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Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iran: A systematic review
Ali Farhoudian,Vandad Sharifi,Homayoun Amini,Anahita Basirnia
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2007,
Abstract: "n Objective:Taking the diversity of the methodologies applied in prevalence studies of psychiatric disorders in Iran and their heterogeneous results into consideration, there seems to be need for a systematic review in order to compile the findings and seek appropriate recommendations for future studies. This study aims at systematically identifying studies conducted in Iran describing the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in general population, and to summarize the findings of these studies. "n "n Method:To identify the relevant studies, several databases including Pubmed Medline, ISI Web of Science, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Irandoc, IranPsych, IranMedex, Scientific Information Database as well as reference lists of the accessed documents, unpublished reports, conference proceedings and dissertations were searched. In the next step, the original studies which contained an estimation of prevalence of "any psychiatric disorder" (overall prevalence) among a sample of general population in the country were selected. This was followed by data extraction, presentation of the results, quality assessment and quantitative pooling of estimated rates of prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Results:A total number of 35 studies were included. Estimations provided for prevalence rates in different groups illustrate diversity and heterogeneity; the rates varied in the range of 1.9-58.8%. Most of the studies had assessed the point prevalence of the disorders conducted using screening instruments. The median point prevalence has been reported to be 28.70% in screening studies, and 18.60% in studies using diagnostic interviews. Pooled estimates obtained through meta-analysis for screening and diagnostic studies were 29.1% and 21.9%,respectively. The results of the studies which have used diagnostic interviews as their data collection tool showed less heterogeneity than the ones using screening instruments. In quality assessment of the studies, only one third proved to be of high quality. "nConclusion: Even though the pooled rates for prevalence of psychiatric disorders are comparable to the rates in many other countries, the most important finding of this study is the diversity of the prevalence rates among different communities in Iran. This diversity does not seem to be attributed solely to the different time frames and geographical locations of the studies. It might also have resulted from differences in methodologies (e.g., using different tools), study procedures and study quality.
Survey of special needs in physically disabled people: A qualitative research
Ali Farhoudian,Leila Soleimaninia,Masoud Gharib,Mohammad Hassan Farhadi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: After sanction of "the rights of disabled people convention" United Nations Organization have been stressed more on dealing with this group's needs. Therewith, most of countries in the world have been committed in this field. Therefore with consideration of importance of identifying the needs in disabled people and making policies for them, this study conducted in order to identify the special needs in physically disabled people.Material and Methods: This article is a part of a qualitative research with grounded theory method. 15 physically disabled people of Tehran were selected through a purposeful sampling participated in study. The main method for collecting data was semi-structured interview that continued until theoretical saturation of information. Data was analyzed with Strauss & Corbin coding manner or continued comparison and the assessor's viewpoints method is used for validity promotion of data.Results: Totally, most important domains of special needs in disabled group were: family and relatives, education, movement and transportation, building and places (houses and public places), social participation and occupation, treatment and rehabilitation services, and people's attitude toward their problems.Conclusion: The results indicated that for promoting social participation and function independency in disabled people, should be emphasis on "equality of opportunities" in society rather than "disability". Thus, public systems and services should be available equally for all, such as physical environments and places, housing, transport system, educational and vocational opportunities, and socio-cultural life like equipments for sport and amusement. Then, physically disabled people can reach to a life with more quality and same with others.
