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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 331757 matches for " Alice S. Ryan "
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A Self-Help Program for Memory CD8+ T Cells: Positive Feedback via CD40-CD40L Signaling as a Critical Determinant of Secondary Expansion
Jessica A. Shugart, Shelly Bambina, Alejandro F. Alice, Ryan Montler, Keith S. Bahjat
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064878
Abstract: The ability of memory CD8+ T cells to rapidly proliferate and acquire cytolytic activity is critical for protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. The signals that control this recall response remain unclear. We show that CD40L production by memory CD8+ T cells themselves is an essential catalyst for secondary expansion when systemic inflammation is limited. Secondary immunization accompanied by high levels of systemic inflammation results in CD8+ T cell secondary expansion independent of CD4+ T cells and CD40-CD40L signaling. Conversely, when the inflammatory response is limited, memory CD8+ T cell secondary expansion requires CD40L-producing cells, and memory CD8+ T cells can provide this signal. These results demonstrate that vaccination regimens differ in their dependence on CD40L-expressing CD8+ T cells for secondary expansion, and propose that CD40L-expression by CD8+ T cells is a fail-safe mechanism that can promote memory CD8+ T cell secondary expansion when inflammation is limited.
Intermuscular Fat: A Review of the Consequences and Causes
Odessa Addison,Robin L. Marcus,Paul C. LaStayo,Alice S. Ryan
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/309570
Abstract: Muscle’s structural composition is an important factor underlying muscle strength and physical function in older adults. There is an increasing amount of research to support the clear disassociation between the loss of muscle lean tissue mass and strength with aging. This disassociation implies that factors in addition to lean muscle mass are responsible for the decreases in strength and function seen with aging. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is a significant predictor of both muscle function and mobility function in older adults and across a wide variety of comorbid conditions such as stroke, spinal cord injury, diabetes, and COPD. IMAT is also implicated in metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a review of the implications of increased IMAT levels in metabolic, muscle, and mobility function. Potential treatment options to mitigate increasing levels of IMAT will also be discussed. 1. Introduction The unique ability of adipose tissue to expand throughout life and release a host of chemical messengers makes adipose not only a distinctive tissue but also the largest endocrine organ in the body [1]. In the last twenty years, a rapid expansion of our understanding of this unique organ has occurred. Once thought to be an inert storage depot for excess calories, important only to energy homeostasis, we now know that adipose tissue expresses and secretes a multitude of hormones and proinflammatory cytokines thereby acting in an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine manner signaling the heart, musculoskeletal, central nervous, and metabolic systems [1–3]. Not all adipose depots are alike. Recent studies have suggested that the location [4–8] and type [9] of excess adipose tissue, rather than simply total body adiposity, may be important in the systemic increase of circulating cytokines and the rise in metabolic diseases such as diabetes [9–14] (for a more complete review of the types and roles of adipose tissue, see Wronska 2012 and Stehno-Bittel 2008) [1, 9]. Adipose tissue stored in subcutaneous depots, particularly in the gluteal-femoral region, is a negative predictor of metabolic syndrome and is cardioprotective [4–7, 15, 16]. However, adipose tissue stored in ectopic locations outside of the subcutaneous tissue such as in the muscle, liver, and abdominal cavity is linked with chronic inflammation [10, 17–19], impaired glucose tolerance [4–6, 20, 21], increased total cholesterol [8, 16, 22], and decreased strength and mobility in older adults [23–31]. Advancing age results in a
Impact of Serum Nutritional Status on Physical Function in African American and Caucasian Stroke Survivors
Monica C. Serra,Charlene E. Hafer-Macko,Frederick M. Ivey,Richard F. Macko,Alice S. Ryan
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/174308
Abstract: Background. The purpose of this study is to compare serum nutritional profiles in chronic stroke survivors to a representative sample of US Adults (NHANESIII) and determine whether these serum markers differed by race and impact physical function in stroke. Methods. Fasting serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids, uric acid, and albumin in 145 African American (AA) and 111 Caucasian (C) stroke survivors (age: 60 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM]). A six-minute walk was performed in a subset of stroke survivors (N = 134). Results. Triglycerides were higher and HDL-cholesterol and albumin lower in C than AA women stroke survivors (Ps < 0.05). Uric acid was lower in C than AA stroke survivors (P < 0.05). Compared to NHANESIII, HDL-cholesterol, albumin, and hemoglobin generally were lower (Ps < 0.05) and lipids were more favorable in stroke (Ps < 0.01). Uric acid was related to six-minute walk performance among a subset of stroke survivors (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In stroke, racial differences exist with regard to serum nutritional risk, but these differences are similar to that observed in the general population. Regardless of race, nutritional risk appears elevated above that of the general population with regard to many of the serum markers. As a modifiable biomarker, uric acid should be monitored closely as it may provide insight into the functional risk of stroke survivors. 