
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy , 2002,
Abstract: for some time the word context is a problematic term in social sciences for the young researchers who want to use it. maybe one of the reasons the fact that the word is part of the language of an intellectual and medium sector where it reached a great repercussion and spreading. then, it is necessary, in any scientific work to be clear about what kind of context is being treated in each case. as the theme has been discussed by many specialists in different articles now we propose to attempt a revision about the different forms of context, just like they have been treated by the folk discipline since the term appeared in the theoretical scene. i attempts a synthesis view of its contribution to the study of cultural phenomenon of folk quality studies. this article coincides with the position of the relevance theory which supports the thesis that says it is the enunciation the one that construct the context. that allows to carry out a proposition to recover the meaning of narrative material (as well as other from any nature) as well as the different contexts through verbal material in situation of interview.
Nosotros o ellos? Representaciones sociales, polarización y espacio público en Venezuela
Mireya Lozada
Cuadernos del Cendes , 2008,
Abstract: Diez a os después de asumir la Presidencia, la figura central sigue siendo Hugo Chávez y se mantiene la ilusión del cambio; pero para un sector de la población éste sólo es posible si Chávez deja el cargo, y para otro si lo conserva. Esta paradójica ilusión da cuenta de un agudo proceso de polarización y conflictividad sociopolítica que evidencia representaciones antagónicas de los grupos en conflicto. Caracterizado por un demarcamiento físico-simbólico de territorios y propuestas mutuamente excluyentes, este contexto tiene un alto impacto en el entorno. Además, aunque ha actuado como catalizador de la toma de conciencia, estimulado la participación, reforzado la identidad de distintos grupos y resignificado la política en diversos sectores sociales, la intensa confrontación social ha dificultado las posibilidades de dialogar y lograr acuerdos. Ten years after its inauguration, Hugo Chávez is still the central figure and the illusion of change remains. But for some sectors the one possibility of change is that he leaves office, and for others that he stays. This paradoxical illusion accounts for an acute process of polarization and sociopolitical clash that shows antagonistic mental representations of the groups in conflict. Characterized by a real-symbolic establishing of territorial limits and mutually excluding proposals, this context has a severe impact on the environment. Besides, although it has worked as a catalyst for political awareness, has boosted participation, reinforced the identity of different groups and resignified politics in several social sectors, the intense social confrontation has hindered dialog and agreements possibilities.
Social and Structural Factors Associated with HIV Infection among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in the Mexico-US Border Region
Steffanie A. Strathdee,Remedios Lozada,Gustavo Martinez,Alicia Vera,Melanie Rusch,Lucie Nguyen,Robin A. Pollini,Felipe Uribe-Salas,Leo Beletsky,Thomas L. Patterson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019048
Abstract: FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription.
Mexico's northern border conflict: collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups
Beletsky,Leo; Martinez,Gustavo; Gaines,Tommi; Nguyen,Lucie; Lozada,Remedios; Rangel,Gudelia; Vera,Alicia; McCauley,Heather L.; Sorensen,Andrea; Strathdee,Steffanie A.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892012000500008
Abstract: objective: to compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. methods: female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in tijuana and ciudad juarez, mexico. structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (stis) were conducted (october 2008 to october 2009). frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of hiv infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. results: of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months), with significantly higher proportions in ciudad juarez (p < 0.001). reports of recent solicitation of sexual favors (28.5% in tijuana, 36.5% in ciudad juarez, p = 0.04) and sexual abuse (15.7% in tijuana, 18.3% in ciudad juarez) by police were commonplace. prevalence of stis was significantly lower in tijuana than in ciudad juarez (64.2% and 83.4%, p < 0.001), paralleling the lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors there. ciudad juarez respondents reported significantly higher median number of monthly clients (6.8 versus 1.5, p < 0.001) and lower median pay per sex act (us$ 10 versus us$ 20, p < 0.001) (in the past month). relative to tijuana, security deployment, especially the army's presence, was perceived to have increased more in ciudad juarez in the past year (72.1% versus 59.2%, p = 0.001). conclusions: collateral damage from police practices in the context of mexico's drug conflict may affect public health in the northern border region. itinerant officers may facilitate disease spread beyond the region. the urgency for mounting structural interventions is discussed.
Reductions in HIV/STI Incidence and Sharing of Injection Equipment among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial
Steffanie A. Strathdee, Daniela Abramovitz, Remedios Lozada, Gustavo Martinez, Maria Gudelia Rangel, Alicia Vera, Hugo Staines, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Thomas L. Patterson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065812
Abstract: Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008–2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. Methods FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session conditions combining either an interactive or didactic version of a sexual risk intervention to promote safer sex in the context of drug use, and an injection risk intervention to reduce sharing of needles/injection paraphernalia. Women underwent quarterly interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas, blinding interviewers and assessors to assignment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and repeated measures ordinal logistic regression examined effects on combined HIV/STI incidence and receptive needle sharing frequency. Findings Of 584 initially HIV-negative FSW-IDUs, retention was ≥90%. After 12 months, HIV/STI incidence decreased >50% in the interactive vs. didactic sex intervention (Tijuana:AdjRR:0.38,95% CI:0.16–0.89; Juarez: AdjRR:0.44,95% CI:0.19–0.99). In Juarez, women receiving interactive vs. didactic injection risk interventions decreased receptive needle-sharing by 85% vs. 71%, respectively (p = 0.04); in Tijuana, receptive needle sharing declined by 95%, but was similar in active versus didactic groups. Tijuana women reported significant increases in access to syringes and condoms, but Juarez women did not. Interpretation After 12 months in both cities, the interactive sexual risk intervention significantly reduced HIV/STI incidence. Expanding free access to sterile syringes coupled with brief, didactic education on safer injection was necessary and sufficient for achieving robust, sustained injection risk reductions in Tijuana. In the absence of expanding syringe access in Juarez, the injection risk intervention achieved significant, albeit more modest reductions, suggesting that community-level interventions incorporating harm reduction are more powerful than individual-level interventions. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00840658
Wound Healing: From Epidermis Culture to Tissue Engineering  [PDF]
Alicia Lorenti
CellBio (CellBio) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2012.12003
Abstract: The skin is the largest organ of the individual, being the interface between the body and the microenvironment. In severely burned patients and other diseases, the physiological processes of wound healing are not sufficient to complete the closure of their wounds. The in vitro culture of autologous epidermis, which has represented the beginning of Tissue Engineering, is a valuable tool for the treatment of these patients. Keratinocytes can be cultured and stratified in vitro, and an entire epidermal sheet can be obtained. The epidermis cells can be amplified in the laboratory from a skin sample to obtain a surface equivalent to that required for each patient. This technology was first used clinically in 1981 and in Argentina since 1991. Wound repair is a complex process that involves dermal and epidermal cells, extracellular matrix, soluble factors and the sum of interactions between them, providing physical, biological and chemical keys capable of guiding cell function. Seeking to improve the results obtained with cultured epidermis, tissue engineering was directed towards the development of substitutes that not only involve epidermis but also the dermal component. The tissue engineered skin and its therapeutic applications reported in this review demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of these approaches. It represents a clear benefit in wound healing. Now, focus must be directed on the development of new scaffolds, developed by different technologies, such as polymer science, or nanotechnology, able to be used as templates to direct the growth of cells, in an attempt to better regenerate the lost skin.

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