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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 699583 matches for " Ali A.S. Al-Mayah "
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Effect of Fish Oil on Immune Response in Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against IBD
Ali A.S. Al-Mayah
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: IBD can only be controlled by proper vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an intermediate strain of live attenuated IBD vaccine in broiler chicks at 7th day of age, as well as the effect of fish oil on immune response in birds vaccinated with IBD vaccine. One hundred forty, day-old broiler chicks were reared and used for this purpose. The chicks were divided into 7 groups A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Groups A, B and C were vaccinated via drinking water route at 7th day whereas D, E and F were vaccinated at 14th day of age. Groups B, C, E and F were fed 50gm fish oil/kg diet for one week either before or after vaccination. Group G was acted as control. Three chicks from each group were sacrificed by decapitation one week interval from the first day until 28th day of age and bursa weight to body weight (Bursal index) was recorded at these periods. Blood samples were collected for detection IBD antibody titer using ELISA at all these periods from control group for detection MDA, whereas the blood has been collected from the treated groups at a period of seven days after vaccination until the end of the experiment at 28th day of age to detect the effect of time of vaccination and fish oil supplementation on the IBD antibody titer. On necropsy, the gross pathological changes were recorded. The changes were occurred after 7 days postvaccination. The affected bursa was edematous and covered with yellowish transudate, other showed pinpoint mucosal surface necrosis, whereas other undergo atrophy. The Bursal Index (BI) was gradually increased from 1st-28th day of age in the control group, whereas in group A it was increased from the 1st to the 7th day and decreased thereafter. In group D the index was increased from the 1st-14th day and decreased thereafter until the 28th day of age. The MDA of control group was decreased from the 1st to the 28th day. The antibody titer of group A was decreased in a way similar to that of the control group, but a significant (p<0.05) difference was present between them at 14th day and thereafter, whereas in group D it was decreased from the 1st-14th day and then increased at 21st and 28th of age. Fish oil supplemented groups exhibited a slight numerical increment of both BI and antibody titer. Although single dose at the 7th day old vaccination could induce slight increase of IBD antibody in comparison to that of the control, vaccination at the 14th day of age induced high and protective level of IBD antibody titer. These may be due to the ability of vaccine at each time of vaccination to neutraliz
Immune Response of Broiler Chicks to DL-Methionine Supplementation at Different Ages
Ali A.S. Al-Mayah
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of methionine (ME) supplementation on immune response of broiler chicks during the period of 1st -7th and 29th - 36th day of age. The amino acid powder was supplemented as 1gm/L of drinking water or as 1gm/kg of feed during these early and late period of supplementation. The mean value of bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus weights of chicks supplemented DL-ME during the early period of age showed significant increment (P< 0.05). Whereas chicks which were supplemented during the late period of the maturation of the immune system did not show significant increasing in lymphoid organ weights. Of all the blood parameters examined, the red blood cell counts and mean cell volume showed significant increment (P< 0.05) from the control. Other haematological values were more than that of the normal values. The values of serum and liver total protein, albumin and globulin were highest but did not vary significantly from one another and from the control. We concluded that better immune response could be obtained with adequate supplementation of ME which have been identified to be in marginal quantities in poultry feed.
Investigation on Bursa Fabricius and Body Weights in Broiler and Local Chicks Vaccinated with Two Types of Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines
Ali A.S. Al-Mayah,Mudhar A.S. Abu Tabeekh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: Forty five Hubbard broiler chicks and Forty five local chicks of one day old were reared on litter floor for 35 days. The chicks were divided into six groups A, B and C for broiler chicks, D, E and F for local chicks. The chicks of group A and D were vaccinated with an intermediate vaccine (Bursine -2) whereas, the chicks of group B and E were vaccinated with an intermediate-plus type of vaccine (Bursine Plus). Vaccination has been performed at 14th day. The chicks of group C and F were acted as control. Five chicks were sacrificed by decapitation from the experimental groups at 21st, 28th and 35th day and the bursae were removed, bursa weight (gram) and body weight (gram) were recorded for each individual bird. Significant decrease of bursa weight (p<0.05) was found in group B compared with that of group C at 21st day. The bursa weights in group D and E of local chicks were significantly differed at (p<0.05) from that of control group (F). The body weights of group D and E of local chicks were significantly decreased from those of group F at (p<0.05). The present study revealed that the more pathogenic intermediate vaccine (intermediate-plus) caused severe bursa of Fabricius injury in vaccinated local chicks. This could be explained by the lower degree of attenuation of this kind of vaccine and may be also related to the lack of maternally-derived antibody in these chicks.