A survey on changes in opioid use and risk factors in the survivors eight months after Bam earthquake
A. Rahimi Movaghar,A. Farhoudian,R. Rad Goodarzi,V. Sharifi
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Background: In the year 2003, an earthquake in Bam led to death and injury of many of the inhabitants. The aim of this study was to the changes in opioid drug use in the survivers eight months after the earthquake in comparison with the month before the quake and its related factors. Methods: An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 779 survivors, selected by desert sampling from the Bam citizens in the age of 15 and over. Bivariate and multivariate Logestic regression analysis were done for examining the relationship between an increase in opioid use and various factors. Results: An increase in opioid use was reported in 18.3 percent of men and 2.3 percent of women. Odds Ratio (OR) for increase in opioid use was 9.4 times more in men than in women (95% CI=4.9-18.0). In men, increase in opioid use was related with the history of opioid use during the month before earthquake (OR=5.6, 95% CI=2.4-13.1), age (OR in age group 30 to 44 was 4.7 times more than age below 30, with 95% CI from 1.8 to12.1), and PTSD (OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.5-9.2). In women, it was only related to the history of opioid use during the month before earthquake (OR=43.8, 95% CI=12.5-154.0). Conclusion: The findings show that following disasters, especially in the areas or groups that drug use is common, an increase in the drug use might occur. In these situations provision of preventive and treatment interventions particularly for at risk population is necessary.
Trend of Iran’s Mental Health Research Over Three Decades
R Goodarzi Rad,V Sharifi,A Rahimi-Movaghar,A Farhoudian
Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: To describe the trends in research articles in the field of mental health. Materials and Methods: The articles that we reviewed belonged to the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and neuroscience. We limited the search to the literature published over the 30-year period from 1973 to 2002. The following types of data were extracted: areas of research, specific topics, study design, location for data collection, funding sources, and the different types of working relationship among the authors. Results: Analysis of publication trends in 3031 articles showed a marked increase in the total number of publications with time, especially over the last 5 years. As for different research areas, we detected a growing proportion of articles in the field of neuroscience and a decline in articles dealing with mental health. The volume of research in the fields of psychology, epidemiology and clinical sciences remained relatively constant. There was a rise in the proportion of cross-sectional studies and clinical trials in the second half of the 30-year period. Conclusion: It is important to find the reasons and implications for the waning interest in mental health. Our results could provide an empirical basis in policy making and strategic planning for research in this area
Ultrastructural Identification of the Basal-Granulated Cells in the Duodenum of Albino Rat  [PDF]
Ali Hassan A. Ali
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.47041
Abstract: The fine structure of the crypt epithelium of the duodenal mucosa in albino rats was studied to represent the types and distribution of the basal-granulated or endocrine cells. Twenty male animals were used. Perfusion-fixation was made and samples of duodenal mucosa were taken and processed to prepare epon-embedded specimens for examination by a transmission electron microscope. Cells containing membrane-bound granules were seen in the crypt epithelium. They were identified to be basal-granulated cells. Six different types of such cells were demonstrated. All of the cells were of the closed type. The possible functional significance of these closed cell types was discussed. Correlation among the distributions of such cells in the intestine of albino rat might enable the physiologists, internists and other research workers to study several biologically active peptides with well-established functions other than those which have long been investigated.
A Primal-Dual Simplex Algorithm for Solving Linear Programming Problems with Symmetric Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers  [PDF]
Ali Ebrahimnejad
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.26089
Abstract: Two existing methods for solving a class of fuzzy linear programming (FLP) problems involving symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers without converting them to crisp linear programming problems are the fuzzy primal simplex method proposed by Ganesan and Veeramani [1] and the fuzzy dual simplex method proposed by Ebrahimnejad and Nasseri [2]. The former method is not applicable when a primal basic feasible solution is not easily at hand and the later method needs to an initial dual basic feasible solution. In this paper, we develop a novel approach namely the primal-dual simplex algorithm to overcome mentioned shortcomings. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed approach.
Application of Linear Model Predictive Control and Input-Output Linearization to Constrained Control of 3D Cable Robots  [PDF]
Ali Ghasemi
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2011.12009
Abstract: Cable robots are structurally the same as parallel robots but with the basic difference that cables can only pull the platform and cannot push it. This feature makes control of cable robots a lot more challenging compared to parallel robots. This paper introduces a controller for cable robots under force constraint. The controller is based on input-output linearization and linear model predictive control. Performance of input-output linearizing (IOL) controllers suffers due to constraints on input and output variables. This problem is successfully tackled by augmenting IOL controllers with linear model predictive controller (LMPC). The effecttiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by numerical simulation.