1. Introduction Both suboptimal or excessive caloric intake and poor dietary quality affect nutritional risk and may hinder recovery from stroke. In as little as six months following discharge from an initial stroke incident, ~41% of survivors are at nutritional risk, based upon patient interviews regarding appetite, digestion, mobility, and swallowing difficulties [1]. Another study shows that 11% of stroke survivors with initial motor deficits and communication impairment still require feeding assistance six months after stroke [2]. Further, we have previously shown that well into the chronic phase of stroke recovery (>6 months), survivors are obese and have greater intramuscular fat relative to muscle area in their affected limb [3], indicating imbalanced dietary intake relative to energy expenditure. While these data suggest that poor caloric intake exists in chronic stroke, little data are currently available regarding diet quality in stroke. Difficulties with speech and cognition may interfere with obtaining accurate dietary records to assess dietary quality in those chronically disabled by stroke. However, several serum biomarkers commonly found on general comprehensive
Partnering with the Pinoleville Pomo Nation: Co-Design Methodology Case Study for Creating Sustainable, Culturally Inspired Renewable Energy Systems and Infrastructure
Ryan Shelby,Yael Perez,Alice Agogino
Sustainability , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/su4050794
Abstract: This paper describes the co-design methodology created by the authors to partner with communities that have historical trauma associated with working with outsiders on projects that involved substantial use of engineering and science—renewable energy technologies, for example—that have not integrated their value system or has been historically denied to them. As a case study, we present the lessons learned from a partnership with the Pinoleville Pomo Nation (PPN) of Ukiah, CA and UC Berkeley’s Community Assessment of Renewable Energy and Sustainability (CARES) team to develop sustainable housing that utilizes sustainability best practices and renewable energy technology as well as reflect the long-standing culture and traditions of the PPN. We also present the Pomo-inspired housing design created by this partnership and illustrate how Native American nations can partner with universities and other academic organizations to utilize engineering expertise to co-design solutions that address the needs of the tribes.
Genetic Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Genetically Distinct Rabies Viruses in the Philippines
Mariko Saito ,Hitoshi Oshitani,Jun Ryan C. Orbina,Kentaro Tohma,Alice S. de Guzman,Taro Kamigaki,Catalino S. Demetria,Daria L. Manalo,Akira Noguchi,Satoshi Inoue,Beatriz P. Quiambao
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002144
Abstract: Background Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200–300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. Methods We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao). Partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G) gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. Results The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1–L9) and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2). With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. Conclusion We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.
The Mass-Metallicity Relation Of A Z~2 Protocluster With MOSFIRE
Kristin R. Kulas,Ian S. McLean,Alice E. Shapley,Charles C. Steidel,Nicholas P. Konidaris,Keith Matthews,Gregory N. Mace,Gwen C. Rudie,Ryan F. Trainor,Naveen A. Reddy
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/774/2/130
Abstract: We present Keck/MOSFIRE observations of the role of environment in the formation of galaxies at z~2. Using K-band spectroscopy of H-alpha and [N II] emission lines, we have analyzed the metallicities of galaxies within and around a z=2.3 protocluster discovered in the HS1700+643 field. Our main sample consists of 23 protocluster and 20 field galaxies with estimates of stellar masses and gas-phase metallicities based on the N2 strong-line metallicity indicator. With these data we have examined the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) with respect to environment at z~2. We find that field galaxies follow the well-established trend between stellar mass and metallicity, such that more massive galaxies have larger metallicities. The protocluster galaxies, however, do not exhibit a dependence of metallicity on mass, with the low-mass protocluster galaxies showing an enhancement in metallicity compared to field galaxies spanning the same mass range. A comparison with galaxy formation models suggests that the mass-dependent environmental trend we observed can be qualitatively explained in the context of the recycling of "momentum-driven" galaxy wind material. Accordingly, winds are recycled on a shorter timescale in denser environments, leading to an enhancement in metallicity at fixed mass for all but the most massive galaxies. Future hydrodynamical simulations of z~2 overdensities matching the one in the HS1700 field will be crucial for understanding the origin of the observed environmental trend in detail.
