Abstract:
It has always been attempted that systems connected to the ear through hearing aids efficiently meet the patient expectations. It is recommended to avoid using occluded earmolds when the hearing is normal or there is mild hearing loss. In order that natural sound reaches to the ear, the ear canal should stay open as much as possible.To achieve the above goal and the suitable acoustic modifications, non-occluding ear molds are beneficial.

Abstract:
Spatially fractional order diffusion equations are generalizations of classical diffusion equations which are increasingly used in modeling practical super diffusive problems in fluid flow, finance and others areas of application. This paper presents the analytical solutions of the space fractional diffusion equations by Adomian’s decomposition method (ADM). By using initial conditions, the explicit solutions of the equations have been presented in the closed form. Two examples, the first one is one-dimensional and the second one is two-dimensional fractional diffusion equation, are presented to show the application of the present techniques. The present method performs extremely well in terms of efficiency and simplicity.

Abstract:
The statistical analysis in Q-methodology is based on factor analysis followed by a factor rotation. Currently, the most common factor extraction methods are centroid and principal component extractions and the common techniques for factor rotation are manual rotation and varimax rotation. However, there are some other factor extraction methods such as principal axis factoring and factor rotation methods such as quartimax and equamax which are not used by Q-users because they have not been implemented in any major Q-program. In this article we briefly explain some major factor extraction and factor rotation techniques and compare these techniques using three datasets. We applied principal component and principal axis factoring methods for factor extraction and varimax, equamax, and quartimax factor rotation techniques to three actual datasets. We compared these techniques based on the number of Q-sorts loaded on each factor, number of distinguishing statements on each factor, and excluded Q-sorts. There was not much difference between principal component and principal axis factoring factor extractions. The main findings of this article include emergence of a general factor and a smaller number of excluded Q-sorts based on quartimax rotation. Another interesting finding was that a smaller number of distinguishing statements for factors based on quartimax rotation compared to varimax and equamax rotations. These findings are not conclusive and further analysis on more datasets is needed.

Abstract:
Q-methodology was introduced more than 80 years ago to study subjective topics such as attitudes, perceptions, preferences, and feelings and there has not been much change in its statistical components since then. In Q-methodology, subjective topics are studied using a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques. It involves development of a sample of statements and rank-ordering these statements by study participants using a grid known as Q-sort table. After completion of Q-sort tables by the participants, a by-person factor analysis (i.e., the factor analysis is performed on persons, not variables or traits) is used to analyze the data. Therefore, each factor represents a group of individuals with similar views, feelings, or preferences about the topic of the study. Then, each group (factor) is usually described by a set of statements, called distinguishing statements, or statements with high or low factor scores. In this article, we review one important statistical issue, i.e. the criteria for identifying distinguishing statements and provide a review of its mathematical calculation and statistical background. We show that the current approach for identifying distinguishing statements has no sound basis, which may result in erroneous findings and seems to be appropriate only when there are repeated evaluations of Q-sample from the same subjects. However, most Q-studies include independent subjects with no repeated evaluation. Finally, a new approach is suggested for identifying distinguishing statements based on Cohen’s effect size. We demonstrate the application of this new formula by applying the current and the suggested methods on a Q-dataset and explain the differences.

Abstract:
We give a sufficient condition for the ergodicity of the Lebesgue measure for an iterated function system of diffeomorphisms. This is done via the induced iterated function system on the space of continuum (which is called hyper-space). We introduce a notion of minimality for induced IFSs which implies that the Lebesgue measure is ergodic for the original IFS. Here, to beginning, the required regularity is $C^1$. However, it is proven that the $C^1$-regularity is a redundant condition to prove ergodicity with respect to the class of quasi-invariant measures. As a consequence of mentioned results, we obtain ergodicity with respect to Lebesgue measure for several systems.

Abstract:
It is known that two commuting continuous functions on an interval need not have a common fixed point. However, it is not known if such two functions have a common periodic point. we had conjectured that two commuting continuous functions on an interval will typically have disjoint sets of periodic points. In this paper, we first prove that S is a nowhere dense subset of [0,1] if and only if {f∈C([0,1]):Fm(f)∩S¯≠∅} is a nowhere dense subset of C([0,1]). We also give some results about the common fixed, periodic, and recurrent points of functions. We consider the class of functions f with continuous ωf studied by Bruckner and Ceder and show that the set of recurrent points of such functions are closed intervals.

Abstract:
It is shown that the N-(p-ethoxyphenyl) group on β-lactams can be oxidatively removed by ceric ammonium nitrate in good yield. Fourteen new N-(p-ethoxyphenyl)-2-azetidinones 8a-n were synthesized through standard [2+2] ketene-imine cycloadditions (Staudinger reaction). Treatment of these compounds with ceric ammonium nitrate yielded the N-dearylated 2-azetidinones 9a-n in good to excellent yields. The effects of solvent, molar equiv of CAN and different temperatures have been investigated and optimum conditions were established.

Abstract:
New cis monocyclic β-lactams were synthesized by [2+2] Staudinger cycloaddition reactions of the imine (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-(4-methoxyphenyl)- amine and ketenes derived from different acyl chlorides and Et3N. These monocyclic β-lactams were then cleaved by ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to give NH-monocyclic β-lactams, which in turn were converted to N-sulfonyl monocyclic β-lactams by treatment with four different sulfonyl chlorides in the presence of Et3N and 4,4-dimethyl- aminopyridine (DMAP).

Abstract:
Some new mono-and bis-polycyclic aromatic spiro-β-lactams and bis-non spiro-polycyclic aromatic β-lactams have been synthesized from imines derived from anthracene-9-carbaldehyde, 2-naphtaldehyde and a ketene derived from 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid and phenoxyacetic acid by a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. The cycloadducts were characterized by spectral data, including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and elemental analyses. The configurations of some of these mono-spiro-β-lactams were established by X-ray crystal analysis.

Abstract:
The inhibitory effect exerted by steroid hormones on the in vitro growth characteristics of dermatophytes is poorly understood. As a hypothesis this inhibition could result from fungal adaptation to the human host. Therefore, in this study the susceptibility of T. verrucosum to androgenic hormones was done. As a result, testosterone proved to reduce fungal growth whereas hydrocortisone had no such effect. In general, T. verrucosum was shown to be more susceptible to steroid hormones. However, since fungal response to hormones consisted of growth inhibition and occurred only at steroid concentrations much higher than present in human, it cannot be assumed to contribute to this adaptation.