Influence of Antibiotics Treatment on Hematological Aspect in Chickens
Ali A.S. AL-Mayah,Jalaa A. AL-Ahmed
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: Two experiments were described in which sixty one-day old (IPA) chicks were distributed into four equal groups, three for treatment & the other for control. Ampicillin, Enrofloxacine or Amoxicillin were used for five consecutive days via drinking water for treatment for at the first and twenty second day of life. Five birds from each group were slaughtered on 6 and 28 days post treatment and hematological examinationsperformed on blood samples collected just prior to slaughter. Changes in PCV, HB, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC were observed. The investigations demonstrated a fall in hematological values in body chicks, Whereas in older ages these values were analogous with normal ranges. The changes were not substantiate the presence of anemia. They might be an indications of an incidental haemodilutionin the hematological observed in this study.
Simulation of Enzyme Catalysis in Calcium Alginate Beads
Ameel M. R. Al-Mayah
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/459190
Abstract: A general mathematical model for a fixed bed immobilized enzyme reactor was developed to simulate the process of diffusion and reaction inside the biocatalyst particle. The modeling and simulation of starch hydrolysis using immobilized α-amylase were used as a model for this study. Corn starch hydrolysis was carried out at a constant pH of 5.5 and temperature of . The substrate flow rate was ranging from 0.2 to 5.0?mL/min, substrate initial concentrations 1 to 100?g/L. α-amylase was immobilized on to calcium alginate hydrogel beads of 2?mm average diameter. In this work Michaelis-Menten kinetics have been considered. The effect of substrate flow rate (i.e., residence time) and initial concentration on intraparticle diffusion have been taken into consideration. The performance of the system is found to be affected by the substrate flow rate and initial concentrations. The reaction is controlled by the reaction rate. The model equation was a nonlinear second order differential equation simulated based on the experimental data for steady state condition. The simulation was achieved numerically using FINITE ELEMENTS in MATLAB software package. The simulated results give satisfactory results for substrate and product concentration profiles within the biocatalyst bead. 1. Introduction Enzyme immobilization on to supports (or carriers) and their applications as catalysts have grown considerably during the last three decades, and during the last few years have become the most exciting aspects of biotechnology [1–3]. Several methods of enzyme immobilization exist and can be classified into three main categories: carrier binding, cross linking, and entrapment [1]. A number of advantages of enzyme immobilization on to support and several major reasons are the ability to stop the reaction rapidly by removing the enzyme from the reaction solution (or vice versa), products being free of enzyme (especially useful in the food and pharmaceutical industries), reduced effluent disposal problems, suitability for continuous reactor operation, and multiple or respective use of a single batch of enzymes, especially if the enzymes are scarce or expensive, their applicability to continuous processes, and the minimization of pH and substrate-inhibition effects. This has an obvious economic impact and allows the utilization of reactors with high enzyme loads [4]. Enzyme entrapment within a gel matrix is one of the enzyme immobilization ways. In this way, the enzyme is surrounded by a semipermeable membrane. Enzyme support of a specific structure permits the contact between the
A New Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
S. Ali,Khalid A.S. Al-Khateeb,B. Bouzid
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, a new configuration of an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA’s) is proposed. Double-pass amplification in a dual-stage using a fiber loop-back is incorporated with a Tunable band pass filter. Spontaneous emission is filtered-out in the mid-section to ensure efficient amplification of the signal as it propagates along the fiber. High gain of 61 dB is achieved for -50 dBm signal power at 1550 nm. The two stages were pumped by laser diodes operating at 980 nm with 10 mW and 220 mW, respectively.