Breast cancer in Marin County
Alice S Whittemore
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr633
Abstract: Two articles previously published in Breast Cancer Research provide another example of the political/social/ psychological/scientific quandary presented by regional cancer clusters [1,2]. A community is concerned by what it perceives to be its high incidence of cancer, and a group of activists collaborates with epidemiologists to investigate the reasons for the cluster. They launch a study that considers every conceivable cause, but cannot come up with an answer because of limitations in their study design.Marin County is a small urban county north of San Francisco. Its 250,000 predominantly white, non-Hispanic residents have breast cancer rates approximately 38% higher than those of the United States as a whole [1]. In response to concerns about these high rates, breast cancer activists teamed with cancer epidemiologists to conduct a case–control study within Marin County.The paper by Wrensch and colleagues reports the results of this comparison of personal and environmental risk factors among 285 breast cancer cases and 286 control women [1]. The authors found more frequent screening for breast cancer, and longer and heavier alcohol consumption, among cases compared with controls. They did not, however, find significant case–control differences with respect to several other established breast cancer risk factors, including a family history of the disease and low parity. Moreover, cases and controls were similar with respect to age at first residence and to total years of residence in Marin County. This similarity fails to support exposure to a regional environmental toxicant as an explanation for the cluster. A limitation of this study is its low power for detecting case–control differences in risk factors for the disease, given the homogeneity of the women in the county with respect to socioeconomic status and its concomitants. A more informative study would have compared the distribution of established risk factors in Marin County with those in other California
Museus e Museologia: desafios para a constru o de territórios colaborativos
Alice Semedo,Inês Ferreira
Revista da Faculdade de Letras : Sociologia , 2011,
Investigation of charm and beauty production via semileptonic decays of heavy-flavour hadrons in pp at 7 TeV and Pb--Pb at 2.76 TeV with ALICE
S. Masciocchi,for the ALICE Collaboration
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/38/12/124069
Abstract: Electron spectra measured with ALICE at mid-rapidity are used to study the production of hadrons carrying a charm or a beauty quark. The production cross section of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays is measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV. Electrons from the beauty decays are identified via the displacement from the interaction vertex. From the electron spectra measured in Pb--Pb collisions, we determine the nuclear modification factor, which is sensitive to the heavy-quark energy loss in a hot strongly interacting medium.
Heavy-flavour production in ALICE at the LHC
S. Masciocchi,for the ALICE Collaboration
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: ALICE at the LHC is the experiment dedicated to study the physics of nucleus-nucleus collisions. The apparatus is well suited for the measurement of heavy-quark hadron production, making use of the high spatial resolution provided by the tracking detectors and the excellent particle identification, which are distinctive of the ALICE apparatus. Results from proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 2.76 and 7 TeV, and from Pb--Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV are presented. The measurements in pp collisions provide an important test of perturbative QCD predictions. The precise vertex reconstruction together with the electron identification, allows the separation of the charm and the beauty components. Furthermore, the pp results are essential as a reference for the measurements in heavy-ion collisions. Nuclear modification factors were measured for D mesons, for electrons and for muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays. The elliptic flow of D mesons is also discussed. These measurements are important because they will provide information on the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions, via the energy loss of the heavy partons in the strongly interacting medium, and hints on the medium thermalization.
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