A Study on Wear Resistance, Hardness and Impact Behaviour of Carburized Fe-Based Powder Metallurgy Parts for Automotive Applications  [PDF]
Ali Emamian
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.38073
Abstract: In order to study the mechanical and triboloical properties of powder metallurgy (PM) parts under different process parameters, the specimens were used in pack carburizing processes. These specimens made from industrial test pieces were carburized in a powder pack for about two to five hours at a temperature of about 850?C - 950?C. The effects of austenitization and quenching are investigated on some specimens. Also the wear tests are performed by means of a pin-on-disc tribotester using roll bearing steel as the counterface material. The results indicate that by appropriate selection of process parameters, it is possible to obtain high wear resistance along with moderate toughness. It is concluded that surface treatments increases the wear resistance and performance of PM parts in service conditions. By increasing the role of PM in industry which resulted from their ability to produce the complex shapes, high production rate, and dimension accuracy of final products, they need to be heat treated. Carburizing method was selected as a surface hardening method for PM parts. Results of wear and hardness show considerable enhancement in mechanical properties of PM parts.
Influence of Ferric and Ferrous Iron on Chemical and Bacterial Leaching of Copper Flotation Concentrates  [PDF]
Ali Ahmadi
International Journal of Nonferrous Metallurgy (IJNM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijnm.2012.13006
Abstract: The effects of ferrous and ferric iron as well as redox potential on copper and iron extraction from the copper flotation concentrate of Sarcheshmeh, Kerman, Iran, were evaluated using shake flask leaching examinations. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of a mixed culture of moderately thermophile microorganisms at 50?C. Chemical leaching experiments were performed in the absence and presence of 0.15 M iron (ferric added medium, ferrous added medium and a mixture medium regulated at 420 mV, Pt. vs. Ag/AgCl). In addition, bioleaching experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of 0.1 M iron (ferric and ferrous added mediua) at pulp density 10% (w/v), inoculated bacteria 20% (v/v), initial pH 1.6, nutrient medium Norris and yeast extract addition 0.02% (w/w). Abiotic leaching tests showed that the addition of iron at low solution redox potentials significantly increased the rate and extent of copper dissolution but when ferric iron was added, despite a higher initial rate of copper dissolution, leaching process stopped. Addition of both ferrous and ferric iron to the bioleaching medium levelled off the copper extraction and had an inhibitory effect which decreased the final redox potential. The monitoring of ferrous iron, ferric iron and copper extraction in leach solutions gave helpful results to understand the behaviour of iron cations during chemical and bacterial leaching processes.
Nitrification of Reactively Magnetron Sputter Deposited Ti-Cu Nano-Composite Thin Films  [PDF]
Ali Rahmati
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2013.31004
Abstract:

A metalloid Ti13Cu87 target was sputtered by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures in an Ar-N2 mixture ambient. The sputtered species were condensed on Si (111), glass slide and Potsssium bromide (KBr) substrates. The as-deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), optical spectrophotometry and four point probe technique. The as-deposited films present composite structure of nano-crystallite cubic anti-ReO3 structure of Ti inserted Cu3N (Ti:Cu3N) and nano-crystallite face centre cubic (fcc) structure of Cu. The titanium atoms and sequential nitrogen excess form a solid solution within the Cu3N crystal structure and accommodate in crystal lattice and vacant interstitial site, respectively. Depending on substrate temperature, unreacted N atoms interdiffuse between crystallites and their (and grain) boundaries. The films have agglomerated structure with atomic Ti:Cu ratio less than that of the original targets. A theoretical model has been developed, based on sputtering yield, to predict the atomic Ti:Cu ratio for the as-deposited films. Film thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient are extracted from the measured transmittance spectra. The films’ resistivity is strongly depending on its microstructural features and substrate temperature.

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