Chemical Composition and Mineral Contents of Six Commercial Fish Species from the Arabian Gulf Coast of Saudi Arabia
E.M. Younis,A.A. Abdel-Warith,A. Ali,N.A. Al-Asgah,A.S. El-Shayia
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.3053.3059
Abstract: The study evaluated the dressing percentage, nutritional quality and mineral composition of six commercial fish species (Scads, Alepes djedaba, Emperors, Lethrinus lentjan, Kingfish, Scomberomorus commerson, Jobfish, Lutjanus malabaricus, Coral trout, Plectropomus maculates and Groupers, Epinephelus chlorostigma) from the Arabian gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. The Kingfish (Scomberomorus commerson) showed the highest (90.9%) dressing percentage followed by Grouper (80.6%) and Coral trout (80.3%) whereas the lowest (72.9%) was for Emperors. scad fish (Alepes djedaba) had lowest skin and bone weights. Significant (p<0.05) differences were observed in the proximate chemical composition of fish muscles in these species. The highest percentage of protein (21.51%) was found in Coral trout followed by Kingfish (20.68%) and Scads (20.64%). The lowest fat content (0.43%) was observed in Groupers (Epinephelus chlorostigma) whereas the highest fat content (1.12%) was in Kingfish. The highest energy value (4.02 MJ kg-1) in fish muscles was observed in Coral trout. Significant (p<0.05) differences were also observed in the mineral composition of fish muscles in these species. All the fish species proved to be a good source of many important minerals. In spite of the expected pollution threats of coastal waters, it was interesting to note that the amount of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium present in fish muscles were relatively low (0.1-0.26 and 0.007-0.02 mg kg-1, respectively). It is concluded that these fish species contribute towards a safe, healthy and nutritious food for human consumption.
The Mineralogy of Clay Fractions in the Soils of the Southern Region of Jazan, Saudi Arabia
A.S. Al-Farraj
Journal of Agronomy , 2008,
Abstract: Because of very limited information of the clay minerals of Southern Jazan region (Saudi Arabia), the mineralogy of the clay fraction has been studied. A total of nineteen soil samples from five sites representing the main landforms in the region were studied. X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermo gravimetric analyses were carried out on the samples. Smectite, kaolinite and illite were found to be the predominant soil minerals. Other minerals present in small quantities included: Chlorite, quartz, feldspars. DTA confirmed the low hydroxylation temperatures of kaolinite (513-540°C), which indicates disordered crystallization of kaolinite. Moreover, TGA illustrated 4-6.6% (average 5.4%) weight loss related to dehydroxylation of kaolinite. Therefore, the amount of kaolinite minerals was calculated to be 29-47% with average 39%. The clay minerals in the samples were similarity among all the sites and this could be explained by the fact that arid conditions found in the area does not support intense pedogenic processes.
Pharmacokinetic Study of Cefixime in the Sheep the and Cattle
A.S. ElDalo,A.S. Ali,S.I. Shaddad,A.H. Mohamed
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: In the present work the pharmacokinetic parameters of a new third generation cephalosporin -Cefixime- were evaluated in two species of animals: ovine (the sheep) and bovine (the cattle). One capsule of 400 mg Cefixime was administered to each of six sheep and six cattle in two separate experiments. Plasma concentrations of Cefixime were determined micro-biologically. The pharmacokinetic parameters were computed according to the one-compartment open model of the computer program. The results were statistically analyzed by SPSS program. In the sheep: elimination half-life was 5.96?0.88 hours, clearance 62.48?7.8 L/hour, volume of distribution 4.67?0.61 ml kg-1, area under the plasma concentration curve 6.88?0.78?g hr ml-1, maximum plasma concentration 0.63?0.06?g ml-1 and the time to achieve maximum plasma concentration was 4.8?0.22 hours. In the bovine group: elimination half-life was 13.09?0.81 hours, clearance 47.48?5.03 L/hour, volume of distribution 5.02? 1.77 ml kg-1, area under the plasma concentration curve 8.98?1.07?g hr ml-1, maximum plasma concentration 0.50?0.03?g ml-1 and the time to reach maximum plasma concentration was 2.34?0.51 hours. These finding suggest the rational application of cefixime in veterinary medicine.
Speed Control of Induction Motor Fed from Wind Turbine via Particle Swarm Optimization Based PI Controller
A.S. Oshaba,E.S. Ali
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Three-phase Induction Motor (IM) is widely used in the industry because of its rugged construction and absence of brushes. However, speed control of IM is required depending on the desired speed and application. This study proposes a design of a Proportional Integral (PI) controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to control the speed of an IM supplied from wind turbine. The wind turbine acts as a prime mover to a connected DC generator. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is used to obtain three phase AC voltage from the output of DC generator. The proposed design problem of speed controller is formulated as an optimization problem. PSO is employed to search for optimal controller parameters by minimizing the time domain objective function. The performance of the proposed technique has been evaluated with respect to the variation of load torque and speed wind turbine. Also the performance of the proposed controller has been evaluated with the performance of the PI controller tuned by Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to demonstrate the superior efficiency of the proposed PSO in tuning PI controller. Simulation results emphasis on the better performance of the optimized PI controller based on PSO in compare to optimized PI controller based on GA over a wide range of load torque and speed wind turbine.
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